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Comparison of Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality between Duroc and Crossbred Pigs

  • Choi, Jung-Seok;Lee, Hyun-Jin;Jin, Sang-Keun;Choi, Yang-Il;Lee, Jae-Joon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.238-244
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and meat quality characteristics of Duroc breed and crossbred pigs (Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire ${\times}$ Duroc, LYD). Duroc and crossbred pigs did not show differences in carcass characteristics. Crossbred pigs had higher moisture and protein content than Duroc breeds. However, Duroc breeds had a higher fat content than the crossbred pigs. In meat quality characteristics, crossbred pigs showed higher values of drip loss and cooking loss over Duroc breeds, while Duroc breeds showed higher ultimate pH value compared to that of crossbred pigs. However, there were no differences in water holding capacity and shear force value. In myoglobin content, crossbred pigs had higher content compared to that in the Duroc population. In subjective evaluation and sensory characteristics, Duroc breeds showed significantly higher scores in all categories except for tenderness over the crossbred pigs. However, in storage characteristics, Duroc breeds showed reduced tendency relative to crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs had higher unsaturated fatty acid content than Duroc breeds did. In these results, Duroc breeds showed excellent meat quality characteristics with its higher intramuscular fat content and pH value, lower drip loss and cooking loss and higher juiciness and flavor, compared to the crossbred pigs.

The Impact of Crossbred Cattle (Red Sindhi×Yellow Local) on Smallholder Households in the Mountainous and Lowland Zones of Quang Ngai, Vietnam

  • Phung, L.D.;Koops, W.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1390-1396
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    • 2003
  • This research investigates the use of crossbreed cattle (Red Sindhi${\times}$Yellow Local cattle) at household level in the lowland and mountainous zones in Quang Ngai province, Vietnam. The internal and external inputs and outputs of mixed farming systems were analysed to quantify the productivity and efficiency of the use of the crossbred and yellow local cattle. In the mountainous zone, households with crossbred cattle had a lower crop and farm efficiency rate than households without crossbred cattle, but in terms of crop, livestock and farm productivity they did not differ. In the lowland zone, households with crossbred cattle had a higher crop, livestock and farm productivity and crop efficiency rate than households without crossbred cattle, but did not differ in terms of farm efficiency rate. The lowland zone had higher off-farm income, crop and household productivity, but lower livestock productivity, livestock and farm efficiency rate than the mountainous zone. Households with crossbred cattle had lower off-farm income than households without crossbred cattle. The results suggest that interactions between zone and kind of household occur at the households and show that the yellow local cattle is a better breed in the mountainous zone and more or less comparable with crossbred cattle in the lowland zone. The extrapolation of the use of crossbred cattle should be carefully considered in line with feeding practice and management.

Effect of Family Size and Genetic Correlation between Purebred and Crossbred Halfsisters on Response in Crossbred and Purebred Chickens under Modified Reciprocal Recurrent Selection

  • Singh, Neelam;Singh, Raj Pal;Sangwan, Sandeep;Malik, Baljeet Singh
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.8-12
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    • 2005
  • Response in a modified reciprocal recurrent selection scheme for egg production was evaluated considering variable family sizes and genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred half sisters. The criteria of selection of purebred breeders included pullet's own performance, purebred full and half sisters and crossbred half sister's performance. Heritability of egg production of crossbreds (aggregate genotype) and purebred's was assumed to be 0.2 and genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred half sisters ($r_{pc}$) as 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, -0.4, -0.5 and -1.0. Number of dams per sire to produce purebred and crossbred progenies assumed to be 5, 6, 7, 8, while number of purebred female progeny ($N_p$) and crossbred progeny ($N_c$) per dam were considered to be 3, 4, 5 and 6 in each case. Considering phenotypic variance as unity, selection indices were constructed for different combinations of dams and progeny for each value of $r_{pc}$. Following selection index theory, response in crossbred and purebred for egg production was computed. Results indicated that response in crossbreds depended mainly on crossbred family size and also on magnitude of$r_{pc}$ irrespective of its direction, and response was greater with large crossbred family size than the purebred families. Correlated response in purebreds depends both on magnitude and direction of $r_{pc}$ and was expected to be greater with large purebred family size only. Inclusion of purebred information increased the accuracy of selection for crossbred response for higher magnitude of$r_{pc}$ irrespective of its direction. Present results indicate that desirable response in both crossbred and purebred performance is a function of $r_{pc}$ and family sizes. The ratio of crossbred and purebred family sizes can be optimized depending on the objective of improving the performance of crossbreds and/or of purebreds.

Reproductive performance comparison between local and crossbred sows reared under backyard and farming condition in Rangamati district of Bangladesh

  • Hossain, M.I.;Momin, M.M.;Fakhrul Islam, K.M.;Quader, M.N.;Miah, G.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.249-254
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    • 2016
  • It is imperious to know the reproductive parameters of the subsisting swine breed for profitable farming in Bangladesh. This study was designed to compare the reproductive parameters of sows at hilly areas between the local and crossbred at farm and backyard level. A total of 116 breedable sows were included. The data on age at puberty, litter size, birth weight, weaning weight, gestation length, interval between farrowing and number of piglets born per sow in local and crossbred sows were determined and direct questionnaire method was used for data collection. The present study revealed that age at puberty between farm and backyard system of crossbred sows was $8.88{\pm}0.153$ and $9.85{\pm}0.221$ months, respectively. The farrowing interval was shorter in crossbred sows which were kept in farming system rather than backyard system. The interval between farrowing and onset of estrus was shorter in crossbred sows. The gestation length was almost similar between backyard and farm condition. The number of litter size per sow per farrowing was $8.45{\pm}0.41$ in crossbred and $7.17{\pm}0.250$ in local pigs at backyard system. The birth weight and weaning weight were more in farm conditions than backyard system. The age at puberty in local breed was lower than the crossbred and litter size was $8.45{\pm}0.407$ in crossbred which was higher than local breed $7.17{\pm}0.250$ in backyard system. These results suggest that reproductive parameters of local sow need to be improved for better production and crossbred sows should be reared for obtaining desired productivity.

The Performance Test in Crossbreds of Korean Native Chickens for the Establishment of New Lines (새로운 계통 조성을 위한 한국 토종닭 교배 조합의 능력 검정)

  • Lee, Myeong-Ji;Heo, Kang-Nyeong;Choi, Hee-Cheol;Hong, Eui-Chul;Kim, Chong-Dae
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2014
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of crossbred strains using Korean native chicken (KNC). The data were collected from 2012 through 2013 at Poultry Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Korea. The number of chicks analyzed in this study was 375. Crossbred were (A) $R{\times}S$, (B) $D{\times}H$, (C) $D{\times}S$, (D) $C{\times}Y$ and (E) $Y{\times}H$. The fertility rates of strains were 94.9% in crossbred A, 91.9% in crossbred B, 91.8% in crossbred C, 89.7% in crossbred D and 93.8% in crossbred E, respectively. The fertility was highest in crossbred A, but crossbred C showed the lowest (p<0.05) based on the hatchability. The crossbreds B and C exhibited a superior performance on body weight gains during growing stages but crossbred D showed the lowest (p<0.05). The feed intake was to the pattern of body weight. The feed intake of crossbred D was significantly lower than other crossbreds. Also, feed conversion ratio of crossbred D showed the lowest (p<0.05). Egg production ratio of crossbred D was significantly higher compared to the other crossbreds. These results suggest that the development of new crossbreds of commercial Korean Native Chickens should be required for better performance.

ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS ON THE SERTOLI CELLS OF PHILIPPINE CARABAOS AND THEIR CROSSBREDS

  • Nuneza, O.M.;Momongan, V.G.;Capitan, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.187-190
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    • 1993
  • A study was conducted to compare and determine the incidence of ultrastructural alterations in the testes of Philippine carabaos and crossbred buffaloes. Thirteen Philippine carabao bulls and twenty five crossbred male buffaloes were used in this study. Testicular biopsy was used to get tissue samples which were prepared for histologic evaluation using the electron microscopy method. There was no significant difference in Sertoli cell alterations between Philippine carabaos and crossbred buffaloes. However, more crossbred buffaloes (40%) had both Sertoli cell and spermatogenic cell alterations which were significantly higher compared to the 7.7% occurrence in Philippine carabaos. Sertoli cells of crossbred buffaloes exhibited intracavitary structures and exaggerated infoldings of the nuclear envelope (36%), nuclear bleb (16%), and intracytoplasmic vacuolations (16%). Philippine carabaos exhibited few ultrastructural alterations which were mainly intracytoplasmic vacuolations in Sertoli cells (15%).

A STUDY ON THE INCUBATION OF INDIGENOUS (DESI), KHAKI CAMPBELL AND CROSSBRED (INDIAN RUNNER × KHAKI CAMPBELL, F1) DUCK EGGS UNDER TWO PRE-INCUBATION HOLDING PERIODS

  • Saha, S.K.;Chowdhury, S.D.;Hamid, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.541-544
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    • 1992
  • Duck eggs from Indigenous (desi), Khaki Campbell and Crossbred (Indian Runner $\times$ Khaki Campbell, $F_1$) were incubated to investigate fertility, hatchability and other related traits. The fertility was highest in crossbred followed by Khaki Campbell and Indigenous ducks respectively. The embryonic mortality was highest in Khaki Campbell followed by Indigenous and crossbred respectively. The embryonic mortality was higher in eggs of 7 days pre-incubation holding period and lower in eggs of 3 days pre-incubation holding period. A significant positive correlation was found between temperature and embryonic mortality as well as relative humidity and embryonic mortality. The hatchability on fertile eggs was highest in crossbred ducks and almost similar in both Khaki Campbell and Indigenous ducks. The hatchability was higher in eggs stored for 3 days in comparison with that of 7 days pre-incubation holding period. A negative correlation was found between temperature and hatchability as well as humidity and hatchability. The normal ducklings hatched out from the eggs of Khaki Campbell ducks was highest followed by Indigenous and crossbred respectively. There was a negative correlation between temperature and normal ducklings hatched as well as relative humidity and normal ducklings hatched. The preincubation holding temperature and relative humidity had positive correlation with dead-in-shell.

Comparison of growth performance between crossbred Korean native chickens for hatch to 28 days (육성기 교배조합 토종닭 간의 성장률 비교에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Jaehong;Koo, Bonjin;Kim, Eunjoo;Heo, Jung Min
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2015
  • The study was conducted to determine the effect of corssbred Korean native chickens (CKNC) on growth performance indices for hatch to 28 days. A total of 192 1-day-old birds were divided into one of 4 CKNC groups by 5 Korean native pure strains. Diets used in the study consisted of 2 phases with corn and soybean meal basis as earlier (1~2 weeks; crude protein 18.5%, metabolizable energy 3,000 kcal/kg), and grower (2~4 weeks; crude protein 15.0%, Metabolizable Energy 2,850 kcal/kg). Body weight and feed intake were measured bi-weekly. Crossbred 1G (group of family line) had higher body weight and average daily gain whereas crossbred 5Y had greater average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio than other crossbred Korean native chicken for hatch to 28 days. The results in the current study indicated that crossbred 1G had higher growth performance indices compared with other crossbred Korean native chicken for hatch to 28 days.

A Comparison on Polymorphism of Beta-lactoglobulin Gene in Bos indicus, Bos taurus and Indicine×Taurine Crossbred Cattle

  • Badola, S.;Bhattacharya, T.K.;Biswas, T.K.;Shivakumar, B.M.;Kumar, Pushpendra;Sharma, Arjava
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.733-736
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    • 2004
  • The study was carried out on eight Bos indicus cattle breeds namely, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Nimari, Khilari, Deoni, Amritmahal, Hariana and Hilly cattle; two Bos taurus cattle breeds namely, Jersey and Holstein Friesian and Indicine${\times}$Taurine crossbred cattle to find out the polymorphic pattern of beta-lactoglobulin gene. The polymorphism at beta-lactoglobulin gene was detected by conducting PCR-RFLP studies on 398 bp fragment spanning over 104 bases of exon IV and 294 bases of intron IV. Two alleles A and B and three genotypes AA, AB and BB were observed in all the cattle breeds. The frequency of B allele was comparatively higher than that of A allele. The allelic frequency of A varied from 0.20 to 0.30 in Bos indicus cattle breeds and 0.19 to 0.34 in Bos taurus breeds while in crossbred cattle the frequency was estimated as 0.21. The weighted frequency of A allele was highest in Indian cattle and lowest in crossbred cattle while the frequency in taurine cattle was found to be in between indicus and crossbred cattle. The non-significant differences of allelic frequency amongst Bos indicus, Bos taurus and crossbred cattle was observed. The effect of genotype on fat percentage was also found to be non-significant in cattle.

Characterization of MHC DRB3.2 Alleles of Crossbred Cattle by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

  • Paswan, Chandan;Bhushan, Bharat;Patra, B.N.;Kumar, Pushpendra;Sharma, Arjava;Dandapat, S.;Tomar, A.K.S.;Dutt, Triveni
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1226-1230
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    • 2005
  • The present investigation was undertaken to study the genetic polymorphism of the DRB3 exon 2 in 75 crossbred cattle by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Five genotypes i.e. HaeIII-a, HaeIII-b, HaeIII-e, HaeIII-ab and HaeIII-ae were observed when the 284 bp PCR products were digested with HaeIII restriction enzyme. The corresponding frequencies of these patterns were 0.53, 0.04, 0.01, 0.38 and 0.04, respectively. Digestion with RsaI restriction enzyme resolved 24 different restriction patterns. The frequencies of these patterns ranged from 0.013 (RsaI-f, RsaI-k and RsaI-c/n) to 0.120 (RsaI-n). The results revealed that the crossbred cows belonged to the RsaI patterns namely b, k, l, a/l, d/s, l/n, l/o and m/n, whose corresponding frequencies were 0.027, 0.013, 0.040, 0.027, 0.040, 0.067, 0.027 and 0.067, respectively. Digestion of the 284 bp PCR product of DRB3.2 gene with PstI in the crossbred cattle did not reveal any restriction site. These results suggested the absence of the recognition site in some of the animals. These results also revealed that the crossbred cows studied were in homozygous as well as heterozygous condition. On the basis of the above results it can be concluded that the DRB3.2 gene was found to be highly polymorphic in the crossbred cattle population.