• Title, Summary, Keyword: Crop residues

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Strategies for Increasing Biomass Energy Utilization in Rural Areas - Focusing on heating for greenhouse cultivation - (농촌지역 바이오매스 에너지 보급 활성화 전략 - 시설재배 난방을 중심으로 -)

  • Hong, Seong Gu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.9-20
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    • 2015
  • The demand of renewable energy is expected to grow in the long run in spite of current stable lower oil prices. Energy consumption for heating in horticulture greenhouse is large and affects the profits of the farms. This study analyzed the availability of biomass in rural area and proposed the strategies for utilizing the biomass for greenhouse heating. Data reveal the annual average fuel consumption in greenhouses is about 78 TOE/ha. Considering biomass resource in rural areas, agricultural residues are not sufficient to meet the biomass demand from greenhouses. Therefore it is recommended to secure further biomass including wild herbaceous biomass and woody biomass from forest. Based on the conditions of biomass gasification equipment investment and fuel prices, maximum allowable price of biomass turned out about 100,000 KRW/t to be competitive to kerosine. Biomass supply chain should be established for facilitating biomass trading between biomass consumers and biomass producers such as farmers who provide crop residues. An online trading system is an example of the system where consumers who utilize biomass make payments to suppliers and get the information about the biomass. Intermediate collection storages are required to store biomass from distributed sources. Operation of biomass heating systems in demonstration greenhouses is necessary to get information to refine and further develop commercial biomass heating systems. Relatively large greenhouses are desirable to have biomass heating systems for economic viability. The location of the greenhouse farms should be selected within the area where enough biomass resources are available for feeding the biomass facility.

Influence of carbonized crop residue on soil carbon storage in red pepper field

  • Lee, Jae-Ho;Eom, Ji-Young;Jeong, Seok-hee;Hong, Seung-Bum;Park, Eun-Jin;Lee, Jae-Seok
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.12
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    • pp.336-344
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    • 2017
  • Background: Because of climate change, interest in the development of carbon pools has increased. In agricultural ecosystems, which can be more intensively managed than forests, measures to control carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) emission and absorption levels can be applied relatively easily. However, crop residues may be released into the atmosphere by decomposition or combustion. If we can develop scientific management techniques that enable these residues to be stocked on farmland, then it would be possible to convert farmlands from carbon emission sources to carbon pools. We analyzed and investigated soil respiration (Rs) rate characteristics according to input of carbonized residue of red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), a widely grown crop in Korea, as a technique for increasing farmland carbon stock. Results: Rs rate in the carbonized biomass (CB) section was $226.7mg\;CO_2\;m^{-2}h^{-1}$, which was 18.1% lower than the $276.9mg\;CO_2\;m^{-2}h^{-1}$ from the red pepper residue biomass (RB) section. The Rs rate of the control was $184.1mg\;CO_2\;m^{-2}h^{-1}$. In the following year, Rs in the CB section was $204.0mg\;CO_2\;m{-2}h^{-1}$, which was 38.2% lower than the $330.1mg\;CO_2\;m^{-2}h^{-1}$ from the RB section; the control emitted $198.6mg\;CO_2\;m^{-2}h^{-1}$. Correlation between Rs and soil temperature ((Ts) at a depth of 5 cm) was $R^2=0.51$ in the RB section, which was higher than the other experimental sections. A comparison of annual decomposition rates between RB and CB showed a large difference, 41.4 and 9.7%, respectively. The results showed that carbonization of red pepper residues reduced the rates of decomposition and Rs. Conclusions: The present study confirmed that the Rs rate can be reduced by carbonization of residue biomass and putting it in the soil and that the Rs rate and Ts (5 cm) were positively correlated. Based on the results, it was determined that approximately $1.2t\;C\;ha^{-1}$ were sequestered in the soil in the first year and $3.0t\;C\;ha^{-1}$ were stored the following year. Therefore, approximately $1.5t\;C\;ha^{-1}year^{-1}$ are expected to be stocked in the soil, making it possible to develop farmlands into carbon pools.

Determination of Methoxyfenozide, Chromafenozide and Tebufenozide Residues in Agricultural Commodities Using HPLC-UVD/MS (HPLC-UVD/MS를 이용한 작물 중 methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide 및 tebufenozide의 분석법 확립)

  • Lee, Su-Jin;Kim, Young-Hak;Hwang, Young-Sun;Kwon, Chan-Hyeok;Do, Jeong-A;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Lee, Young-Deuk;Choung, Myoung-Gun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.37-48
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    • 2010
  • The diacylhydrazine insecticides, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide and tebufenozide are new-generation insecticides. These insecticides induce premature molting and cause the death of insects by mimicking their hormone. Also, these insecticides have already been widely used for vegetables planting in worldwide. Highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the most widely used procedure for determination of each compound residues in crops. However, simultaneous analysis method of these diacylhydrazine insecticides was not reported. The purpose of this study is to develop a simultaneous determination procedure of methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide and tebufenozide residue in crops using HPLC-UVD/MS method. These insecticide residues were extracted with acetone from representative samples of five raw products which comprised hulled rice, soybean, apple, pepper, and Chinese cabbage. The extract was diluted with saline water, and dichloromethane partition was followed to recover these insecticides from the aqueous phase. Florisil column chromatography was additionally employed for final cleanup of the extracts. The analytes were quantitated by HPLCUVD/MS, using a $C_{18}$ column. The crops were fortified with each insecticide at two levels per crop. Mean recoveries ranged from 89.0 to 104.8% in five representative agricultural commodities. The coefficients of variation were less than 3.9%. Quantitative limits of methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide and tebufenozide were 0.04 mg/kg in crop samples. A HPLC-UVD/MS with selected-ion monitoring was also provided to confirm the suspected residues. The proposed simultaneous analysis method was reproducible and sensitive enough to determine the residues of methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide and tebufenozide in agricultural commodities.

Modeling and Forecasting Livestock Feed Resources in India Using Climate Variables

  • Suresh, K.P.;Kiran, G. Ravi;Giridhar, K.;Sampath, K.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.462-470
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    • 2012
  • The availability and efficient use of the feed resources in India are the primary drivers to maximize productivity of Indian livestock. Feed security is vital to the livestock management, extent of use, conservation and productivity enhancement. Assessment and forecasting of livestock feed resources are most important for effective planning and policy making. In the present study, 40 years of data on crop production, land use pattern, rainfall, its deviation from normal, area under crop and yield of crop were collected and modeled to forecast the likely production of feed resources for the next 20 years. The higher order auto-regressive (AR) models were used to develop efficient forecasting models. Use of climatic variables (actual rainfall and its deviation from normal) in combination with non-climatic factors like area under each crop, yield of crop, lag period etc., increased the efficiency of forecasting models. From the best fitting models, the current total dry matter (DM) availability in India was estimated to be 510.6 million tonnes (mt) comprising of 47.2 mt from concentrates, 319.6 mt from crop residues and 143.8 mt from greens. The availability of DM from dry fodder, green fodder and concentrates is forecasted at 409.4, 135.6 and 61.2 mt, respectively, for 2030.

Honeybee Acute and Residual Toxicity of Pesticides Registered for Strawberry (딸기용 농약의 꿀벌에 대한 급성독성 및 엽상잔류독성)

  • Kim, Byung-Seok;Park, Yoen-Ki;Lee, Yong-Hoon;Joeng, Mi-Hye;You, Are-Sun;Yang, Yu-Jung;Kim, Jin-Bae;Kwon, Oh-Kyung;Ahn, Young-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2008
  • Lack of honey bee toxicity data for most pesticide products used for strawberry restricts to predict the adverse effects to foraging honey bee after treatment of pesticide in plastic house. This study was conducted to evaluate the actual risk of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) through acute contact toxicity test, acute oral toxicity test and toxicity of residues on foliage test with 21 pesticide products. The mortality of honeybee sprayed with 6 pesticides including dichlofluanid WP showed significantly different from control at recommended application rate in acute contact toxicity test at 24 hours after treatment. Fenpropathrin EC and milbemectin EC treatment groups showed more than 25% mortalities at recommended application rate in acute oral toxicity test. In toxicity of residues on foliage test, only fenpropathrin EC treatment group showed more than 25% mortalities at 10 days after treatment at recommended application rate. It was concluded that the most toxic route to exposure for honey bee is direct contact exposure to sprayed pesticides. Safety interval for honey bee was established by concerning the results of these tests.

Problems in the Dietary Exposure Assessment of Pesticide Residues (식품중 잔류농약에 의한 인체피폭 평가에서의 문제점)

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.255-263
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    • 1993
  • The demand of safety assessment for pesticide residues in foods is growing in Korea. In order to assess the actual dietary exposure toward pesticide residues, the problems in utilization of pesticide residue data were reviewed and optimization of food factors applicable to Korean population was conducted. The problems and current status in setting pesticide residue tolerance-domestic and foreign-in foods were also argued. The conclusion is summarized as follows: (1) Anticipated residue estimates(ARE) calculated from field trial residue data, the percentage of crop treated, and the effects of cooking or processing should be utilized for dietary exposure assessment in a real sense. (2) Average daily intake of total foods per person in Korea was 1,104g in 1970's and 1,240g in 1980's. Much variation was observed between the two decades by food commodities. (3) Pesticide residue tolerances in Korea have been established at relatively lower levels in comparison with FAO/WHO or western countries. More extensive studies and data accumulation as related to tolerance setting are called for in future for the sake of health protection and smooth interstate trade.

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Environment-Friendly Cultural and Mechanical Practices for Weed Management (잡초처리(雜草處理)를 위한 환경친화적(環境親和的) 재배기술(栽培技術))

  • Pyon, J.Y.;Guh, J.D.;Ku, Y.C.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.124-134
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    • 1997
  • As control of plant diseases, insects and weeds were heavily relied on pesticides, residues of pesticides in environment and food supply were recently focused by environmentalists and consumer groups. The reduction of pesticide use was implemented in Sweden, Denmark, Netherland, England, and United States. Therefore, it is very important to discuss environmentally sound systems of weed management including cultural, mechanical, and integrated weed control. Mechanical methods using tillage, cultivation, mulching, burning, mowing, solarization, and UHF are used as one of most effective environmentally sound weed management systems. Cultural practices favoring the crops are excellent weed management measures. Correct seedbed preparation for the soil and cultural system, and use competitive cultivars contribute to weed management. Increasing crop density by higher seeding rate or by narrowing row width and careful attention to optimum fertility to produce vigorous crop plants increase competitiveness of crops against weeds. Crop rotation breaks life cycles of weeds by alternating the crop it must associate with. Herbicides are efficient and profitable to control weeds, but must be part of a total weed management program with use of minimum rate. The best weed management will be an integrated approach including two or more methods to manage weed problems.

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Isolation and characterization of Bradh1 gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa)

  • Abdula, Sailila E.;Lee, Hye-Jung;Melgar, Reneeliza J.;Sun, Mingmao;Kang, Kwon-Kyoo;Cho, Yong-Gu
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2011
  • Alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C.1.1.1.1) is an enzyme present in higher plants involved in the anaerobic fermentation pathway that catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate to ethanol, resulting in continuous $NAD^+$ regeneration. It also plays an important role in many plant developments including tolerance to anoxia condition. Here, a cDNA clone encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) seedlings. The gene named Bradh1 had a total length of 1,326 bp that contains a single open reading frame of 1,140 bp. The predicted protein consists of 379 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 41.17 kDa. Expression pattern analysis revealed a tissue-specific expressing gene in different tissues and strongly expressed in the shoot, roots and seeds of Chinese cabbage. Agrobacterium transformation of full-length cDNA Bradh1 into rice Gopumbyeo showed high efficiency. Furthermore, induction of ADH in transgenic rice enhanced tolerance to anaerobiosis stresses and elevated mRNA transcripts. The overexpression of Bradh1 in rice increases germination under anaerobiosis stresses, implying the possibility of developing new varieties suited for direct seeding or flood-prone rice field.

Risk Assessment of Fipronil on Honeybee (Apis mellifera) (Fipronil의 꿀벌 (Apis mellifera)에 대한 위해성 평가)

  • Kim, Byung-Seok;Yang, Yu-Jung;Park, Yeon-Ki;Jeong, Mi-Hye;You, Are-Sun;Park, Kyung-Hun;Ahn, Young-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the actual risk of fipronil on worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) through acute contact toxicity test, acute oral toxicity test, toxicity of residues on foliage test, and small scale field test. The $48h-LD_{50s}$ of fipronil SC on honeybee were $0.005{\mu}g$ a.i./bee in acute contact toxicity test and $0.004{\mu}g$ a.i./bee in acute oral toxicity test, respectively. In toxicity of residues on foliage test, fipronil showed over 90% of mortality during 28days after treatment at recommended application rate. The $DT_{50}$ of dislodgeable foliar residue was 9 days. Finally, In small scale field test, fipronil showed similar toxicity in the residues on foliage test. It was concluded that fipronil has very high acute toxicity and long residual toxicity to honeybee. Therefore, fipronil is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees are visiting the treatment area. To protect honeybee and wild pollinators from outdoor use of fipronil, ultimately it should need to limit for only indoor use to prevent pollinators from unintentionally exposure of fipronil.

DEVELOPMENT OF UREA MOLASSES BLOCK AND ITS FIELD APPLICATION IN INDIA (A REVIEW)

  • Kunju, P.J. George
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 1988
  • The base of Indian milk production is the millions of nondescript cows and buffaloes in rural areas, fed mainly on crop residues and agro-industrial wastes. The mainstay of the feeding system is straws and stovers. Therefore the approach to increase the fibrous residues utilisation for animal production was ideal and useful. The methods available for the above purpose were not found acceptable in rural areas owing to certain practical problems. The development of urea molasses block was, therefore aimed at solving the practical field problems. Urea Molasses Block has been developed as a feed supplement that can bring forth an effect of rumen manipulation thereby increase the conversion rate of feeds. The formula and process technology were thus developed. Before starting the mass production and popularisation the product was tested in controlled condition in farms and also in villages. Encouraged with the results the feed is now commercially manufactured under Indian Patent No. 156047.