• Title, Summary, Keyword: Crude Phytase

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Evaluation of the Efficacy of Crude Phytase Prerarations in Broiler Chickens

  • Paik, I.K.;Um, J.S.;Lee, S.J.;Lee, J.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.673-680
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    • 2000
  • An experiment was conducted with day-old 300 commercial male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres$^{(R)}$) to evaluate the efficacy of crude phytase preparerations produced from a culture of Aspergillus ficcum. The experiment consisted of five dietary treatments; T1, com-soy control diet with 0.45% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) for starter period and 0.35% NPP for grower period; T2, control - 0.1% NPP; T3, control 0.2% NPP; T4, T3+600 U of crude phytase (broth+cell); and T5, T3+600 U of crude phytase (broth). The body weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain of chickens fed T1 diet was highest (p<0.01) among treatments. BW gain and feed intake of T4 and T5 were greater than those of T3 but were less than those of T1 and T2. T3 was highest in mortality among treatments. Decreasing the NPP level lowered availability of DM, crude ash, ether extract, crude fiber, Zn, and Fe but supplementation of crude phytase preparations improved the availability of these nutrients as well as those of Ca, P and Cu. Excretion of P and Cu significantly decreased as the NPP level in the diet decreased. Further reduction of P and Cu excretion and reduction of Ca, Mg and Fe excretion were achieved by supplementation of crude phytase preparations. The serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Cu were significantly increased by crude phytase supplementation. The weight and length of tibia, and contents of crude ash, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn were adversely affected by lowering NPP level but partially recovered by supplementation of crude phytase preparations. In conclusion, lowering NPP level in the broiler diet significantly depressed the performance. Supplementation of crude phytase preparations produced from Aspergillus ficuum could partially recover the depression.

Effect of Crude Phytase Supplementation on Performance of Broilers Fed Different Levels of Phosphorus (인 수준이 다른 육계사료에 Crude Phytase 첨가시 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이선재;엄재상;백인기;이재관
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.169-179
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    • 2000
  • An experiment was conducted to measure the effect of crude phytase supplementation on the growing performance, blood concentrations of some minerals and tibia characteristics of broiler chickens. Day-old 240 male broiler chickens (Avian) were randomly allotted to four treatments. There were six replicates per treatment, and ten chicks per replicate. Treatments consisted of two levels of crude phytase (0 and 600U/kg) made from Aspergillus ficuum and two levels of non-phytate P (0.45 and 0.35% NPP for the starter period, and 0.35 and 0.25% NPP for the grower period), making the experiment 2$\times$2 factorial. The starter period was from hatch to 21 d of age, and grower period was from 22 to 35 d of age. Feed intake and weight gain of chicks fed diet containing phytase were higher(P〈0.05) than those of chicks fed diets without phytase, however, no differences was found in feed/gain. mortality, and nutrient availabilities regarding the phytase supplementation. Chickens fed diets with low NPP and phytase excreted lower P than did birds fed diets containing normal NPP without phytase. The level of NPP and phytase did not affect N excretion. The Ca availability was increased by feeding low NPP diet. Dietary phytase increased the availabilities of P and Mg, but decreased those of Fe and Zn. There was interactions between dietary NPP level and phytase addition on mineral availability. Tibia was lighter and shorter in low NPP groups, and heavier in phytase treated groups. The tibial contents of Ca, P and Mg decreased in low NPP treated groups, but increased in phytase treated groups. The ash content of tibia of chickens fed diet with phytase was higher than that of birds fed diets without phytase. These data suggest that the crude phytase supplementation to broiler diets containing low NPP level improves growth performance and mineral availability and, reduces fecal P excretion.

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The Effects Of The Dietary Microbial Phytase Supplementation In Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus And Juvenile Korean Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Fed Soybean Meal-Based Diets

  • Gwangyeol Yu;Kyungmin Han;Park, Semin;Sungchul C. Bai
    • Proceedings of the Korean Aquaculture Society Conference
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    • pp.70-70
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of the dietary microbial phytase (P) supplementation on growth performance and bioavailability of phosphorus in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus and juvenile Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli fed soybean meal-based diets. Nine experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocalolic to contain 50.0%crude protein (CP) and 16.7kJ, 48.6% crude protein (CP) and 16.0kJ available energy/g without the dietary phytase supplementation for olive flounder and Korean rockfish, respectively : 100% fish meal (FM); 70% FM + 30% soybean meal (SM); 70% FM + 30% SM + Phytase(P) 1000U/kg diet; 70% FM + 30% SM + P 2000U/kg diet; 70% FM + 30% SM with phytase-treated (Ptre) P 1000U/kg diet; 60% FM + 40% SM; 60% FM + 40% SM + P 1000U/kg diet; 60% FM + 40% SM + P 2000U/kg diet; 60% PM + 40% SM with Ptre P 1000U/kg diet. After two weeks of the conditioning period, triplicate groups of 25 fish initially averaging 6.15$\pm$0.04g, was randomly distributed into the aquarium for olive flounder, and 20 fish initially averaging 7.25$\pm$0.04g was randomly distributed into the aquarium for Korean rockfish. After 8 weeks feeding trials, there was no significant difference on weight gain fish fed between 100% FM and 70% FM+30%SM with Ptre P 1000U in olive flounder and Korean rockfish. Apparent phosphorus digestibility fish fed phytase supplemental diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed phytase non-supplemental diets in olive flounder and Korean rockfish. Therefore, these results indicated that pre-treated soybean meal with phytase 1000U could replace fishmeal up to 30% for the maximum growth of juvenile olive flounder and Korean rockfish. Phytase supplementation could improve apparent digestibility of phosphorus in olive flounder and Korean rockfish fed soybean meal based diets.

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Effects of exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, and pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets

  • Yang, Y.Y.;Fan, Y.F.;Cao, Y.H.;Guo, P.P.;Dong, B.;Ma, Y. X.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, as well as pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and the performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets. Methods: In Experiment 1, forty-eight barrows with an initial body weight of $35.9{\pm}0.6kg$ were randomly assigned to a $2{\times}4$ factorial experiment with the main effects being feed form (pellet vs meal) and enzyme supplementation (none, 10,000 U/kg phytase, 4,000 U/kg xylanase or 10,000 U/kg phytase plus 4,000 U/kg xylanase). The basal diet contained 97.8% wheat. Pigs were placed in metabolic cages for a 7-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Nutrient digestibility and available energy content were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted to evaluate the effects of pelleting and enzymes on performance of wheat for growing pigs. In this experiment, 180 growing pigs ($35.2{\pm}9.0kg\;BW$) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments according to a $2{\times}3$ factorial treatment arrangement with the main effects being feed form (meal vs pellet) and enzyme supplementation (0, 2,500 or 5,000 U/kg xylanase). Results: In Experiment 1, there were no interactions between feed form and enzyme supplementation. Pelleting reduced the digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 6.4 percentage units (p<0.01), increased the digestibility of energy by 0.6 percentage units (p<0.05), and tended to improve the digestibility of crude protein by 0.5 percentage units (p = 0.07) compared with diets in mash form. The addition of phytase improved the digestibility of phosphorus (p<0.01) and calcium (p<0.01) by 6.9 and 7.6 percentage units respectively compared with control group. Adding xylanase tended to increase the digestibility of crude protein by 1.0 percentage units (p = 0.09) and increased the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (p<0.01) compared with control group. Supplementation of the xylanase-phytase combination improved the digestibility of phosphorus (p<0.01) but impaired NDF digestibility (p<0.05) compared with adding xylanase alone. In Experiment 2, adding xylanase increased average daily gain (p<0.01) and linearly improved the feed:gain ratio (p<0.01) compared with control group. Conclusion: Pelleting improved energy digestibility but decreased ADF digestibility. Adding xylanase increased crude protein digestibility and pig performance. Phytase increased the apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium. The combination of phytase-xylanase supplementation impaired the effects of xylanase on NDF digestibility.

Effects of Phytase and Carbohydrases Supplementation to Diet with a Partial Replacement of Soybean Meal with Rapeseed Meal and Cottonseed Meal on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Growing Pigs

  • Shim, Y.H.;Chae, B.J.;Lee, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1339-1347
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    • 2003
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of microbial phytase ($Natuphos^{(R)}$) supplementation in combination with carbohydrases (composed of enzymes targeted to soybean meal (SBM) dietary components such as $\alpha$-galactosides and galactomannans; $Endo-Power^{(R)}$) to corn-soybean meal based diet (CSD) and complex diet (CD) with a partial replacement of SBM with rape seed meal (RSM) and cotton seed meal (CSM) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. A total of 168 growing pigs averaging $13.18{\pm}1.77kg$ of initial body weight was arranged as a $2{\times}2$ factorial design with main effects of diet types (corn-SBM based diet (CSD) and complex diets (CD; 5% of SBM was replaced with 2.5% of RSM and 2.5% of CSM in diet for phase I (0 to 3 weeks) and 6% of SBM was replaced with 3% of RSM and 3% of CSM in diet for phase II (4 to 7 weeks))) and enzyme supplementation (none and 0.1% of phytase (500 FTU/kg diet) and 0.1% of carbohydrases). The diet with enzyme application were formulated to have a 0.18% unit lower aP than diets without enzyme application. Each treatment had three replicates with 14 pigs per replicate. To determine supplementation effect of phytase and carbohydrases on ileal amino acid digestibility of SBM, RSM and CSM, a total of 18 T-cannulated pigs (initial body weight; $13.52{\pm}1.24kg$) were assigned to six dietary treatments in the present study. Dietary treatments in metabolic trial included 1) SBM diet, 2) SBM diet+with enzymes (phytase (500 FTU/kg) and carbohydrases at 0.1%, respectively), 3) CSM diet, 4) CSM diet+enzymes, 5) RSM diet and 6) RSM diet+enzymes. During whole experimental period (0 to 7 wks), there was no difference in growth performance between diets (CSD and CD). However, dietary phytase and carbohydrases supplementation significantly improved gain/feed ratio (G:F) of growing pigs. During the phase II (4-7 weeks), dietary phytase and carbohydrases supplementation significantly improved all fecal nutrient digestibilities (Dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P)). Dietary phytase and carbohydrases supplementation improved significantly overall ileal amino acid digestibilities of SBM, RSM and CSM based diets (p<0.05). The simultaneous inclusion of phytase and carbohydrases in both of CSD and CD reduced feed cost per kg body weight gain (FCG). Also, results suggest that 2.5 to 3% of RSM and CSM, respectively, might be used as a protein source in growing pig diets without having an adverse effect on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility and simultaneous phytase and carbohydrases addition improves nutritional value of SBM, RSM and CSM by improving ileal amino acid digestibilities.

Effects of Dietary Phytase on Performance, Egg Quality, Excretion of N and P, and Ileal Digestibility in Laying Hens (Phytase 첨가가 산란계의 생산성, 난질, 질소와 인의 배설량 및 회장 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • HwangBo, J.;Ahn, J.H.;Chung, W.T.;Ohh, S.J.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, H.K.;Lee, S.U.;Hong, E.C.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.119-128
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    • 2007
  • The effects of microbial phytase on laying performance, egg quality, and ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids were examined at three levels of phytase (0, 300, 600 unit/kg) in 55-wk-old White Leghorn for 4 weeks. Egg productivity tended to increase with supplemental phytase compared to that of control. Daily feed intake of hens fed phytase also increased. Egg shell thickness was not significantly different among the treatments. Haugh unit and yolk color were not statistically different. However, egg shell breaking strength was high at phytase treatment. Excretion and absorption of nitrogen were no difference among all treatments, but those of phosphorus was higher in the phytase treatment than control. The digestibility was high at crude fiber, crude ash, calcium and phosphorus in nutrients, at lysine, methionine and phenylalanine in essential amino acids, and alanine, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine and tyrosine in non-essential amino acids. In conclusion, supplemental microbial phytase in laying hens diet may help to improve egg production and to decrease P of feces. But, further studies were needed to investigate on the digestibility.

The Effects of Phytase Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets With Different Levels of Non-Phytate Phosphorus

  • Lim, H.S.;Namkung, H.;Um, J.S.;Kang, K.R.;Kim, B.S.;Paik, I.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.250-257
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    • 2001
  • An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of phytase supplementation to the diets containing different levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). A $3{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. There were three dietary NPP levels of control (C) (0.45% for starter diet and 0.35% for grower diet), C-0.1% NPP (0.35% for starter diet and 0.25% for grower diet), and C-0.2% NPP (0.25% for starter diet and 0.15% for grower diet) and two phytase levels (0 and 500 U/kg). Reduced dietary NPP decreased feed intake and weight gain and increased mortality whereas dietary phytase increased feed intake and weight gain and decreased mortality. Supplemental phytase improved availabilities of dry matter, crude fat, ash, P, Zn, Mg, and Cu whereas dietary NPP level did not affect availabilities of nutrients except decreased Zn availability and increased Cu availability in reduced NPP diets. Nutrient retention of N, ash, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn were linearly decreased as dietary NPP levels reduced but dietary phytase increased their retention. Reduced dietary NPP increased ash excretion but decreased P and Cu excretion while dietary phytase decreased N excretion. Weight, length, girth and contents of ash, Ca, P and Mg of tibia linearly decreased as dietary NPP levels reduced. Dietary phytase increased length and ash content of tibia. It is concluded that dietary phytase can reduce P excretion and alleviate adverse affects caused by feeding low dietary NPP. Effects of phytase were greater in the lower NPP diets.

Effects of the Dietary Microbial Phytase Supplementation on Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Fed Soybean Meal based Diets

  • Yoo, Gwangyeol;Bai, Sungchul C.
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 2014
  • An 8 weeks feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary microbial phytase (P) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, and body composition in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed soybean meal-based diets. Seven experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to contain 50.0% crude protein (CP) and 16.7 kJ of available energy/g with or without dietary phytase supplementation. White fish meal (FM) provided 92.4% of the total protein in the basal diet ($S_0$), in the other 6 diets, 30% or 40% FM protein was replaced by soybean meal: 70% FM + 30% soybean meal ($S_{30}$); 70% FM + 30% SM + 1000 U phytase/kg diet ($S_{30}P_{1000}$); 70% FM + 30% SM + 2000 U phytase/kg diet ($S_{30}P_{2000}$); 60% FM + 40% SM ($S_{40}$); 60% FM + 40% SM + 1000 U phytase/kg diet ($S_{40}P_{1000}$); and 60% FM + 40% SM + 2000 U phytase/kg diet ($S_{40}P_{2000}$). After two weeks of the conditioning period, triplicate groups of 25 fish initially averaging $6.15{\pm}0.04g$ ($mean{\pm}S.D.$) were randomly distributed into the aquarium and were fed one of the experimental diets for 8 weeks. After feeding trial, supplementation of phytase significantly improved the apparent digestibility coefficients of phosphorus in flounder diets (P<0.05) containing 30% and 40% soybean meal regardless the levels. However, phytase had no significant influence on growth performance and whole body composition of fish. Based on the experimental results, we conclude that dietary supplementation of phytase could improve the apparent digestibility coefficient of phosphorus in olive flounder.

Effects of Phytase Supplementation of Diets with Two Tiers of Nutrient Specifications on Growth Performance and Protein Efficiency Ratios of Broiler Chickens

  • Selle, P.H.;Ravindran, V.;Pittolo, P.H.;Bryden, W.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1158-1164
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    • 2003
  • In two feeding experiments male and mixed-sex broiler chicks were offered diets based on sorghum and a wheatsorghum blend with two tiers of nutrient specifications, without and with microbial phytase (600 and 800 FTU/kg), from 7-25 and 1-42 days post-hatch, respectively. The nutrient specifications for protein, amino acids, energy density and phosphorus (P) of standard diets were reduced to formulate the modified diets on a least-cost basis. Calculated differences in nutrient specifications between standard and modified diets ranged from 14.3 to 17.1 g/kg crude protein, 0.24 to 0.40 MJ/kg apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and 1.06 to 1.20 g/kg available P. In both experiments, reduced nutrient specifications had a negative impact on growth rates and feed efficiency and phytase supplementation had a positive influence on growth performance and protein efficiency ratios (PER). Phytase addition to the less expensive, modified diets either partially or entirely compensated for reduced growth performance and, consequently, feed costs per kg of live weight gain were reduced. In Experiment 1, phytase increased (p<0.001) nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn) from 15.39 to 15.89 MJ/kg dry matter. For nitrogen (N) retention there was an interaction (p<0.05) between diet type and phytase as the effects of phytase on N retention were more pronounced in the modified diets, with an increase from 0.512 to 0.561. These results demonstrate the positive effects of phytase on protein and energy utilisation, in addition to its established liberation of phytate-bound P and illustrate the feasibility of assigning nutrient replacement values to the feed enzyme for consideration in least-cost ration formulations. Further work is, however, required to define the most appropriate reductions in nutrient specifications in association with phytase supplementation.

Using Enzyme Supplemented, Reduced Protein Diets to Decrease Nitrogen and Phosphorus Excretion of White Leghorn Hens

  • Jacob, Jacqueline P.;Ibrahim, Sami;Blair, Robert;Namkung, Hwan;Paik, In Kee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1743-1749
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    • 2000
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of commercial phytase and ${\beta}-glucanase$ to wheat-soybean meal based layer diets. Control (17% CP) and reduced protein (13.5% CP) diets were compared with and without phytase and/or ${\beta}-glucanase$. Reducing dietary crude protein levels reduced the amount of N excreted by laying hens with no adverse affect on egg production or overall feed conversion ratio. There was, however, a slight reduction in average egg weight. When phytase was added to the control protein diets it was possible to reduce the level of dicalcium phosphate in the diet without a loss in performance and daily P output was reduced significantly. When phytase was added to the reduced protein diets, however, there was a dramatic loss in performance in the last four weeks of the study. Supplementation of ${\beta}-glucanase$ to wheat based layer diet did not appear to have beneficial affects in terms of laying performance and reducing nitrogen or phosphorus excretion. Combination of phytase and ${\beta}-glucanase$ had no positive effects on laying performance or reduction of DM, N and P.