• Title, Summary, Keyword: Crop residues

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Effect of the Application of Carbonized Biomass from Crop Residues on Soil Organic Carbon Retention

  • Lee, Sun-Il;Park, Woo-Kyun;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Shin, Joung-Du
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.486-490
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of carbonized biomass from crop residues on soil carbon storage during soybean cultivation. The carbonized biomass was made by field scale mobile pyrolyzer. The treatments consisted of control without input and three levels of carbonized biomass inputs as $59.5kg10a^{-1}$, C-1 ; $119kg10a^{-1}$, C-2 ; $238kg10a^{-1}$, C-3. Soil samples were collected during the 113 days of experimental periods, and analyzed soil pH and moisture contents. Soil carbon contents and soybean yield were measured at harvesting period. For the experimental results, soil pH ranged from 6.8 to 7.5, and then increased with increasing carbonized material input. Soil moisture contents were slightly higher by 0.1~1.5% than the control, but consistent pattern was not observed among the treatments. Soil carbon and organic carbon contents in the treatments increased at 24 and 15% relative to the control at 15 days after sowing, respectively. Loss rate of SOC (soil organic carbon) relative to its initial content was 7.2% in control followed by C-1, 6.8%> C-2, 3.5%>C-3, 1.1% during the experimental periods. The SOC change rate decreased with increasing carbonized biomass rate. It was appeared that soybean yields were $476.9kg10a^{-1}$ in the control, and ranged from 453.6 to $527.3kg10a^{-1}$ in the treatments. However, significant difference was not found among the treatments. It might be considered that the experimental results will be applied to soil carbon sequestration for future study.

Allelopathic Influence of Alfalfa and Vetch Extracts and Residues on Soybean and Corn (알팔파와 베치의 추출물 및 잔유물의 콩과 옥수수에 대한 타감작용)

  • Ki-June Kim;III-Min Chung;Kwang-Ho Kim;Joung-Kuk Ahn
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.295-305
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    • 1994
  • Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the allelopathic potential of alfalfa and vetch residues on soybean and corn using various extract concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, w/v) and residue rates (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%, w/w). Aqueous extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and vetch (Vicia spp.) exhibited an allelopathic effect on soybean and corn seed germination, seedling length and weight. The degree of inhibition significantly increased as the aqueous extract concentration increased. Alfalfa and vetch 20% extracts reduced soybean seed germination, seedling length and weight by 35%, 57%, 32% and 15%, 42%, 25% respectively, when compared to control. Corn germination, seedling length and weight was inhibited by 20%, 23%, 38% by alfalfa and 19%, 18%, 35% by 20% vetch extracts. Alfalfa and vetch extracts inhibited secondary root formation and branching as the extract concentration increased. Alfalfa and vetch 20% extracts inhibited by 41% and 32% secondary root numbers, respectively as compared to control. It was found that the aqueous extract of alfalfa resulted in greater reduction in germination, seedling length and weight of soybean than that of vetch. Alfalfa and vetch 1% residue rate inhibited soybean plant height by 30% and 10%, leaf area by 31% and 23%, and dry weight by 18% and 1%, nodule number by 27% and 20% also. Alfalfa and vetch residue significantly enhanced plant height, leaf area and dry weight of corn. The maximum stimulation occurred with 0.25% and 1% of alfalfa and vetch residue rates, respectively. Plant height, leaf area, and dry weight increased by 23%, 59%, 58% and 17%, 52%, 94% with alfalfa and vetch residues of 0.25% and 1%, respectively. This study demonstrates that there is an allelopathic potential resulting from alfalfa and vetch residues on soybean growth and yield. It also suggests that these residues may affect crop growth and development due to the inhibitory or stimulatory effects of allelochemicals existing in the residue.

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High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Phenothrin and Silafluofen Residues in Crops with Mass Spectrometric Confirmation (고성능 액체크로마토그래피와 질량분석법을 이용한 농산물 중 Phenothrin 및 Silafuofen의 정밀 잔류분석법 개발)

  • Lee, Young-Deuk;Oh, Jae-Ho;Jang, Sang-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.389-400
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    • 2011
  • A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to determine residues of phenothrin and silafluofen, known as synthetic pyrethroids, in agricultural commodities. Insecticide residues were extracted with acetone from representative samples of four crops which comprised rice, apple, pepper and cabbage. The extract was purified serially by liquid-liquid partition and Florisil column chromatography. For rice and pepper samples, acetonitrile/n-hexane partition was additionally adopted to remove nonpolar interferences. Reversed phase HPLC using an octadecylsilyl column was successfully applied to separate two phenothrin isomers and silafluofen from sample co-extractives. Intact parent compounds were sensitively detected by ultraviolet absorption at 226 nm. Recovery experiment at the quantitation limit validated that the proposed method could apparently determine phenothrin and silafluofen residues at 0.02 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Mean recoveries of phenothrin and silafluofen from four crop samples fortified at three levels in triplicate were in the range of 82.4~109.8% and 83.7~109.8%, respectively. Relative standard deviations of the analytical method were all less than 10%, irrespective of crop types and spiking levels. A selected-ion monitoring (SIM) LC/mass spectrometry (MS) with electrospray ionization was provided to confirm the suspected residue of phenothrin, even though no sufficient ionization of silafluofen was obtained. Both phenothrin and silafluofen could be successfully confirmed by gas chromatography/MS SIM with electron impact at 70 eV. The proposed method is sensitive, repeatable and rapid enough to apply to officially routine inspection of agricultural products.

Predicting Methane Production on Anaerobic Digestion to Crop Residues and Biomass Loading Rates (혐기 소화 시 식물체 잔사 및 투입량에 따른 메탄 생산량 예측)

  • Shin, JoungDu;Hong, Seung-Gil;Park, SangWon;Kim, HyunWook
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2016
  • Objective of this experiment was to predict the potential methane production with crop residues at different loading rates. Anaerobic digestion of barley and rapeseed straw substrates for biogas production was performed in Duran bottles at various biomass loading rates with crop residues. Through kinetic model of surface methodology, the methane production was fitted to a Gompertz equation. For the biogas production at mesophilic digestion with crop residues, it was observed that maximum yield was 37.2 and 28.0 mL/g at 6.8 and 7.5 days after digestion with 1% biomass loading rates of barley and rapeseed straws, respectively. For the methane content of mesophilic digestion, there were highest at 61.7% after 5.5 days and 75.0% after 3.4 days of digestion with barley and rapeseed straw on both 5% biomass loading rates, respectively. The maximum methane production potentials were 159.59 mL/g for 1% barley straw and 156.62 mL/g for 3% rapeseed straw at mesophilic digestion. Overall, it would be strongly recommended that biomass loading rate was an optimum rate at mesophilic digestion for using 1% barley and 3% rapeseed straws for feed stocks.

Cropping Systems for Vegetable Peanut and Environmental Effect of Residue Incorporation in Soil (풋땅콩 작부체계와 수확 후 잔존 유기물의 친환경적 효과)

  • 김정태;배석복;박향미;윤을수;김민태;최진용
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.452-459
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    • 2003
  • A new demand for vegetable peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Korea has increased farmers interest in growing vegetable peanut. Compared to grain peanut production, vegetable peanut production enables the growth period to be shortened by 20 or 30 days and farmers to adopt various cropping systems and to return crop residues in the soil. With the purpose of establishing desirable cropping systems for sustainable vegetable peanut production, three field experiments were conducted from 2000 to 2001 at Milyang, the southeastern part of Korea. Main focuses were given into the effect of cropping systems for vegetable peanut production on each crop's yield and soil sustainability. The cropping systems investigated were single vegetable peanut, peanut-radish-green barley, peanut-barley, and peanut-garlic cropping system, with or without crop residue incorporation in the soil. Among the cropping systems investigated for sustainable vegetable peanut production, peanut-only and peanut-radish-green barley cropping systems showed vulnerable to diseases and lodging while peanut-barley and peanut-garlic cropping systems showed higher stability in response to diseases and lodging, consequently leading to higher yield potential of vegetable peanut production. In the peanut-barley cropping system, both barley and peanut residues returned to the soil played an important role in soil improvement as well as in significantly increased grain yield of peanut and barley. A particular notice was taken to the pronounced increase in Trichoderma population and the amount of nitrogen mineralization induced by the returned barley residue. Soil structure, compactness, pH, and fertility were positively influenced by the returned crop residues, which apparently increased sustainability in vegetable peanut production systems.

A Comparison of Legume Residues as a Nitrogen Source for Silage Corn (콩과목초 잔주의 사일리지용 옥수수에 대한 질소 공급효과)

  • 김동암;김종덕;이광녕;신동은;정재록;김원호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.293-304
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    • 1997
  • A field experiment was conducted at the forage experimental plots, Seoul National University, Suweon h m 1995 to 1996 to determine the effect of legume residues as a N source and N fertilizer on corn (Zea mays L.) silage yield, N uptake, and availability of inorganic N in the soil. Corn was grown following (i) red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), (ii) crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), (iii) alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and (iv) winter fallow. The plots were split into two rates of fertilizer N (0 and 90kg Nlha) in a split-plot experimental plan. Compared with fallow treatment, legumes depleted soil water in the surface 15cm at corn planting by 17 to 26%. As a result, corn emergence was markedly delayed with legume residues by 8 to 11 days. Corn silage DM yield was significantly reduced in the presence of legume residues by 2.0 to 3.4 and 1.5 to 2.5 tonlha compared with winter fallow treatment at 0 and 90kg fertilizer Nlha, respectively, but no significant difference in the corn DM yield was found between legume residue treatments. There was an overall tendency for increased corn yields with 90kg fertilizer Nlha compared to Okg fertilizer Nlha, although not all yield increases were significantly greater. The corn yield response to applied N suggests that a source of N from legume residues was not sufficient for a succeeding corn crop. There was significantly more N (P

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Procedures in Establishing Residue Limits of Pesticides on Food Crops in Codex Alimentarius Commission and Foreign Countries (국제기구 및 외국에서 농산물중 농약잔류 허용기준의 설정절차)

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung;Hong, Moo-Gi;Park, Kun-Sang;Choi, Dong-Mi;Lim, Moo-Hyuk;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2005
  • This study was undertaken to find out necessary measures to improve the tolerance setting system of pesticide residues on food crops in Korea which is scientifically reasonable and harmonizable with international standards. Information on tolerance setting systems of pesticide residues by Codex Alimentarius Commission, Joint FAO/WHO Meeting of Experts on Pesticide Residues, USA, EU, Japan and Taiwan was collected and analyzed. On the basis of information in the above countries, necessary actions to be taken by the Korean regulatory authorities were recommended with respect to priority setting, maximum residue limits (MRLs) setting based on field residue data, group MRLs, minor crop problems, quantitation limit and dietary intake assessment.

Residual Dissipation based on Crop Commodities Classification of Boscalid and Spinetoram on Crown Daisy and Sweet Pepper under Green Houses (시설재배 쑥갓 및 피망의 작물특성에 따른 Boscalid 및 Spinetoram의 잔류량 감소추이)

  • Hwang, Eun-Jin;Park, Jung-Eun;Do, Jung-Ah;Chung, Hyung-Wook;Chang, Hee-Ra
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.184-192
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND: This study was performed to evaluate the residue dissipation of boscalid and spinetoram on crown daisy and sweet pepper affected by the morphology of the crop. The half-lives and dissipation rate constants for boscalid and spinetoram on crown daisy and sweet pepper were calculated. And then lower limit of 95% confidence interval for dissipation rate constant could be used to propose the pre-harvest residue limit. METHODS AND RESULTS: The pesticide products diluted according to the pesticide label were applied one time on crown daisy and sweet pepper at 2 field sites, respectively. Initial concentration of boscalid and spinetoram on crown daisy after application were in the range of 72.80~117.15 mg/kg and 2.82~4.67 mg/kg, respectively. And Initial concentration of boscalid and spinetoram on sweet pepper were in the range of 1.58~1.62 mg/kg and 0.10~0.21 mg/kg, respectively. Boscalid and spinetoram for crown daisy dissipted below the maximum residue limit(MRL) at 10 and 2 days after application, respectively. All residues concentration of boscalid and spinetoram for sweet pepper below the MRL at 0 day after application. The half-lives based on dissipation rate constant for boscalid and spinetoram on crown daisy were 4.2~4.9 days and 3.0~2.4 days respectively. And the half-lives for boscalid and spinetoram on sweet pepper were 6.7~7.0 days and 2.8~4.0 days respectively. CONCLUSION: The difference in initial concentration of boscalid and spinetoram among crop commodities were due to different crop morphology with larger surface areas. This study was suggested that pre-harvest residue limit would be calculated from lower limit of 95% confidence interval for dissipation rate constant and would be useful to protect consumers by controlling the pesticide residues in crop.

Allelopathy and Quantification of Causative Allelochemicals in Sweet Potato

  • Chon, Sang-Uk
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.402-406
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    • 2003
  • Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the allelopathic potentials of extracts or residues from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam). The extracts applied on filter paper in a Petri dish bioassay significantly inhibited root growth of alfalfa. Aqueous leachates at 40g dry tissue $\textrm{L}^{-1}$ (g $\textrm{L}^{-1}$) from leaves showed the highest inhibition against alfalfa, and followed by stems and roots. Alfalfa root growth was significantly inhibited by methanol extracts of the same plants as the concentration increased. The effect of residue incorporation into soil on seedling growth of com, soybean, barnyard grass and eclipta was examined in the greenhouse, and results showed that the leaf residues at 200g $\textrm{kg}^{-1}$ by plant parts inhibited shoot dry and root dry weights of test plants by 60-80%. By means of HPLC, causative allelopathic substances present in plant parts of sweet potato "Sinyulmi" were identified as coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. Total content of these compounds for leaves extracts were detected as the greatest amount in EtOAc fraction, especially trans-cinnamic acid was the greatest component. These results suggest that sweet potato plants have herbicidal potentials, and that their activities exhibit differently depending on plant parts.ant parts.

Construction of Modified Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac Genes for Transgenic Crop Through Multi Site-directed Mutagenesis

  • Xu, Hong Guang;Roh, Jong-Yul;Wang, Yong;Choi, Jae-Young;Shim, Hee-Jin;Liu, Qin;Tao, Xueying;Woo, Soo-Dong;Jin, Byung-Rae;Je, Yeon-Ho
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.199-204
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    • 2009
  • The newly cloned Bacillus thuringiensis cry1-5 gene showed high activity to both Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua, while cry1Ac only showed high activity against P. xylostella but low to S. exigua. Through the alignment of amino acid sequences between Cry1Ac and Cry1-5, we found 12 different residues in domain I (6 residues) and domain II (6 residues). In this study, the modified cry1Ac gene, which is constructed according to a crop-preferring codon usage, was used as a template to construct mutant B. thuringiensis cry1Ac genes based on cry1-5 gene through multi site-directed mutagenesis. Total 63 various mutant cry genes were obtained at 12 positions randomly. Among them, ten mutant cry genes, whose domain I was totally converted and domain II was randomly, were selected to express in baculovirus expression system as a polyhedrin fusion form. The recombinant proteins were 95 kDa in size and were stably activated as 65 kDa by trypsin. The expressed mutant Cry proteins were applied to bioassays against P. xylostella and S. exigua. All mutants showed high insecticidal activity both to P. xylostella and S. exigua similar to cry1-5. These results suggest that these mutant cry genes might be expected of desirable cry genes for introduction to transgenic crops.