• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cropping system

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Effect of Cultivars, Sowing Date and Cropping System on the Development of Soybean Bacterial Pustule in the Field (콩 품종, 파종시기 및 작부체계가 콩 불마름병 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Sung-Jun;Kim, Yong-Ki;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Jee, Hyeong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.773-787
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    • 2014
  • Bacterial pustule of soybean caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines is one of the most prevalent bacterial diseases in many areas where soybeans are grown. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of cultivars, sowing date and cropping system on the suppression of soybean bacterial pustule in the field. One hundred soybean cultivars were screened for disease resistance against bacterial pustule in naturally infested field. Among them, fourteen cultivars including 'Pureun' were found to be high resistant. And thirty cultivars showed to be moderate resistant(less than 3% of diseased leaf area). When Soybean cultivar 'Taekwang' were sown in four different dates, May 25, June 5, June 15, and June 25, at 10 day-interval in Milyang, the diseased leaf area of bacterial pustule was 23.3%-25.7%, 14.7%-18.0%, 10.7%-12.8%, and 1.0%-2.7%, respectively. The lowest percentage of diseased leaf area was recorded in the plots sown on June 25, whereas the highest percentage of diseased leaf area was recorded in the plot sown on May 25. As sowing time was delayed, incidence of soybean bacterial pustule found to be comparatively reduced. From December in 2006 to June in 2007, we surveyed the pathogen population of soybean bacterial pustule in five cropping upland soils where soybean was cultivated. The survey result showed the bacterial pustule pathogens were detected from the all cropping soils. The pathogen populations of soybean bacterial pustule in soybean-barley and soybean-garlic cropping soil were significantly lower than that of the other cropping soils. In addition, the incidence of soybean bacterial pustule was decreased under the two cropping systems.

Prospects of Stable Production Technologies for Food Crops (식량 안정생산기술의 전망)

  • Chae Je Cheon;Gang Yang Sun;Lee Yeong Ho;Nam Jung Hyeon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.102-144
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    • 1999
  • The major problems of food crop cultivation in Korea are low yield of most crops except rice. inefficient cultivation techniques for aged farmers. and low international competibility. Therefore, development of cultivation techniques of food crops should aim the yield. quality improvement, labor reduction and production cost. The primary issue for increasing the yield of soybean, barely and wheat is to reduce the yield gap between the farmer's yield and recommended ones of experiment station. More advanced cultivation techniques needs to be developed. and/or the conventional breeding methods to be reconsidered. The newly developed labor-saving mechanized technique needs to reduce labor hours , and the cost of agricultural implements and machineries. In other words the labor-saving mechanized technique should be developed based on the improvement of total farming system as well as systemic fundamental innovation of cultural methods. The efficiency of solar energy use in food production of Korea in 1997 is as low as $0.52{\%}$ so there is much room to increase yield. It is recommendable that the concept of food Production should be changed to energy Producing efficiency Per unit area basis from volume and weight of food materials. Moreover, introduction of resonable cropping system is needed to increase yield of main crops, farmer's income, solar energy use efficiency, and decrease of land service expenditure. Current cropping system emphasized on economic crops. especially in vegetables , is not desirable for resonable use of arable land. stability of agricultural management and staple food crop self-sufficiency ratio. It is desirable to increase food crops . that are energy of carbohydrate and protein rich and land dependent crops. in cropping system. And the agronomist should develop the cultural methods to replace food crops for food self-sufficiency and stable farming management instead of economic crops in current cropping system. Low-input and environmentally-sound crop cultivation techniques, especially nitrogen-reducing culture technique which is directly related to food crop quality, also needs to be developed urgently. The extended cultivation of corn in upland and barely and wheat in lowland as a feed stuffs is recommended to prevent further decrease of food self-sufficiency ratio, which is mainly caused by the high reliance on imported feed grain. It is also considered that the calculation and presentation methods of standard agricultural income needs to be improved. The current calculation method uses unit land area of 10a regardless of crop kinds , characteristics of agricultural management and cultivation scale. So, it is apt to lead misunderstanding of farm income value. Therefore. it should show an income of average farmers for certain number of years. Research and developing system for food producing is not desirable because they are conducted currently individual crop and mono-culture basis. But actual agricultural income is usually earned by cropping system including upland and lowland. For example. the barley and wheat is usually cultivated in double cropping system. The cooperation among research institutes such as university agribusiness. government and farmers is indispensible. The public information and education on importance and consumption habit of food crops is necessary in Korean society to increase food self-sufficiency through nationwide cooperation.

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A Study on the Preparation Method of Fruit Cropping Distribution Map using Satellite Images and GIS (위성영상과 GIS를 이용한 과수재배 분포도 작성 기법에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Myung-Hee;Bu, Ki-Dong;Lee, Jung-Hyoup;Lee, Kwang-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2000
  • This study focused on extracting an efficient method in the fruit cropping distribution mapping with various classification methods using multi-temporal satellite images and Geographic Information Systems(GIS). For this study, multi-temporal Landsat TM images, in observation data and existing fruit cropping area statistics were used to compare and analyze the properties of fruit cropping and seasonal distribution per classification method. As a result, this study concludes that Maximum Likelihood Method with earlier autumn satellite image was most efficient for the fruit cropping mapping using Landsat TM image. In addition, it was clarified that cropping area per administrative boundary was prepared and distribution pattern was identified efficiently using GIS spatial analysis.

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Vetch Effects for the Low-input No-till Direct-Seeding Rice-Vetch Cropping System

  • Cho, Young Son;Choe, Zhin Ryong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.221-224
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    • 1999
  • A field experiment was carried out to observe the weed control effects of vetch and to evaluate vetch characteristics on clay loam soil in no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping systems. The effects of weed control, forage productivity, and N content of vetch plants were investigated. With the progress of plant growth, density of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) gradually decreased, but densities of foxtail and other weeds decreased steeply due to the depression by the over-shaded vetch canopy in a no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping paddy field. The vetch density in tillage systems was lower than in notillage cropping systems. Lower vetch density occurred with an increase in foxtail density and other weeds. Weed control effect increased by the progress of vetch growth, which indicated that the vetch canopy over-shaded the weeds. Vetch straw was degraded rapidly submergence after with water at the time of wet sowing of rice. Early harvesting of vetch seed resulted in lower seed germination. To acquire enough seedlings without re-sowing, the harvesting of seed should be delayed at least 28 days after the flowering stage in order to ensure the vetch population is sustainable in a no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping system. In order to improve the survival of vetch plants, vetch seeds should germinate from the heading .stage to before the full-ripening stage of rice plants. To enhance the percent of over-wintering survival, vetch seeds should germinate no later than the end of October in southern Korea. The dry weight of vetch plants increased with the progress of vetch growth until the flowering stage but N content decreased for 30 days from before the flowering stage (2.9%) until the ripening stage (1.8%). We concluded that Chinese milk vetch could have an effect on weed control before the flowering stage, sustainability without re-sowing of seed annually, and effective green manure for rice pre-crop in no-till direct-sown rice-vetch relay cropping systems.

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Development of sweet potato double cropping system in the southern island area of Korea

  • Moon, Jin-Young;Shin, Jung-Ho;Song, Jae-Ki;Choi, Yong-Jo;Hong, Kwang-Pyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.267-267
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    • 2017
  • In Korea, the average air temperature has been elevated twice faster than the average global warming. And the climate warming is characterized by the smaller rise of air temperature in summer and the greater rise of air temperature in spring and winter. Therefore, the number of frost-free days to determine the cultivation ability of crops has increased by more than 15 days in 10 years according to climate warming. This climate warming trend has extended and is projected to extend not only the sweet potato growing season but also the sweet potato early cultivating area to higher altitude and latitude region. This study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of sweet potato double cropping in the southern island area of Korea by assessing the growth and yield performance of sweet potato cultivated at extremely-early and -late time. We had performed at Yokji Island Yokji Island($E128^{\circ}$ 18' $N34^{\circ}$ 36'), a representative specified complex area of sweet potato cultivation in southern Korea. As the test varieties, the major cultivars of the this region, Shinyulmi and early hypertrophic cultivars, Dahomi were used. The prior cropping were planted with PE film mulching on March 30 and April 10, and harvested after 110 days. So the succeeding cropping were planted without PE film mulching on July 25 and August 5 according to the harvesting time of the prior sweet potato and harvested after 120 days. As a control, it was harvested on September 15, 120 days after planted on May 15. Each experimental plot had an area of 12 square meters consisting of 4 beds, and was planted one at a time at intervals of 25cm. We had investigated growth characteristics - main vine length, node number, branch number, total vine yield, and tuberous root characteristics - tuberous root number, average weight, starch value, and etc. After harvesting, we analyzed the economic effects by examining the postharvest quantity, the input labor, the management cost, and the income. The total yield of marketable products in prior and succeeding cropping was 46~70% higher than that of control. The average unit price of sweet potato was 36% higher than the conventional culture, and the gross income increased by 98%, but the operating cost increased by 83%, and the farm income increased by 103%. There are considerations such as the difficulty of enlargement of cultivation area due to lack of labor in limited space and the need for watering measures due to spring drought. However, if the area of application for sweet potatoes double system is increased by 10%, it can be used as a new cropping system.

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Development of sweet potato double cropping system in the southern island area of Korea

  • Moon, Jin-young;Shin, Jung-ho;Song, Jae-ki;Choi, Yong-jo;Hong, Kwang-pyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.280-280
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    • 2017
  • In Korea, the average air temperature has been elevated twice faster than the average global warming. And the climate warming is characterized by the smaller rise of air temperature in summer and the greater rise of air temperature in spring and winter. Therefore, the number of frost-free days to determine the cultivation ability of crops has increased by more than 15 days in 10 years according to climate warming. This climate warming trend has extended and is projected to extend not only the sweet potato growing season but also the sweet potato early cultivating area to higher altitude and latitude region. This study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of sweet potato double cropping in the southern island area of Korea by assessing the growth and yield performance of sweet potato cultivated at extremely-early and -late time. We had performed at Yokji Island Yokji Island($E128^{\circ}$ 18' $N34^{\circ}$ 36'), a representative specified complex area of sweet potato cultivation in southern Korea. As the test varieties, the major cultivars of the this region, Shinyulmi and early hypertrophic cultivars, Dahomi were used. The prior cropping were planted with PE film mulching on March 30 and April 10, and harvested after 110 days. So the succeeding cropping were planted without PE film mulching on July 25 and August 5 according to the harvesting time of the prior sweet potato and harvested after 120 days. As a control, it was harvested on September 15, 120 days after planted on May 15. Each experimental plot had an area of 12 square meters consisting of 4 beds, and was planted one at a time at intervals of 25cm. We had investigated growth characteristics - main vine length, node number, branch number, total vine yield, and tuberous root characteristics - tuberous root number, average weight, starch value, and etc. After harvesting, we analyzed the economic effects by examining the postharvest quantity, the input labor, the management cost, and the income. The total yield of marketable products in prior and succeeding cropping was 46~70% higher than that of control. The average unit price of sweet potato was 36% higher than the conventional culture, and the gross income increased by 98%, but the operating cost increased by 83%, and the farm income increased by 103%. There are considerations such as the difficulty of enlargement of cultivation area due to lack of labor in limited space and the need for watering measures due to spring drought. However, if the area of application for sweet potatoes double system is increased by 10%, it can be used as a new cropping system.

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Studies on Corn-Legume Intercropping System Ⅱ. Effect of corn-cowpea intercropping system on chemical composition and yield (Silage용 옥수수와 荳科作物의 間作에 關한 硏究 Ⅱ. Silage용 옥수수 (Zea mays L.)와 동부 (Vigna sinensis King)의 間作이 營養成分含量 및 收量에 미치는 影響)

  • Lee, Seung-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 1988
  • This experiment was carried out to compare chemical composition of corn-cowpea inter cropping and corn monocropping plants at different harvestion time and obtained the following results. 1. In both cropping systems, the contents of crude fat and nitrogen free extract (NFE) were significantly increased (P<0.01), while that of crude protein crude fiber and crude ash were decreased (P<0.01) with each harvesting time. 2. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and crude fiber contents were decreased same patterns in growing period, however, according to maturing of corn ears the difference between ADF and crude fiber contents reduced. 3. At mature stage, crude protein yields per 10a in corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 127.6kg and 152.1kg, respectively. The difference of crude protein content between corn-cowpea intercropping and corn monocropping system was 19.2%. 4. TDN yields of each cropping system, at mature stage, obtained similar results and TDN yields per 10a of corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 1006.1kg and 990.1, respectively. 5. Conseqently, corn-cowpea intercropping system could be increased protein yield without decreasing of dry matter yield in comparison with corn monocropping system.

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Fertilization of N and Si to Sustain Grain Yield and Growth Characteristics of Rice after Winter Greenhouse Water-melon Cropping

  • Cho, Young-Son;Jeon, Weon-Tae;Park, Chang-Young;Park, Ki-Do;Kang, Ui-Gum;Muthukumarasamy, Ramachandran
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.505-512
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    • 2006
  • In Korea, silicate fertilization (SF) is being practiced every four years to enhance rice production. However, the relationship between nitrogen (N) and SF in view of growth characteristics and grain yield of rice has not been examined after watermelon cropping in plastic film house. This study was carried out to identify useful critical N and Si fertilizer levels to sustain grain yield and to improve N use efficiency for rice. The watermelon-rice cropping system has maintained for three seasons in each year from 1998 to 2001 by farmer before this experiment. Experiments on N and Si fertilization levels were evaluated with Hwayoungbyeo (Oryza sativa L.) in 2002 and 2003 at Uiryeong, Korea. The goal of this experiment was to find out the optimum N and Si levels to sustain rice yield by reducing excessive N fertilizer in watermelon-rice cropping system. Nitrogen fertilization (NF) levels were three ($0,\;57,\;114kg\;ha^{-1};0,\;50,\;100%$ of conventional NF amount) and five (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%) in 2002 and 2003, respectively, and combined with three SF levels ($70,\;130,\;180mg\;kg^{-1};100,\;150,\;200%$ which were adjusted with Si fertilizer in soil) were evaluated for the improvement of N and Si fertilization level in both years. Rice yielded 3.98-5.95 and 2.84-4.02 t/ha in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Our results showed the combinations of 50% and 100% of N with 200% level of Si produced the highest grain yield in both years, respectably. The grain yield was greatly improved in plot of N25% level when compared to conventional NF (Nl00%) in 2003. In conclusion, NF amount could be reduced about 50% compared to recommended level by specific fertilization of N and Si combination levels for rice growing and grain yield after cultivation watermelon in paddy field.

Effect of the Double Cropping at High Altitude Area Which was Cultivated Suitable Forage Crop (고랭지에 적합한 사료작물 2모작 작부체계에 관한 연구)

  • 한성윤;김대진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to increase the utility and productivity of forage crops at high altitued areas. For that purpose, 21 cultivars of corn and 2 cultivars of rye were cultivated for 3 years using a randomized block designed with 3 replications. The results obtained were as follows. 1. In the Taekwallyong area (800m above sea level) which has a short frostless period, all the seeding and harvest of corn must be finished within about 135 days between mid May, the time of the last frost, and late September, the time of the first frost 2. It was relatively safe for the early maturity cultivar(ll0days) and the medium maturity cultivar(l20days), compared to the late maturity cultivar(l30days) which might have had the possibility of an overlapping period between the time of harvest and the first frost in high altitude areas 3. The productivity of forage corn, which is the most efficient crop for capturing solar energy, varied significantly with the climate circumstances but the productivity of Taekwallyong showed similar results of 19 M/T/ha, compared with 20 M/T/ha in Suwon from the '96-'98 study 4. Rye could be cultivated in high altitude areas and when corn was raised as a second crop after rye in the same year, it was possible to increase the productivity of dry matter yield by 20% through double cropping(P < 0.05). (Key words : Cropping system, Corn, Rye, Forage production)

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Study on rice double cropping in Southern Korea paddy field

  • Seong, Deok-Gyeong;Kim, Young-Gwang;Nam, Jin-Woo;Choi, Yong-Jo;Hong, Kwang-Pyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.320-320
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    • 2017
  • Recently, the rice growing time was extended by the global warming. This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of rice double cropping system in southern Korea. The first transplanting was with six cultivars ('Kilala397', 'Baekilmi', 'Joun', 'Hanseol' and 'Jungmo1031') on April 15. All cultivars could be harvested at the end of July. Adaptable cultivars for the first cultivation were 'Kilala397', Baekilmi' and 'Joun'. The rice yields at the first cultivation was about 95% of local average yield. Although the yield was slightly less, the first cultivation was considered to have economic benefits, because of the high market price of rice. In the second transplanting was with five cultivars ('Manjong', 'Joun', 'Deabo', 'Jinok' and 'Kilala397') on April 15. All cultivars could be harvested in early November. Adaptable cultivars for the second cultivation were 'Jinok' and 'Kilala397'. The rice yields at the second cultivation was about below the 60% of local average yield, because there was the less growth than normal season cultivation. Consequently, southern Korea' annual rice double cropping system is considered to have no economic value yet. However, the research should be continued considering the temperature rise of global warming.

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