• Title, Summary, Keyword: Crop residues

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Revision in the Codex Classification of Foods and Animal Feeds (2013)

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.48-51
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    • 2014
  • Since the year of 2006 when the extended revision of the Codex Classification of Foods and Animal Feeds was undertaken, considerable progresses have been made in revising the Classification. This paper aimed to summarize the present status on revision of the Codex Classification of Foods and Animal Feeds, focusing remarkable achievements such as 1) the draft revision of the Codex Classification for the fruit commodity group and 2) the draft Principles and Guidance on the Selection of Representative Commodities for the Extrapolation of Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides to Commodity Groups, adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2012. Additionally, it included information on lists of crop group or subgroup which are holding at Step 7 and were adopted at Step 5, and further have not been yet discussed by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. These information will be very helpful for a pesticide regulatory regime.

Crop Residues Management for Rice-Wheat Cropping System in Saline-Sodic Soil

  • Ahmed, Khalil;Qadir, Ghulam;Jami, Abdul-Rehman;Rafa, Hafeezullah;Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer;Han, Kyung-Hwa;Ibrahim, Muhammad
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.269-274
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    • 2014
  • Series of field experiments were conducted to evaluate the long term effect of gypsum and crop residue on crop yield and soil health in rice-wheat crop rotation system in salt affected soil. A saline-sodic field having $EC_e$ (electrical conductivity of the saturation extract) 4.77 ($dSm^{-1}$); pH ($H_2O$) 8.96; SAR 43.78 ($mmol\;L^{-1}$) and gypsum requirement (G.R.) 2.86 (Mg $acre^{-1}$) was selected on Soil Salinity Research Institute Farm. Five treatments consisting of ($T_1$) control, ($T_2$) gypsum at 100% G.R., ($T_3$) gypsum at 25% G.R. + wheat straw at $3Mg\;ha^{-1}$, ($T_4$) gypsum at 25% G.R. + rice straw at $3Mg\;ha^{-1}$, ($T_5$) gypsum at 25% G.R.+ rice and wheat straw at $3Mg\;ha^{-1}$ were replicated four times under completely randomized block design. The data indicated that grain and straw yield of rice and wheat was significantly (P<0.05) increased by all the amendments used either single or in combination. $T_2$ (gypsum at 100% G.R.) significantly (P<0.05) increased grain and straw yield of rice and wheat crops followed by $T_3$ (gypsum at 25% G.R. + wheat straw at $3Mg\;ha^{-1}$) when compared with control. Soil properties were also improved by used amendments, pronounced decreased in $EC_e$, $pH_s$ and SAR were recorded in $T_2$ followed by $T_3$. The efficiency of the treatments could be arranged in following order gypsum at 100% G.R.> gypsum at 25% G.R. + wheat straw at $3Mg\;ha^{-1}$ > gypsum at 25% G.R. + rice and wheat straw at $3Mg\;ha^{-1}$ > gypsum at 25% G.R. + rice straw at $3Mg\;ha^{-1}$ > control.

The Evaluation of Allelopathic Potential Barley and Sorghum Residues on Germination and Early Growth of Some Weeds (보리, 수수의 식물체 추출물이 잡초의 발아와 초기생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu, Chang-Yeon;Chung, Ill-Min
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.67-71
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was conducted to test the allelopatic activity on germination and early seedling growth of weed species by barley and sorghum plants residues. The fresh barley extraction inhibited the germination and early seedling growth of weeds, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sataria viridis, and P. oleracea. As the extract concentration increased, the germination and early seedling growth of weeds was significantly inhibited. The water extraction of dried barley and sorghum residues also ehibited the strong inhibition effect on germination and Barley seedling growth of weeds. Digitaria sanguinalis, Siegesbechia pubescens, Sectaria viridis, P. oleracea, E. crus-galli. In the dried barley and sorghum residues mixture into the vermiculite, as the dried residue concentration ncreased, emergence percentage, length of shoot and root of weeds, D. saguinalis, S. viridis, S. pubescens, Ammaranthus lividus, and Solanum nigrum, was significantly inhibited. More than 10% concentration of dired residue caused 80% emergence percentage and growth inhibition. From this study, we conclude that barley and sorghym weeds. These results suggest that barley and sorghum has some possibility to control some weed species like natural herbicide.

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Development of Analytical Method for Fenoxycarb, Pyriproxyfen and Methoprene Residues in Agricultural Commodities Using HPLC-UVD/MS (HPLC-UVD/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen 및 methoprene의 분석법 확립)

  • Lee, Su-Jin;Kim, Young-Hak;Song, Lee-Seul;Hwang, Yong-Sun;Lim, Jung-Dae;Sohn, Eun-Hwa;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Do, Jung-Ah;Oh, Jae-Ho;Kwon, Ki-Sung;Lee, Joong-Keun;Lee, Young-Deuk;Choung, Myoung-Gun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.254-268
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    • 2011
  • Fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen and methoprene are juvenile hormone mimic insecticide. These insecticides have been widely used for mosquito, fly, scale insects, and Lepidoptera. The purpose of this study was to develop a simultaneous determination procedure of fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen and methoprene residues in crops using HPLC-UVD/MS. These insecticide residues were extracted with acetone from representative samples of four raw products which comprised brown rice, apple, green pepper, and Chinese cabbage. The extract was diluted with saline water, and then n-hexane/dichloromethane partition was followed to recover these insecticides from the aqueous phase. Florisil column chromatography was additionally employed for final clean up of the extract. The analytes were quantitated by HPLC-UVD/MS, using a $C_{18}$ column. The crops were fortified with each insecticide at 3 levels per crop. Mean recovery ratios were ranged from 80.0 to 104.3% in four representative agricultural commodities. The coefficients of variation were less than 4.8%. Quantitative limit of fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen, and methoprene was 0.04 mg/kg in crop samples. A HPLC-UVD/MS with selected-ion monitoring was also provided to confirm the suspected residues. The proposed simultaneous analysis method was reproducible and sensitive enough to determine the residues of fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen and methoprene in the agricultural commodities.

Impacts of Different Pentachloronitrobenzene (quintozene) Use Patterns on Severity of Damping-off of Ginseng (Panu quinquefolitrs)

  • Reeleder, R.D;Capell, B
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 2002
  • In replicated field trials, the efficacy of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB; quintozene) for control of damping-off of ginseng seedlings was found to be affected by timing of application and formulation. Application at the time of seeding and prior to placement of straw mulch was found to provide the moat consistent level of disease control. However, decline in plant stand during the four-year production cycle resulted in most treatments providing similar levels of plant populations at harvest. Soil residues of pentachloronitrobenzene were generally highest (1 $\mu\textrm{g}$ PCNB/g soil) in those treatments that exhibited the highest levels of disease control in the seedling year. Straw contained high levels of quintozene after application. Beet seed assays with artificially-infested soils indicated that current use rates provide an amount of product suitable for high levels of disease control.

Analysis of Lignans in Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits and Their Fermented Wine by HPLC

  • Kim, Hye-Min;Kim, Ju-Sun;Cho, Seon-Haeng;Kang, Sam-Sik;Cheoi, Dae-Sung;Lee, Sang-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.289-292
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    • 2006
  • High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of lignans, eleutherosides B and E, in Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits and their fermented wine. The lignans were quantified by a reversed-phase system using a gradient of $H_2O$ and acetonitrile as a mobile phase within 20 min. The analysis was successfully carried out within 20 min. The contents of eleutherosides Band E as main active principles of Acanthopanax species were measured in A. sessiliflorus fruits (1.15 and $8.49\;{\mu}g/mg$, respectively), their fermented wine (0.45 and $1.33\;{\mu}g/mg$, respectively) and wine residues (no detection).

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Type 2 Metallothionein cDNA from Codonopsis lanceolata (S. et Z.) Trautv

  • In, Jun-Gyo;Lee, Bum-Soo;Yi, Tae-Hoo;Yu, Chang-Yeon;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.288-292
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    • 2005
  • A class I type 2 metallothionein (CMet2) cDNA from taproot of Codonopsis lanceolata was isolated and characterized. A CMet2 cDNA was 572 nucleotides long and had an open reading frame of 234 bp with a deduced amino acid sequence of 78 residues (pI = 4.99). The deduced amino acid sequence of CMet2 matched to the previously reported type 2 metallothionein-like protein genes and showed 74% identity with that of G. max (BAD18377) and C. arietinum (CAA65009). Expression of CMet2 by the RT-PCR was increased at 1 hr after cadmium and hydrogen peroxide treatment, respectively.

Isolation and Characterization of Thioredoxin cDNA from Codonopsis lanceolata (S. et Z.) Trautv

  • In, Jun-Gyo;Lee, Bum-Soo;Rho, Yeong-Deok;Yu, Chang-Yeon;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.293-297
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    • 2005
  • A thoredoxin (CTRX) gene was cloned and characterized from a full length cDNA library prepared from taproot of three-year old Codonopsis lanceolata. A CTRX was 666 nucleotides long and has an open reading frame of 372 bp with 124 amino acid residues (pI = 4.92). The deduced amino acid sequence of the CTRX matched to the previously reported plant thioredoxin h genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of CTRX exhibited the similarity of 33-67% among previously registered thioredoxin genes. The expression of CTRX in leaves of Codonopsis lanceolata was increased by wounding and 1 mM $H_2O_2$, but decreased by 0.1 mM cadmium.

Anaerobic Digestion of Agricultural Wastes and 1ts Benefits (농산폐기물(農産廢棄物)의 메탄발효(醱酵)와 그 이점(利點))

  • Park, Young-Dae
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.27
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    • pp.3-17
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    • 1984
  • Anaerobic digestion has recently attracted all over the world and Korea also shows no exception. The major benefits of anaerobic digestion are energy production, water pollution control, pathogen reduction and effective manure production. In Korea it was recognized in late sixties that there was a positive need to find alternative energy for farmers household. The main traditional energy sources in rural area were crop residues and forestry products. Therefore Office of Rural Development through its Rural Guidance Bureau disseminated about 29,000 household biogas units from 1969 to 1975 to provide cooking fuel for farmers household and to improve the mode of farmers living standards. The units were welcomed by farmers at that time. Now, however, most of them are not using due to a number of reasons associated with cold winter and some techno-economical problems (in those day, fossil fuel was quite expensive to compare with other prices and since then farmers income was quickly increased). The author studied on bag type household biogas plant to solve some technical problems of existing household biogas plants, but this also has little appeal for the farmers. From 1977 author studied on village scale biogas plant with two pilot plants. From the viewpoint of energy production, COD removal, kill rate of pathogen and fertilizer value, the results obtained from the experiments were quite promising, but the construction cost of the village scale biogas plant was too high for the farmers in Korea. To find most suitable biogas plant for farmers in Korea through the simplifying the biogas digester, the author developed batch-load biogas plant. By feeding coarse crop residues and manures, total solids concentrations of the batch-load biogas plant are about 28 percent which is much higher than continous digester of 5-8 percent. The batch-load biogas plant was welcomed by many farmers in Korea when it was reported on TV and newspapers. The plant was disseminated 154 units in 1982, 766 units in 1983 and 812 units in 1984 as a promissing project. Besides these biogas plant experiments, studies were also conducted 1) to determine gas production rate with agricultural wastes, 2) to evaluate the effect of loading rate, dilution, retention time on biogas production, 3) to project the amount of potencial energy from agricultural wastes.

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