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A Study on the Traditional Costumes and Tattoo of the Maori (마오리族 傳統 服飾과 文身 考察)

  • 황춘섭;정현주
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.241-260
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    • 1995
  • The Maori's traditional clothing materials, basic forms of dress, and the pattern and technique of tatoo were examined in the present study in order to deepen the appreciation of the cultural heritage of the Maori. The research method employed was the analysis of written materials. And a fild-trip was also made for the study. The study was limitted to the traditional culture of body adornment of the Maori including the clothing which is preserved and practicing by them at the present day, and the origin and the process of the historical development of those are not included in the scope of the present study. Followings are the results of the study: (1) By far the most widely used fiber for Maori clothing is abtained from what is commonly called New Zealand Flax. The fiber of kiekie(Freycinetia baueriana) and cabbage trees(Cordyline spp.) may also be used. The strong, long-lasting fiber of toi(cordyline indivisa) is used for a prestige warrior's cloak. Flat strips of ti kauka(Cordyline australi) are also used as thatch on rain cloaks. (2) Regardless of technique used, Maori weaving is always worked horizontally from left to right. Traditionally the work was suspended between two upright turuturu or weaving sticks. As the work progressed a second pair of uprights was used to keep the work off the ground. These uprights were moved forward as required. Because the weaver sat on the ground, the working edge was kept at a height that was comfortable to reach. No weaving tools are used, the wefts(aho) being manipulated by the fingers. The two main Maori weaving techniques are whatu aho patahi(single-pair twining) and whatu aho rua(double-pair twining). (3) The Maori wore two basic garments - a waist met and a cloak. The cloth of commoners were of plain manufacture, while those of people of rank were superior, sometimes being decorated with feather or dyed tags and decorated borders. Children ran more-or-less naked until puberty, being dressed only for special events. Some working dress consisted of nothing more than belts with leaves thrust under them. Chiefs and commoners usually went barefoot, using rough sandals on journeys over rough country (4) The adornment of men and women of rank was an important matter of tribal concern as it was in chiefly persons that prestige of the group was centred, The durable items of Maori persons adornment were either worn or carried. Ornaments of various kinds were draped about the neck or suspended from pierced earlobes. Combs decorated the head. Personal decorations not only enhanced the appearance of men and women, but many had protective magical function. The most evident personal ornament was the hei-tiki made of jade or other material. Maori weapons were treasured by their owners. They served on bottle and were also personal regalia. A man of rank was not fully dressed without a weapon in hand. Also weapons were essential to effective oratory. (5) No man or woman of rank went without some tattoo adornment except in extremely rare instances when a person was too sacred to have any blood shed. The untattooed were marked as beeing commoners of no social standing. This indelible mark of rank was begun, with appropriate rite and ritual, at puberty. And tattoo marked the person as being of a marriageable age. Maori tattoo was unlike most traditional tattoo in that its main line were 'engraved' on the face with deep cuts made by miniature bone chisels. The fill-in areas were not tattooed with cuts but with the multiple pricks of small bone 'combs' that only lightly penetrated the skin surface. The instrument of tattoo consisted of small pots of pumice or wood into which was placed a wetted black pigment made from burnt kauri gum, burnt vegetable caterpillars or other sooty materials. A bird bone chisel or comb set at right angles on a short wooden handle was dipped into the gigment, that a rod or stick was used to tap head of this miniature adze, causing penetration of the skin surface. Black pigment lodged under the skin took on a bluish tinge. A full made facial tattoo consisted of major spirals with smaller spirals on each side of the nose and sweeping curved lines radiating out from between the brows over the forehead and from the nose to the chin. The major patterns were cut deep, while the secondary koru patterns were lightly pricked into the skin.

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Geochemical Characteristics of Stream Sediments Based on Bed Rocks in the Cheongpung Area (기반암에 따른 청풍지역 하상퇴적물의 지구화학적 특성)

  • Park, Young-Seog;Park, Dae-Woo;Kim, Jong-Kyun;Song, Yeung-Sang;Lee, Jang-Jon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.675-687
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the geochemical characteristics of the stream sediments in the Cheongpung area. So that we can understand the natural background and predict the prospects of geochemical disaster, if any. We collected the stream sediments samples by wet sieving along the primary channels and slow dried the collected samples in the laboratory and ground them to pass a 200 mesh using an alumina mortar and pestle for chemical analysis. Miner-alogical characteristics, major, trace and rare earth elements were determined by XRD, XRF, ICP-AES and NAA analysis methods. For geochemical characteristics on the geological group of stream sediments, the studied area was grouped into granitic gneiss area, metatectic gneiss area, Dado tuff area, Yuchi conglomerate area, and Neungju flow area in the Cheongpung area. Contents of major elements for the stream sediments in the Cheongpung area were $SiO_2\;47.31{\sim}72.81\;wt.%,\;A1_2O_3 \;11.26{\sim}21.88\;wt.%,\;Fe_2O_3\;2.83{\sim}8.39\;wt.%,\;CaO\;0.34{\sim}7.54\;wt.%,\;MgO\; 0.55{\sim}3.59\;wt.%,\;K_2O\;1.71{\sim}4.31\;wt.%,\;Na_2O\;0.56{\sim}2.28\;wt.%,\;TiO_2\;0.46{\sim}1.24\;wt.%,\;MnO\;0.04{\sim}0.27\;wt.%,\;P_2O_5\;0.02{\sim}0.45\;wt.%$. The con-tents of trace and rare earth elements for the stream sediments were $Ba\;700ppm{\sim}8990ppm,\;Be\;1.0{\sim}3.50ppm,\;Cu\;6.20{\sim}60ppm,\;Nb\;12{\sim}28ppm,\;Ni\;4.4{\sim}61ppm,\;Pb\;13{\sim}34ppm,\;Sr\;65{\sim}787ppm,\;V\;4{\sim}98ppm,\;Zr\;32{\sim}164ppm,\;Li\;21{\sim}827ppm,\;Co\;3.68{\sim}65ppm,\;Cr\;16.7{\sim}409ppm,\;Cs\;2.72{\sim}37.1ppm,\;Hf\;4.99{\sim}49.2ppm,\;Rb\;71.9{\sim}649ppm,\;Sb\;0.16{\sim}5.03ppm,\;Sc\;4.97{\sim}52ppm,\;Zn\;26.3{\sim}375ppm,\;Ce\;60.6{\sim}373ppm,\;Eu\;0.82{\sim}6ppm,\;Yb\;0.71{\sim}10ppm$.

A Study on Dancheong Pigments of Old Wooden Building in Gwangju and Jeonnam, Korea (광주.전남지역 목조 고건축물에 사용된 단청안료에 대한 연구)

  • Jang, Seong-Wook;Park, Young-Seog;Park, Dae-Woo;Kim, Jong-Kyun
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.269-278
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    • 2010
  • We investigated characteristics of the coloring material of Dancheong pigments and hope that this study contributes the revival of traditional Dancheong pigments color. For this purpose, we collected Dancheong fragment samples that fell off naturally from old wooden buildings in Gwangju and Jeonnam and analyzed the natural coloring material by XRD and EDS-SEM analysis method. In white pigments of Dancheong fragments, it is confirmed that gypsum$(CaSO_{4}{\cdot}2H_{2}O)$, quartz$(SiO_{2})$, white lead$(PbCO_{3})$ and calcite$(CaCO_{3})$ which have been used for white pigments since ancient times and $TiO_{2}$ which is common used in modern times. In red pigments of Dancheong fragments, it is confirmed that hematite$(Fe_{2}O_{3})$ and red lead$(Pb_{3}O_{4})$, which have been used for red pigments since ancient times and C.I. pigment orange $13(C_{32}H_{24}C_{12}N_{8}O_{2})$ but there is no cinnabar(HgS) which has been used since B.C. 3000 in China. In yellow pigments of Dancheong fragments, it is confirmed that crocoite$(PbCrO_{4})$ and massicot(PbO). In blue pigments of Dancheong fragments, it is confirmed that sodalite$(Na_{4}BeAlSi_{4}O_{12}Cl)$ and nosean $(Na_{8}Al_{6}Si_{6}O_{24}SO_{4})$ as coloring material of blue pigment and C.I. pigments blue $29(Na_{7}Al_{6}Si_{6}O_{24}S_{3})$ which is used in modern times. In green pigments of Dancheong fragments, it is confirmed that calumetite$(Cu(OHCI)_{2}{\cdot}2H_{2}O)$, escolaite(Cr2O3), dichromium trioxide$(Cr_{2}O_{3})$, emerald green$(C_{2}H_{3}As_{3}Cu_{2}O_{8})$, and C.I. pigments green$(C_{32}H_{16}-XCl_{x}Cu_{8})$ which is used in modern time. In black pigments of Dancheong fragments, Chiness ink(carbon black) is confirmed.

Population Thoughts in East Asia: A Comparison of Hung Liang-Chi and Malthus (동아시아의 인구사상: 홍량길과 맬서스의 비교)

  • Park Sang-Tae
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.171-201
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    • 2004
  • Modern sciences in the West are deeply rooted in the Greek and Roman cultural heritage. Consequently, the academic achievements accomplished by the scholars of the Arabs including Persian world, the profound thoughts developed in the Indian subcontinent, and the excellent works made by the East Asian scholars have mostly been neglected in the past. This paper attempts to compare the thoughts and theories on population developed by the Western scholars with those of East Asian scolars, in chronological order, ancient, mediaeval, and modern period before Malthus. The thesis that excessive population growth may reduce output per worker, depress levels of living for the masses and engender strife is of great antiquity. In fact, overpopulation in East Asia, especially in China, goes back to very ancient times, most Confucian scholars maintained the notion of a numerical balance between population and environment. They also looked for means to check the increase in numbers. The foundations of a theory of optimum population level, fully developed in the twentieth century, can be found in their writings. Although early population thoughts in China had not advanced far in the analysis of the significance of population size and growth, it had taken only a few steps forward. At some times and to some observers, populousness appeared desirable; at other times and to other observers, it seemed all too evident that the number of people could become too great. These viewpoints foreshowed some of the later developments. The early population literatures reviewed here seem to consist of a number of quite isolated contributions. In fact, however, there may have been a greater continuity of thought than now appears, for many of the contributions may have been lost and there are many gaps in the record. An intensive review on comparing two works, those of Malthus' and Hong, Liang-chi's, are presented in this paper. Only five years before Malthus published his famous work, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Hong published his theories on population. Some of them, Hong insisted, are very similar to the Malthusian concepts of geometrical increase, natural and artificial checks of population. Despite the excellent works in the ancient period, this paper concludes with an investigation of the reasons why modem achievements in scientific areas in the East Asia have been far behind that of the West.

A Study of the Garden Remains in Mountain Bukak in Dohwadong, Seoul (서울 북악산 도화동 원림유적에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hong-Gon;Kim, Young-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.66-80
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    • 2010
  • In this thesis, the garden remains in Dohwadong which is located in Seoul Buk-ak Mountain was examined, together with reference discovery and historical research, and onsite academic research conducted, for the purpose of studying the location of the garden remains in Dohwadong, its historical transitions and original landscape. As a result of the study, the location of the garden remains in Dohwadong was found; through the research of relevant historical sources, its historical transitions, its original landscape, and the value it has as a garden remains were examined. The following is the summary of the original form of the garden remains in Dohwadong and the value it has as a garden remains derived from this study. First, the garden remains in Dohwadong had earlier known as a remains related to the housing site of Namgon or Daeunahm. However, it has been verified that is it Dohwadong which is an original word of a royal family formed by King Kojong's order in 1889 since the characters carved on rocks which is recorded in the book of "Chong Sweh Rok" perfectly conform to those within the garden remains in Dohwadong. Second, it was learned that Dohwadong was the greatest renowned place for entertaining next to Pilundae; according to the book of "Hankyung Jiryak", the name, Dohwadong, is known to have come from the fact that there are a large number of peach trees in the area; the records of those books, "Ahjungyugoh", "Yonahmjip", etc., also state that literary men gathered in Dohwadong and held ceremonies and entertained. Third, it was learned that the garden remains in Dohwadong had been used as a place for holding ceremonies by the Ahndong Kims including Myonggongsukhyon; after Heungsundaewongun's governance, it was removed and neglected as the Ahndong Kims were purged and changed into a place for the royal family by the command of King Kojong in 1889. Fourth, Dohwadong followed the geographical features of nature, embraced the elegant surrounding scenery naturally, and gave significance to the sceneries of the season and its element and, in this way, it, as an ideal landscape model, is a valuable garden remains which realized the symbolic Dohwa landscape and presents its original scenery of the traditional garden. As mentioned above, this study, based on historical sources, has made progress in understanding the truth of the garden remains in Dohwadong and its value as a garden remains through the onsite research and academic historical investigation. However, since it is located within a military region, research was limitedly made. And also the range and structure of the garden remains was difficult to examine. Overall excavation is needed to figure out the remains and original terrain. Accordingly, in order to find out the truth of the garden remains in Dohwadong and for further preservation and application, it needs to be designated as a historical site and additional academic excavation research needs to be conducted; maintenance and preservation policies including removal of the cement and embankment, which disturb the original terrain within the remains, also need to be carried out.

A Study on Formative Background and Spatial Characteristics of Katsura Imperial Villa (카츠라리큐(桂離宮, 계리궁)의 형성배경 및 공간특성)

  • Yeom, Sung-Jin;An, Seung-Hong;Yoon, Sung-Yung;Yoon, Sang-Jun;Son, Yong-Hoon;Lee, Won-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 2015
  • The garden culture of Korea and Japan have been commonly influenced by Wonrim culture of China. Nevertheless, each culture has been settled down through the development of the two separate garden cultures, The purpose of this study is to grasp the formation background and main agent of development through theoretical consideration of gardens in Japanese Imperial Garden Katsura Imperial Villa, which is the origin of the representative garden making style-Circuit Style Garden, to look into the characteristic of spatial organization elements by conducting on-site survey and interview with a garden manager, and to obtain elementary views on Katsura Imperial Villa which is an important case of Japanese garden culture. As a result; first, Katsura Imperial Villa is the first jicheol juyu(round tour of ponds and springs) circuit style garden created by Toshihito Emperor and his son Toshitada Emperor, who were well-versed in Waka through the dynasty literature based on the story of Genji throughout about two generations lasting about 30 years; space composition of this garden is divided into land, island and water space, being composed of a total of 36 space components. Second, Katsura Imperial Villa was created with the primary goal of making a round tour around the garden land by arranging tea pavilions, such as Shokintei, Shokatei and Shoiken, etc., which introduced the then game culture into the garden. Third, the personnel in Katsura Imperial Villa intended to enjoy the scenic characteristics of the area where Katsura Imperial Villa was located from the interior of the garden by making Gepparo which was a tea pavilion for enjoying the rising moon on the hill even a litter faster and longer by piling up earth and setting up stone walls north of Koshoin which was a structure located west of the garden land.

A Study on Design Techniques of Palace Gardens presented in Donggwoldo (동궐도에 보이는 궁궐정원의 조영수법)

  • Chin, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.26-37
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    • 2015
  • This paper aims to review all landscaping elements of Donggwoldo by building and identify the palatial garden landscaping characteristics and landscaping methods in a bid to explore landscaping methods applicable for modern-time gardens of Korea through Succession of Tradition. The research methodology was adopted by which the palatial gardens appearing in Donggwoldo were observed according to garden elements to identify their characteristics. Garden elements in Donggwoldo include oddly shaped stones, ponds, buildings and Madang, borders and areas, and trees. Their characteristics were analyzed, and as a result they are outlined as follows. Location : Buildings in Donggwoldo were located in the optimal areas within the Myungdang (the best location), with the building sites being created by transforming the natural topography positively according to the existing topography and uses. Tree planting : The construction of the buildings involved using the existing trees. There were no specific principle and method of planting trees, and no specific criteria for choosing the kind of tree. Symmetrical planting was adopted and its is considered embracing the viewpoint of making gardens based on the expression of Yin and Yang. Strongly symbolical kinds of trees were also adopted. Bangji : it takes a nearly circular shape in palatial gardens, and such shapes represent conceptual and abstract symbols. They were also frequently used as the place of public entertainment. Pavilions : they did not take a certain standard shape. They had diverse shapes, including a triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon, and octagon and cross. Oddly shaped stones : Oddly shapes stones and stone cases were deployed mainly near the bedroom and the crow prince's residence and in the rear garden. Hwagye : it appeared mainly in the back of the bedroom, the crown prince's residence, the princess's residence, and other women's quarters. Chwibyeong : it was installed for the purpose of drawing the natural energy like a natural inlet instead of being the nature-dividing wall. Korea's garden composition method was very different from the Western and Chinese method. Overall, Chosun palatial garden style was characterized by strict and Confucian features, while the garden construction method adopted the Taoism thought. Yet, the gardens had a carefree aspect.

The Evaluation of Disinfection and Operation of Large Scale Anoxic Chamber System for Museum Insects (대용량 저산소 농도 살충 챔버 시스템을 이용한 박물관 해충의 살충력 및 운용성 평가)

  • Oh, Joon Suk;Choi, Jung Eun
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.137-148
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    • 2014
  • Large scale anoxic chamber system(volume $28m^3$) was developed and installed at The National Folk Museum of Korea for the first time in Korea. In order to get optimal anoxic treatment condition, we compared the disinfection of adults, larvae and eggs of cigarette beetles using nitrogen and argon. The time for complete disinfection of cigarette beetles in pine wooden blocks exposed to nitrogen at oxygen concentration 0.01% and 50% in relative humidity were 15 days at $20^{\circ}C$, 10 days at $25^{\circ}C$, and 7 days $30^{\circ}C$. Time were 10 days at $20^{\circ}C$, 7 days at $25^{\circ}C$, and 5 days $30^{\circ}C$ in argon anoxic atmosphere. From the mortality of cigarette beetles, optimal disinfection condition was oxygen concentration 0.01%, $25^{\circ}C$ in temperature, 50% in relative humidity and exposure time 21 days at nitrogen atmosphere. And when large scale anoxic chamber system was supplied nitrogen by nitrogen generator for anoxic treatment of many collections or large collections, it could be operated stably. To verify optimal disinfection condition, museum insects(adults, larvae, pupae and eggs of cigarette beetles in pine wooden blocks, cotton fabrics and Korean paper book, adults and larvae of drugstore beetles in pine wooden blocks, cotton fabrics and Korean paper book, larvae of varied carpet beetles in pine wooden block and silk fabrics, adults and larvae of hide beetles and adults of rice weevils in breeding boxes) which exposed at optimal disinfection condition, were completely killed.

The Effects of Anoxic Treatments on Color and Mechanical Property in Fabrics, Natural Dyed Fabrics, Papers, Natural Dyed Papers and Paints (저산소 농도 살충처리가 직물, 염색 직물, 종이, 염색지 및 채색편의 색상 및 기계적 성질에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Joon Suk;Choi, Jung Eun;Noh, Soo Jung;Eum, Sang Wook
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.219-234
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    • 2014
  • Fabrics, natural dyed fabrics, papers, natural dyed papers and paints were examined effects of colors and mechanical properties for materials of museum collections under anoxic treatment. Anoxic conditions using nitrogen and argon were oxygen concentration 0.01%, temperature($20^{\circ}C$, $25^{\circ}C$, $30^{\circ}C$), 50% RH and exposure time 30 days. Examined fabrics were raw silk fabric, UV irradiated raw silk fabric, degummed silk fabric, UV irradiated degummed silk fabric, cotton fabric, and UV irradiated cotton fabric. Natural dyed silk and cotton fabrics were dyed with fresh indigo, indigo, safflower, gromwell, madder sappanwood, amur cork tree, turmeric, gardenia, barberry root, pagoda tree flower, cochineal, lac, alnus japonica, gallnut, chestnut shell, and combination(indigo and safflower, indigo and amur cork tree, indigo and pagoda tree flower, indigo and sappanwood). Papers were Korean papers(mulberry paper, mulberry(70%) and rice straw(30%) mixed paper), Japanese paper(gampi paper), cotton paper, refined linen paper, cotton, linen & manila mixed fibre furnish, copy paper, news print, and alum sized mulberry paper. Natural dyed papers were dyed with indigo, sappanwood, madder, safflower, gardenia, amur cork tree, and pagoda tree flower. Paints were painted on alum-sized papers and silk fabrics using glue and pigments(azurite, malachite, cinnabar, vermilion, orpiment, gamboge, red lead, haematite, iron oxide red, indigo(lake), lac, cochineal, safflower, madder root lake, celadonite, smalt, ultramarine blue, lapis lazuli, prussian blue, kaolin, lead white, oyster-shell white, and clam-shell white). The color differences(${\Delta}E^*$) of all examined materials were below 1.5 or lowered than control samples after anoxic treatment. The variations of tenacity of yarns of fabrics and natural dyed fabrics after anoxic treatment were within that of standard silk and cotton fabrics. Gases(nitrogen and argon) and temperatures of anoxic treatment did not also affected color differences and variations of tenacity of materials.

Perspectives on the Composition Facilities of The Royal Garden at Wanggung-ri site, Iksan (익산 왕궁리유적 후원(後苑)의 조성 시설에 관한 고찰)

  • Choi, Moon-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2014
  • This article is the results of excavation data and it aims to interpret the composition facilities of the Royal garden at the Wanggung-ri site. The base of research was prepared through excavation and study on the royal garden at the Wanggung-ri site, which was constructed in Sa-bi period of Baek-je. The elements for the royal garden at the Wanggung-ri site were divided in 3 parts. - 1) Stonework facility 2) Installation for conveyance of water : Large moat-shaped ditch and Winding waterway(1~6 and water catchment) 3) Square cornerstone building. In this article, I arrange the basic data about facilities and function of the royal garden for making recovery of original form. First of all, I reason that stonework facilities were in charge to make space for catchment and boundary. Especially the Round angel rectangular stonework facility took charge of complex roles as catchment and water conveyance, and water can be transferred to the large moat-shaped ditch through joint between them. I confirmed that the round angel rectangular stonework facility and the large moat-shaped ditch which were connected by joint are one of the facilities in the royal garden. The large moat-shaped ditch protected the eastern, the northern walls and workshop site under the inclined plane to minimize the damage. Also, the large moat-shaped ditch took several roles, especially water catchments and landscaping. The large moat-shaped ditch was continually used from the period of Baek-je to the unified Silla, as a result it was completely deposited inside. After that, the 6 winding waterway were built in the western inclined plane with similar needs with the large moat-shaped ditch, and the square cornerstone building was built in same time. I noticed that the square cornerstone building was built as a part of the royal garden in Sa-bi period of Baek-je through the remains of Baek-je tiles around the building. After that, the square cornerstone building was built in same place as reconstruction.