• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cropping system

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Changes of Soil Properties and Temperature by Green Manure under Rice-based Cropping System

  • Jeon, Weon-Tai;Kim, Min-Tae;Seong, Ki-Yeong;Lee, Jong-Ki;Oh, In-Seok;Park, Sung-Tae
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.413-416
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    • 2008
  • The cultivation of green manure crop is considered as a good management practice by increasing soil organic matter and fertility levels. This experiment was conducted to improve the soil environment under rice-based cropping system at paddy soil (fine loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic, family of Aeric Fluventic Haplaquepts) in National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), Korea in 2006 to 2007. The variation of soil temperature in green manure plots was lower than without green manure (control) during spring season (April to May). The temperature variation of no tillage plot (broadcast before rice harvest) was the lowest among treatments. After green manure cropping, the soil bulk density and porosity ratio were improved at the top soil. The production of green manure was the highest athairy vetch and barley mixture plot by partial tillage. However, mixture treatment had no improvement on soil organic matter. After rice cropping with green manure application, soil quality was improved such as soil physical properties except mixture treatment. Therefore, we suggest that soil quality should be improved by green manure cultivation under rice-based cropping system.

Cropping Systems for Vegetable Peanut and Environmental Effect of Residue Incorporation in Soil (풋땅콩 작부체계와 수확 후 잔존 유기물의 친환경적 효과)

  • 김정태;배석복;박향미;윤을수;김민태;최진용
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.452-459
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    • 2003
  • A new demand for vegetable peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Korea has increased farmers interest in growing vegetable peanut. Compared to grain peanut production, vegetable peanut production enables the growth period to be shortened by 20 or 30 days and farmers to adopt various cropping systems and to return crop residues in the soil. With the purpose of establishing desirable cropping systems for sustainable vegetable peanut production, three field experiments were conducted from 2000 to 2001 at Milyang, the southeastern part of Korea. Main focuses were given into the effect of cropping systems for vegetable peanut production on each crop's yield and soil sustainability. The cropping systems investigated were single vegetable peanut, peanut-radish-green barley, peanut-barley, and peanut-garlic cropping system, with or without crop residue incorporation in the soil. Among the cropping systems investigated for sustainable vegetable peanut production, peanut-only and peanut-radish-green barley cropping systems showed vulnerable to diseases and lodging while peanut-barley and peanut-garlic cropping systems showed higher stability in response to diseases and lodging, consequently leading to higher yield potential of vegetable peanut production. In the peanut-barley cropping system, both barley and peanut residues returned to the soil played an important role in soil improvement as well as in significantly increased grain yield of peanut and barley. A particular notice was taken to the pronounced increase in Trichoderma population and the amount of nitrogen mineralization induced by the returned barley residue. Soil structure, compactness, pH, and fertility were positively influenced by the returned crop residues, which apparently increased sustainability in vegetable peanut production systems.

The Comparative Analysis for the Economic Value of the Southern Part Cropping System Introducing New Bio-energy Crops. (영.호남 작부체계의 바이오에너지용 신품종 도입시 경제적 가치 비교분석)

  • Kim, Chung-Sil;Lee, Hyun-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2009
  • The production of bio-energy crops is a major research project in the emphasizing the "low carbon green growth" strategy. For this, the possibility of the introduction of the new energy crops improve the agricultural income from fanning must be diagnosed. This study describes the level of agricultural income per unit area by cropping system based on the income of crops in the field. Especially, we have chosen the southern part attracting the attention in the possible area of the bio-energy crop production. This study consists of five chapters. Chapter I is the introduction. Chapter II is on the status of the southern part cropping system and the analysis of the economic value. Chapter III is on the economic value analysis introducing new bio-energy crops. Chapter IV is on the comparative analysis for the economic value of the croping system introducing new bio-energy crops. Chapter V is the conclusion.

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Yield and Nitrogen Uptake of Corn in Corn after Soybean Cropping

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Lee, Ho-Jin;Lee, Jin-Wook
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.266-271
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    • 2001
  • Soybean can produce high-N residue due to N-fixation, so soybean rotation may increase yield of subsequent corn and reduce N fertilizer on the corn fairly. To find out the contribution of nitrogen to subsequent corn following soybean cultivation, soil nitrate, corn yield, and nitrogen uptake were measured for three continuous corn cropping years after soybean rotation. Three N rates of 0, 80, and 160 kg/ha were applied to three continuous corn following soybean cropping. At 6-leaf stage, soil nitrate amount at the soil depth of 0-30cm ranged from 60 to 80 kgN/ha higher in the first corn cropping year than that in the second and third corn cropping years. Judging from corn N status such as SPAD value, N concentration of ear-leaf and stover at silking stage, N contribution of previous soybean to corn in the first corn year was N fertilizer of approximately 80 kg N/ha. Stover N uptake at silking stage increased from 47 to 52 kg N/ha at the 0, and 80 kg N/ha of N rates in the first corn cropping year compared with those in the second and third corn cropping years. Corn grain yield at the 0 kg N/ha of N rate was 6-7 ton/ha higher in the first corn cropping year than that in the second and third corn cropping years, respectively. When compared the first corn year following soybean cropping with the second and third corn cropping years, N uptake of grain and stover at harvest with low N rates such as 0 and 80 kg N/ha increased from 45 to 67kg N/ha, from 35 to 60 kg N/ha, respectively. N uptake of whole plant by soybean rotation increased from 93 to 118 kg N/ha in the first year compared with that in the second and third corn cropping years. However, the N contribution by soybean cropping was small in the second and third continuous corn cropping years. Therefore, it was concluded that the nitrogen fertilizer of 80-100 kg N/ha in the first corn cropping year could be saved by soybean rotation and annual alternative corn-soybean rotation could be the best rotation system.

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Performance of Mixed Cropping of Barley and Hairy Vetch as Green Manure Crops for Following Corn Production

  • Shim, Kang Bo;Kim, Min Tae;Kim, Sung Gook;Jung, Kun Ho;Jeon, Weon Tai;Shin, Su Hyun;Lee, Jae Un;Lee, Jong Ki;Kwon, Young Up
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.160-165
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: Mixed cropping of legume and grass was effective system in view point of providing organic matter and nitrogen or reducing the nitrogen starvation of following crop. The relation of the change of N and P constituents depending on the cropping types and those effects on the growth and nutrient uptake of the following crop were observed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three cropping types, hairy vetch mono cropping, barley mono cropping, and mixed cropping of hairy vetch and barley were applied. Soil properties, growth characteristics, and nitrogen production of green manure crops were observed. In additions, the effect of cropping types on the growth pattern of corn as the following crop was observed. In the mixed cropping system, creeping type hairy vetch climbed to the erect type barely for light utilization resulting in improvement of light interception rate and higher LAI (Leaf Area Index) than in mono cropping. Mixed cropping showed higher biomass production and soil nitrogen availability among the cropping types, indicating relatively much more nutrient supply and higher yield production of following crop. CONCLUSION: Mixed cropping showed relatively higher LAI (dry matter) mainly because of intense competition for light utilization usually after flowering stage. Mixed cropping also showed relatively higher yield of corn, the following crop rather than other types, mainly due to the more biomass production potential and higher N and P production ability. Therefore, mixed cropping was adaptable method to reduce or replace chemical fertilizer application for environmentally-friendly agriculture.

Growth Characteristics of Six Rice Cultivars under Rice-Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) Cropping System (자운영 환원답의 벼 품종간 생육특성과 수량에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Byung-Jin;Ahn, Jong-Woong;Hwang, Dong-Yong;Oh, Seong-Hwan;Kim, Joon-Hwan;Kim, Sang-Yeol;Ku, Yeon-Chung;Choi, Zhin-Ryong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.spc1
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to comparatively evaluate growth characteristics of rice cultivars under rice-mono (conventional) and rice-Chinese milk vetch (Vetch) cropping system. Six rice cultivars such as Geumobyeo, Pungmibyeo, Hwayeongbyeo, Sobibyeo, Junambyeo and Dongjinbyeo were tested in 2005. The results obtained are summarized as follows ; plant height and culm length of all the tested cultivars at heading and harvest time were shorter in rice-vetch cropping system than conventional, however, nitrogen content of rice plants at heading and harvesting time was higher in rice-vetch cropping system. The total amount of nitrogen of rice plants was higher in conventional than rice-vetch cropping system. Nitrogen content of rice plant and uptake of Pungmibyeo was the highest of all the tested cultivars in both cropping systems. Generally, grain yietd ef tested cultivars seemed to be higher in conventional than rice-vetch cropping system. And it was the highest in Junambyeo as compared to those of other cultivars. Head rice ratio and protein content were higher in rice-vetch cropping system.

Correlation between Cultivation Environment, Cropping System, and Quality Elements of Cut Flower and in Dendranthema grandiflorum 'Jinba'

  • Roh, Yong Seung;Kim, In Kyung;Yoo, Yong Kweon
    • Journal of People, Plants, and Environment
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.329-339
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to analyze the correlation between cultivation environment, cropping system, and the quality of cut flower in autumn-winter season chrysanthemum'Jinba', and to suggest the cultivation factors that can improve the quality of cut flower. It was examined for cultivation environment such as average day and night temperature, average day and night relative humidity, average day and night vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and integrated solar radiation of 4 farms planted in mid-October. Also, it was surveyed for cropping system such as cutting condition, growth period, irrigation method, soil chemical properties. Chrysanthemum 'Jinba' was harvested in order to investigate the quality of cutting of four farms, and then growth, chlorophyll content, and vase life of cut flowers were investigated. Based on these data, it was analyzed for the correlation between cultivation environment, cropping system, and quality of cut flower elements. In correlation between cultivation environment and quality of cut flower, the average night temperature showed a negative correlation with the growth of cut flower, and it was no correlation with other environmental factors. The vase life showed a negative correlation with the average day and night temperature and VPD, and a most positive correlation with the average day and night humidity. In correlation between cropping system and quality of cut flower, the cutting length, period of vegetative growth, daily irrigation amount, and total irrigation amount showed a less positive correlation, and leaf number of cutting and soil pH showed a most positive correlation with growth of cut flower. On the other hand, soil EC showed a less negative correlation, and days to flowering after light out showed a most negative correlation with growth of cut flower. The vase life of cut flower was not correlated with the cropping system factors.

Effect of Cropping System on Disease Incidence by Soil-borne Bymovirus in Barley and on Density of the Vector, Polymyxa graminis (작부형태가 보리의 토양전염성 Bymovirus 발생과 매개균(Polymyxa graminis)의 밀도 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jong-Chul;Noh, Tae-Hwan;Kim, Mi-Jung;Lee, Sang-Bok;Park, Chul-Soo;Kang, Chun-Sik;Lee, Jung-Joon;Kim, Tae-Soo
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2010
  • In this study, changes in virus disease occurrence and yield were monitored in conventional cropping system(rice-barley) and soybean-barley double cropping system in virus-prone area for 5 years. Also, changes in the density of Polymyxa graminis, a fungal vector, was investigated. In assay tests, mixed infection of Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV) was observed. Disease severity was in the range of 7~9 in conventional cropping system. In continuous cropping of soybean-barley and 3-yearfallow land, disease severity also was around 7. However, disease severity was reduced to medium level (5) when barley cultivation was paused for one or two years in soybean-barley cropping. When barley cultivation was paused for a year, the density of P. graminis, a fungal vector for BaYMV and BaMMV, reduced in barley root and soil. Similarly, barley growth was also enhanced by adopting fallow seasons. Compared with the fifth year of conventional cropping, the number of tillers per $m^2$ was increased by 158 when barley cultivation was paused for an year in soybean-barley cropping. When soybean and barley were cultivated continuously or complete fallow period was extended to three years, plant height and the number of tillers of barley were decreased. Yield components of barley in soybean-barley cropping were superior to those in rice-barley cropping. Compared with the fifth year of conventional cropping and soybean-barley cropping, culm length of barley was 1.3~2.3 cm higher and the number of tillers per $m^2$ was 36~90 higher when barley cultivation was paused for one or two years. However, those in continuous cropping of soybean-barley and 3-year-fallow land were lower compared with conventional cropping. Similarly, yield was increased when barley cultivation was paused for one or two years in the third, forth, and fifth years when compared with conventional cropping.

Estimating Soil Losses from Saemangeum Watershed based on Cropping Systems (작부체계를 고려한 새만금유역의 토양유실량 추정)

  • Lee, Eun-Jeong;Cho, Young-Kyoung;Park, Seung-Woo;Kim, Hak-Kwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.101-112
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    • 2006
  • A Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed to estimate basin-wide soil losses using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). It was applied to estimate the annual average soil losses from the Saemangeum watershed. The USLE factors for each subarea of uniform land use and treatments were estimated from the GIS routines from digital topographic maps, land cover and detailed soil maps. A routine was developed to estimate the averaged cropping management factors (C) of USLE for multi-cropping farmlands, based on cropping system records from the district offices. The resulting C factors ranged from 0.28 to 0.35 for multi-cropping areas. The estimated annual average soil loss was approximately 2.9 million tonnes. Typical soil losses from different land uses were 0.8 t/ha at paddies, 33.7 t/ha at uplands and 1.1 t/ha from forested mountains. It was also found that 6.0% of the arable land of the watershed possessed high risks of soil losses, and conservation measures were needed to reduce soil losses.