• Title, Summary, Keyword: Crushed rice

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Effects of Substrates Supplemented with Crushed Shell, Elvanite and bioceramic on the Growth of Rice(Oryza sativa L.) (패화석, 맥반석 및 바이오세라믹의 혼입처리 벼의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • 박순기;김홍기;정순주
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was carried out to examine the effect of various functional materials such as bioceramic podwers, crushed shells and elvanites supplemented to the each substrate on the seedlings growth of rices. The rice seedlings were grown in pots filled with substrates supplemented with bioceramic podwers, crushed shells and elvanites. The growth of rice seedlings in terms of plant height, stem diameter, root length and leaf width, plant fresh and dry weight was promoted by adding the bioceramic powders (2 to 3g/kg), crushed shells (10g/kg) or elvanites (20 to 40g/kg). Plant height was also promoted by the adding of bioceramic powder from 16 days after treatment, whereas crushed shells and elvanites from 10 days after treatment. Especially, root growth was greatly influenced by bioceramic powder, whereas the shoot growth(leaves and stem) was stimulated by the crushed shells and elvanites supplemented into each substrate. In the field, plant growth in terms of plant height, leaf length and leaf width were also influenced by crushed shells and elvanites at 74 days after treatment. The growth of rices in terms of tiller number, spikelets, panicles and spikelets/panicle was incresed by adding the crushed shells and elvanites from 100 to 200g per m2.

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Nutritional Evaluation of Imported Organic Feeds and Locally Produced Agricultural By-products for Organic Ruminant Farming (유기 반추동물 전용 수입산 유기사료 및 국내산 유기 부산물의 사료적 가치 평가)

  • Park, Joong-Kook;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.513-528
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of locally produced organic agricultural by-products to substitute imported organic feeds for organic ruminant farming. Imported organic feeds (corn grain, soybean meal, soybean seed, oat grain, barley grain, wheat grain, buckwheat, sunflower seed meal) and byproducts (rice bran, grape seed meal, rice straw, soybean hull, soybean curd, rice hull, green kernel rice, and crushed rice grain) were analyzed for chemical composition and NDF, ADF, mineral, and amino acid contents and anti-nutritional factors. Dry matter, NDF and ADF contents in organic feeds were higher than those in conventional feeds. Especially, the 9.65% fat content of organic soybean meal was 6 times higher than the 1.95% fat content of conventional soybean meal. Fat contents of rice bran, grape seed meal, green kernel rice, and crushed rice grain were 25.66, 6.09, 3.57 and 1.59%, respectively. Protein contents of soybean hull and soybean curd were 14.68 and 19.87%, respectively, which are highest among organic by-products. Levels of aflatoxin in all feeds were below the safety level. Therefore, organic rice bran, green kernel rice and crushed rice as energy source, and soybean hull and soybean curd as protein source could partial replace imported feeds for organic ruminant farming.

Evaluation of Organic Sudangrass for Feed Value, Silage Quality and Palatability in Korea (유기 수단그라스의 사료가치, 사일리지 품질 및 기호성 평가)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Shim, Keum-Seob;Joo, Jong-Cheol;Lee, Hyun-Jiun;Jeon, Gyeong-Hyeop;Youn, Young-You;Oh, Eung-Yong;Lee, Hyo-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.144-147
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    • 2011
  • The main nutritional problem of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor${\times}$Sorghum sudanese) silage is low quality and palatability. This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether organic com grain and crushed rice addition of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage increases forage quality of the silage. The sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages with added com grain and crushed rice were similar to conventional com silage in moisture content. However organic sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage had low pH values. Silage added with gain and byproduct had higher crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents than control com silages, while its non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) showed the opposite results. Lactic acid, butyric acid and lactic percentage of total organic acid (L/T) of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages were higher than those of com silage, but acetic acid was higher than control. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of com silage was higher than other sorghum silages. Feed intake of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage added with crushed rice was highest among silages. Therefore, these data indicate that crushed rice and com grain added sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage could be recommended as the most effective treatment for increasing silage quality and palatability.

Analyses of subsurface drainage effects of farmland with respect to pipe and envelop material (관재료 및 피복재료별 농경지 암거배수 효과 분석)

  • 정상옥
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 1995
  • Analyses of subsurface drainage effects of farmland with respect to pipe and envelop material are made by the laboratory experiments using soil box to give basic information for the subsurface drainage system planning and design. Three different diameter PVC perforated pipes and a mesh pipe are used with envelop materials such as sand, rice bran, and crushed stone. Steady state subsurface drainage flow rate increased as envelop material changed from sand to rice bran and crushed stone. This indicates that as the hydraulic conductivity of the envelop material increases, the drainage flow rate increases. On the other hand, for a given envelop material, the mesh pipe which has the largest openning area shows the largest flow rate while small diameter PVC pipes show small flow rates. This tells that as the openning area and pipe diameter increase, the flow rate increases, too. Therefore, selection of pipe and envelop material should be made in accordance with the design drainage flow rate. Unsteady state subsurface drainage flow rate with respect to time differs for different envelop material. In case the sand was used as an envelop material, the small diameter PVC pipes show larger flow rates than the large diameter PVC pipe and mesh pipe. When the rice bran was used, the mesh pipe shows the largest flow rate, while small diameter pipes show smaller flow rates. In case the crushed stone was used as an envelop material, the large diameter PVC pipe and mesh pipe show larger flow rates, while small diameter pipes show a little bit smaller flow rates. However, the variation of flow rates among different pipes is the smallest when the crushed stone is used. The flow rate curve with respect to the pipe changes little for the crushed stone envelop which has a large hydraulic conductivity, while that changes much for the sand and rice bran envelops. However, it is difficult to draw a consistent relationship between the drainage flow rate and pipe for all the envelop materials. Since the subsurface drainage experiments are made only under the restricted laboratory condition in this study, further study including field experiment is required.

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Effect of Harvest Stage, Wilting and Crushed Rice on the Forage Production and Silage Quality of Organic Whole Crop Barely (수확시기, 예건 및 싸라기 처리가 유기 청보리의 사초 생산성 및 사일리지 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Lee, Hyun-Jin;Jeon, Kyeong-Hup;Yang, Ga-Young;Kwon, Chan-Ho;Sung, Ha-Guyn;HwangBo, Soon;Jo, Ik-Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2010
  • Although whole crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is now widely grown as a silage crop in Korea, forage production and silage quality of that for organic farm have not been published. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of harvest stage on forage production and quality of organic barley, and effect of field wilting and crushed rice for shortening of harvest date and improvement of forage quality. The experiment was split-plot design with three replications. Main plots were heading, milking and yellow stages, and sub-plot were field wilting for I day, crushed rice 10% (CR10%) and 15% (CR15%) treatments. The dry matter (DM) contents of heading, milking and yellow stages were 12.8%, 21.9% and 29.8%, respectively. The DM yields of heading, milking and yellow stages were 10,346, 15,819 and 18,336 kg/ha, respectively, and the total digestible nutrients (TDN) of these were 6,288, 9,550 and 10,178 kg/ha, respectively. The pH of milking stage showed low 4.00 pH values. The crude protein, ether extract, crude ash, non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and TDN contents were decreased as harvest stage progressed, while neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were increased. The crude ash (CA) of milking stage showed the lowest among harvest stages. Field wilting and crushed rice treatments decreased CA, NDF and ADF contents, and increased NFC and TDN contents. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) decreased with progressed harvest stage, while field wilting and crushed rice treatments increased that of barley silage. Lactic acid and total organic acid contents of milking stage were the highest, and butyric acid of milking stage was the lowest among harvest stage. The good effect of field wilting and crushed rice was observed in heading stage. The experiment results indicate that optimum harvest stage of barley silage for organic was milking stage. The field wilting and crushed rice additive could be recommended as effective method for shortening harvest date and increasing forage quality of organic barley silage

Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Ethanol Extracts from Milling By-products of Rice Cultivars (벼 품종별 도정 부산물 에탄올 추출물의 항산화 성분 및 항산화 효과)

  • Oh, Sea-Kwan;Kim, Dae-Jung;Chun, A-Reum;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Kim, Kee-Jong;Lee, Jun-Soo;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Kim, Yeon-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.624-630
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to determine antioxidant compounds and antioxidative activities of by-products including rice bran and half-crashed rice by rice milling. DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing power have been used to investigate the relative antioxidative activities of 70% EtOH extracts from by-products. The contents of total polyphenol, total flavonoid and $\gamma$-oryzanol in EtOH extracts were measured by spectrophotometric methods, and vitamin E was carried out by HPLC. Ethanol extract from rice bran showed markedly antioxidative activity than that from half-crushed rice. Among EtOH extracts from milling by-products, rice bran of 'Hongjiju' tended to have the most effective antioxidative activity compared to the others. These results suggested that by-products of rice milling have the potent antioxidative activity and these activity are partly due to the antioxidative compounds present in by-products including rice bran and half-crushed rice.

Changes of Physico-chemical Properties and Microflora of Pig Manure due to composting with some Bulking Agents (보조재료별 돈분 퇴비화 과정중 이화학적 특성과 미생물상 변화)

  • Lee, Jong-Tae;Nam, Yeun-Gyu;Lee, Jin-Il
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.134-144
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate physicochemical and microbiological properties during composting process when pig manure was composted with some bulking agents(Saw dust, Rice hull, Crushed wood). The pig manure consisted of 2.95% total nitrogen, 4.55% $P_2O_5$, 2.07% $K_2O$, 81.2% organic matter and 14.0 C/N, dry base. The inorganic content of bulking agents were similar one another, and C/N ratio was Saw dust 392. Rice hull 91.5, Crushed wood 266. The temperature of Saw dust composting slowly increased at initial stage, whereas one of Rice hull and Crushed wood rapidly increased and stabilized similarly to outdoor temperature after about 2 month. The pH of compost increased during initial 1 month after decreasing, but thereafter decreased rapidly. The C/N ratio rapidly decreased at initial stage, and it slowly decreased after 1 month. Total nitrogen somewhat increased according to composting process. Ammonium-nitrogen increased until 60th day, and thereafter it was rapidly inclined to decrease. The population of aerobic bacteria, Bacillus spp., actinomycetes and fungi increased up to > $10^{10}cfu\;g^{-1}$ fresh weight, > $10^7$, > $10^8$ and > $10^6$, respectively in Rice hull and Crushed wood composting, and more than ones in Saw dust composting, and specially actinomycetes. The persuasive Bacillus spp. isolated from composting process were B. lentimorbus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. megaterium, etc.

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Standardization of Ingredient Ratios of Wooung (Burdock, Arctium lappa, L) Kimchi (우엉김치 재료배합비의 표준화)

  • 박건영;최미정;한지숙;이숙희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.618-624
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to standardize ingredient ratios of wooung kimchi. The ingredient ratios of model wooung kimchiwere determined by the survey in Pusan and Kyungnam province and using the literatures including cooking books. Several kinds of wooung kimchi were prepared by adjusting the ingredient ratios fo the model wooung kimchi within standard deviation. The wooung kimchi with different ingredient ratios were fermented for 6 days at 15$^{\circ}C$. The chemical, microbial and sensory properties of the wooung kimchi were investigated. There was little change in pH but the counts of lactic acid bacteria were decreased, as the ratio of pickled anchovy juice became high. The wooung kimchi adding 9.4% pickled anchovy juice obtained high score in appearance and overall acceptability. The counts of lactic acid bacteria were increased in wooung kimchi adding 5% red pepper powder, and there was obtained better result in appearance, texture and overall acceptability than the other groups. The activity, reducing sugar and counts of lactic acid bacteria were increased, as the ratio of glutinous rice paste became high. The wooung kimchi including 6% glutinous rice paste showed the highest score in overall acceptability. The fermentation process of wooung kimchi accelerated, as the ratio of garlic became high. The wooung kimchi adding 3% garlic showed good appearance and acceptability. In addition to these, the addition of 1.3% ginger ehhanced the appearance, texture and overall acceptability fermented anchovy juice, 5.0% red pepper powder, 6.0% glutinous rice paste, 3.0% crushed garlic and 1.3% crushed ginger.

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Effects of Adding Crushed Fresh Sweet Potatoes on the Quality of Rice Straw, Clover and Sweet Potato Stalk Silages (볏짚, 클로버 및 고구마덩굴 Silage 조제(調製)를 위한 생고구마 첨가(添加)의 효과(效果))

  • Kim, Jong Woo;Kim, Yong Kook
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.114-119
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    • 1984
  • In order to improve the quality of silages made of rice straw, clover and sweet potato stalk, crushed fresh sweet potatoes(CFSP) were added at various levels to each silage. When the fermentation was completed, the chemical composition, pH and main organic acid contents of each silage were analized. The results obtained were summarized. 1. The moisture content of sweet potato stalk silage was highest among all silages tested. The clover silage showed the highest value in crude protein content. On the other hand, the rice straw silages were high in NFE and crude fiber contents. When the level of CFSP increased, the NFE contents tended to increase and crude fiber decrease. 2. The content of total organic was highest in clover silage. However, the percentage of lactic acid in total acid content was highest in sweet potato silage. The percentage of lactic ac id in total acid content was increased in paralled with the levels of CFSP. 3. The sweet potato stalk silages showed the lowest pH value (4.10-4.20). The highest pH values were 4.75-5.22 in rice straw silage. The addition of CFSP tended to lower the pH. 4. It appears the quality of clover and rice straw silages can be imp roved by adding CFSP at 5 and 10% levels, respectively, on fresh weight basis. The addition of CFSP to the sweet potato stalk silage, however, was not effective in this experiment.

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EFFECT OF WORK CRUSHING SUGARCANE ON PREGNANCY AND LACTATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES

  • van Thu, N.;Pearson, R.A.;Preston, T.R.;Fajersson, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.427-438
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    • 1996
  • The suitability of female cattle ($Brahman{\times}Holstein$) and buffaloes (Murrah / Jafarabadi) for work on a sugarcane crusher was tested. The animals were fed chopped sugarcane tops and elephant grass supplemented with rice bran and urea-molasses blocks. In experiment 1, six cattle and six buffaloes, (with three animals seven to eight months pregnant at the start of the experiment in each group), worked individually, alternate weeks for 90 minutes a day for 6 d/week. Within the 90 min, cattle did more work than buffaloes (p < 0.05), and non-pregnant animals did more than pregnant animals, but cattle crushed significantly (p < 0.05) more cane per day than buffaloes. During work animals lost weight, but gained the weight back during resting weeks, when fodder intakes were higher. There were no significant differences in live weight change and fodder intakes between pregnant and non-pregnant animals during the six weeks. In experiment 2, four pairs of lactating cows and buffaloes crushed sugarcane for 3 h/d, 6 d/week for three weeks. Work done was higher in cattle than buffaloes, but cane crushed was marginally lower. All animals lost weight during work, particularly in the first week, but gained weight during the week after work. Daily milk yield was lower during the working weeks ($-0.55{\pm}0.15kg$) than in the week before work. Butter fat yield showed no significant change. One buffalo showed ovarian activity and oestrus behaviour during the work. Two cows showed ovarian activity within one month after the work. It was concluded that pregnant and lactating cows and buffaloes can effectively operate a cane crusher, however a temporary reduction in milk yield can be expected in the working period, and ovarian activity may be suppressed.