• Title, Summary, Keyword: Crop residues

Search Result 221, Processing Time 0.041 seconds

EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF EIGHT CROP RESIDUES AND TWO FOREST GRASSES IN GOATS AND SHEEP

  • Reddy, M.R.;Reddy, G.V.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.295-301
    • /
    • 1992
  • Eight crop residues : 1, sorghum (Sorqhum bicolor) straw, 2, maize (Zea mays) straw, 3, cotton (Gossypium Sp.) straw, 4, sunflower (Helianthus Sp.) straw, 5, cotton (Gossypium Sp.) seed hulls, 6, groundnut (Archais hypogaea) hulls, 7, maize (Zea mays) cobs, 8, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) bagasse and two forest grasses 9, Heteropogan contortus dry grass and 10, Sehima nervosum dry grass were subjected to three physical processing 1, chopping (2-3 cm) 2, grinding (8 mm sieve) and 3, pelleting (10 mm die holes). The processed material was fed ad lib. Along with 250 g of concentrate mixture per head per day to 6 adult local goats and 16 adult Nellore rams in ten digestion experiments and finally assessed the nutritive value of the processed roughages by difference method. Grinding increased bulk density by 32.4 (cotton seed hulls, CSH) to 88.1% (Sehima dry grass) while pelleting of ground material increased bulk density by 53.9 (maize cobs) to 235.8% (maize straw). The average particle size ranged from $584.1/^U$ (sorghum straw) to $1467/^U$ (CSH). Modulus of uniformity ranged from 2:5:3 (sorghum straw) to 7:2:1 (CSH) while modulus of fineness ranged from 3.4 (sorghum straw) to 5.4 (CSH). Molasses absorbability was highest with cotton seed hulls and least with maize cobs. Pelleting increased DM intake of the residues except cotton seed hulls compared to grinding. Grinding of chopped material/unprocessed material increased DM intake on sorghum straw and cotton seed hulls. Sheep consumed more DM compared to goats on all the residues except sorghum and sunflower straws. Pelleting increased nutritive value of all the residues compared to grinding and chopping. However, no difference was observed in the nutritive value due to grinding and chopping. Goats performed better compared to sheep in utilizing the fibrous residues.

Characterization of Crop Residue-Derived Biochars Produced by Field Scale Biomass Pyrolyzer

  • Jung, Won-K.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.44 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-7
    • /
    • 2011
  • Application of biochar to soils is proposed as a significant, long-term, sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems. In addition to reducing emissions and increasing the sequestration of carbon, production of biochar and its application to soils will contribute improve soil quality and crop productivity. Objectives were i) to evaluate biochar productivity from crop residues using a low-cost field scale mobile pyrolyzer and ii) to evaluate characteristics of feedstocks and biochars from locally collected crop residues. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in a reactor operated at $400-500^{\circ}C$ for 3-4 hours using biomass samples of post-harvest residues of corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium spp.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Feedstocks differed, but average conversion to biochar was 23%. Carbon content of biomass feedstock and biochar samples were 445 g $kg^{-1}$ and 597 g $kg^{-1}$, respectively. Total carbon content of biochar samples was 34% higher than its feedstock samples. Significant increases were found in P, K, Ca, Mg, and micro-nutrients contents between feedstock and biochar samples. Biochar from corn stems and rice hulls can sequester by 60% and 49% of the initial carbon input into biochar respectively when biochar is incorporated into the soils. Pyrolysis conversion of corn and rice residues sequestered significant amounts of carbon as biochar which has further environmental and production benefits when applied to soils. Field experiment with crop residue biochar will be investigated the stability of biochars to show long-term carbon sequestration and environmental influences to the cropping systems.

effects of Previous Crop Residues on Growth and Yield of Corn for Silage (전작물의 잔주가 사일리지용 옥수수의 생장과 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 김원호;김동암
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.4
    • /
    • pp.299-306
    • /
    • 1996
  • This experiment was conducted from 1991 to 1993 at the forage experimental field, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, SNU, Suweon to investigate the effects of previous crop residues on growth and yield of succeeding corn(2ea mays L.) and also to determine the best double cropping system necessary to maximize the total dry matter yield of winter forage crops plus corn for silage. In this experiment, treatments consisted of no crop as a control, late maturing Kodiak rye(Seca1e cereale L.), Bamapoli forage rape(Brassica napus Subsp. oleifera L.), G-sprinter oats(Avem sativa L.), Chief crimson clover(Trifolium incarnatum L.), Jackson Italian ryegrass(lo1ium rnultiJlorum L.), Vantage vetch(Vicia sativa L.) and early maturing Koolgrazer rye(Seca1e cereale L.). Corn leaf number and silking date were not significantly affected by previous crop residues, but the leaf number of corn following Italian ryegrass was reduced by 1.9 relative to no previous crop. The plant height and LA1 were significantly reduced during early development when corn followed Italian ryegrass and late maturing Kodiak rye (p<0.05). The dry matter and estimated TDN yields of corn were significantly reduced when corn followed Italian ryegrass and late maturing Kodiak rye. The yield reductions for corn following Italian ryegrass, late maturing Kodiak rye and early maturing Koolgrazer rye, relative to com when no previous crops were planted, were 34, 17 and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the reduction in corn growth and yield in this experiment could be explained by an allelopathic effect resulting from the Italian ryegrass and rye residues. The highest total dry matter yield of 30,509kg/ha was obtained from an early maturing rye-corn double cropping sequence in combination among the eight cropping systems.

  • PDF

Residues of Diazinon in Growing Chinese cabbage: A study Under Greenhouse Conditions

  • Khay, Sathya;El-Aty, A.M. Abd;Lim, Kye-Taek;Shim, Jae-Han
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.174-179
    • /
    • 2006
  • Chinese cabbage, Braccica campestris has long been consumed as a staple food for Koreans in various forms of fresh, salted, and fermented Kimchi. Cultivation of the crop under greenhouse has become a general practices to fulfill its off-seasonal consumer's demand. However, agricultural practices of the crop have always accompanied with heavy applications of pesticides caused by severe outbreaks of diseases and pose under warm and humid circumferences. Since dissipation patterns of pesticide residues in/on the crop under greenhouse conditions ate quite different from those in the open-air, changes of diazinon, O,O-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl phosphornthioate, in/on the Chinese cabbage applied by foliar spraying under greenhouse were studied. Diazinon 34% EC was applied with dilution of recommended and double dose to the crop. The shoots of crop were harvested immediately after this application and at regular intervals over a 10-day. After sample preparations, the diazinon residue was analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (GC/ECD). Initially deposited amount of the chemical in/on the crop right after applications with recommended and double doses were 8.3 and 15.2 mg/kg, respectively. The residue levels after 10 days of application were 0.03 and 0.09 mg/kg with 1.3 and 1.5 days of half-life in/on the crop, respectively. In consequent 10 days of pre-harvest interval (PHI) for diazinon EC formulation in/on Chinese cabbage under greenhouse condition was fulfill maximum residue level set by Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA, 0.1 mg/kg).

Evaluation of Soil Loss According to Surface Covering and Tillage Methods in Corn Cultivation

  • Lee, Jeong-Tae;Lee, Gye-Jun;Ryu, Jong-Soo;Kim, Jeom-Soon;Han, Kyung-Hwa;Park, Seok-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.46 no.6
    • /
    • pp.510-518
    • /
    • 2013
  • Corn was mainly cultivated in slope land during summer season when heavy rain falls so that soil loss occurs severely. Especially, soil disturbance and exposure of topsoil by conventional tillage intensifies soil loss by heavy rain. The aim of this study was to develop surface covering and tillage methods for reducing soil loss in corn cultivation. The experiment was conducted in 17% sloped lysimeter with 8 treatments including strip tillage after surface covering with rye residue, strip tillage after residue covering of several crops and sod culture, black polyethylene film covering after conventional tillage and control. Amount of runoff water and eroded soil, and corn growth were investigated. Amounts of runoff water in all plots except black polyethylene plot ranged from 152 to 375 $m^3\;ha^{-1}$, accounting for 13~32% of 1,158 $m^3\;ha^{-1}$ in control. Amount of eroded soil decreased by 94 to 99% (3 to 89 kg $ha^{-1}$) in plots of strip tillage after covering with crop residues compared to control with 1,739 kg $ha^{-1}$. Corn yields in plots of strip tillage after covering with crop residues ranged from 6.0 to 6.9 Mg $ha^{-1}$, while that of control was 6.5 Mg $ha^{-1}$. The results suggest that strip tillage methods after surface covering with crop residues are very effective on soil conservation of slope land in corn cultivation.

Effect of the Application of Carbonized Biomass from Crop Residues on Soil Chemical Properties and Carbon Pools

  • Lee, Sun-Il;Park, Woo-Kyun;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Choi, Yong-Su
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.48 no.5
    • /
    • pp.549-555
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbonized biomass from crop residues on chemical properties of soil and soil carbon pools during soybean cultivation. The carbonized biomass was made by field scale mobile pyrolyzer. A pot experiment with soybean in sandy loam soil was conducted for 133 days in a greenhouse, by a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments consisted of four levels including the control without input and three levels of carbonized biomass inputs of $9.75Mg\;ha^{-1}$, C-1 ; $19.5Mg\;ha^{-1}$, C-2 ; $39Mg\;ha^{-1}$, C-3. Soil samples were collected and analyzed pH, EC, TC, TN, inorganic-N, available phosphorus and exchangeable cations of the soils. Soil pH, Total-N and available phosphorus contents correspondingly increased with increasing the carbonized material input. The contents of soil carbon pools were $19.04Mg\;C\;ha^{-1}$ for C-1, $26.19Mg\;C\;ha^{-1}$ for C-2, $33.62Mg\;C\;ha^{-1}$ for C-3 and $12.01Mg\;C\;ha^{-1}$ for the control at the end of experiment, respectively. Increased contents of soil carbon pools relative to the control were estimated at $7.03Mg\;C\;ha^{-1}$ for C-1, $14.18Mg\;C\;ha^{-1}$ for C-2 and $21.62Mg\;C\;ha^{-1}$ for C-3 at the end of experiment, respectively, indicating that the soil carbon pools were increased with increasing the input rate of the carbonized biomass. Consequently, it seems that the carbonized biomass derived from the agricultural byproducts such as crop residues could increase the soil carbon pools and that the experimental results will be applied to the future study of soil carbon sequestration.

Analysis of Growth Characteristics and Physiological Disorder of Korean Ginseng Affected by Application of Decomposing Plant Residues in Paddy-Converted Field (인삼 논재배 시 식물성 유기물 시용 수준에 따른 인삼 생육특성 및 생리장해 분석)

  • Jang, In Bae;Hyun, Dong Yun;Lee, Eung Ho;Park, Kee Choon;Yu, Jin;Park, Hong Woo;Lee, Sung Woo;Kim, Gi Hong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.140-146
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to investigate the difference of the content of soil chemical components and growth characteristics in six years old ginseng affected by application of decomposing plant residues in paddy-converted field. The results show that aerial parts of ginseng are no difference between press cake (PC) 200 kg/10a and control but subterranean parts of ginseng PC 200 kg/10a, especially quantity related root fresh weight and tap root diameter, are statically about 1.6 times heavier and about 1.2 times thicker than the ginseng control. Furthermore, the survival rate of PC 200 kg/10a is 67.1% rise significantly compare with the control 50.7%. But compared with the PC 200 kg/10a and the PC 400 kg/10a, ginseng root growth and survival rate of PC 400 kg/10a get worse and that increase physiological disorder occurrence rate than PC 200 kg/10a. Even though there are no significant differences between the ginseng of decomposing plant residues except press cake treatment and the ginseng of control in growth characteristics, it does tend to increase the survival rate and decrease the physiological disorder occurrence rate in most fertilizer treatment except for RSC 2 ton/10a, RSC 4 ton/10a and RH 4 kL/10a. Noted that EC is highly increased and exceeded 1.7 ds/m in RSC 2 ton/10a, RSC 4 ton/10a and RH 4kL/10a. It would be caused physiological disorder in many ways and affected ginseng growth characteristics, survival rate.

Herbicidal Activities and Crop Injury of Hairy Vetch Residues (헤어리벳치 잔류물이 제초활성 및 작물 약해에 미치는 영향)

  • Won, Ok-Jae;Uddin, Md Romij;Pyon, Jong-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
    • /
    • v.31 no.2
    • /
    • pp.175-182
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the growth inhibition of weeds and selectivity of crop species by hairy vetch residues. The growth of all the weed species was suppressed greater than 90% at the ratio 60 : 40 of hairy vetch residues and no weeds were emerged at 90 : 10 mixture in the greenhouse. It was noticed that broadleaf weed species were more suppressed compared to grass weed species. Growth of weeds was significantly reduced and the inhibition percent was increased with increasing application depths of hairy vetch mixture both in vinylhouse and in field conditions. Among the different application depths of hairy vetch mixture, 0.75 cm depth of application tended to inhibit more, but statistically no significant difference was observed between 0.5 cm and 0.75 cm application depth. The growth of weed species such as Galium spurium, Chenopodium album, Plantago asiatica, and Rumex japonicus was greatly suppressed in the vinylhouse and the growth of G. spurium, R. japonicus and Amaranthus retroflexus was suppressed significantly in the field condition. The growth inhibition of all the above mentioned sensitive weed species was approximately 80% at the application depth of 0.5 cm. Crop growth was not hampered by using the residues of hairy vetch. This study demonstrated that rotation crop residues of hairy vetch contained high allelopathic potential to different weed species without hampering the growth of crop species.

Determination of Captan, Folpet, Captafol and Chlorothalonil Residues in Agricultural Commodities using GC-ECD/MS (GC-ECD/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Captan, Folpet, Captafol 및 Chlorothalonil의 잔류분석법)

  • Lee, Su-Jin;Hwang, Young-Sun;Kim, Young-Hak;Kwon, Chan-Hyeok;Do, Jung-A;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Lee, Young-Deuk;Choung, Myoung-Gun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.29 no.2
    • /
    • pp.165-175
    • /
    • 2010
  • A gas chromatographic (GC) method was developed to determine residues of captan, folpet, captafol, and chlorothalonil, known as broad-spectrum protective fungicides for the official purpose. All the fungicide residues were extracted with acetone containing 3% phosphoric acid from representative samples of five agricultural products which comprised rice, soybean, apple, pepper, and cabbage. The extract was diluted with saline, and dichloromethane partition was followed to recover the fungicides from the aqueous phase. Florisil column chromatography was additionally employed for final cleanup of the extracts. The analytes were then determined by gas chromatography using a DB-1 capillary column with electron capture detection. Reproducibility in quantitation was largely enhanced by minimization of adsorption or thermal degradation of analytes during GLC analysis. Mean recoveries generated from each crop sample fortified at two levels in triplicate ranged from 89.0~113.7%. Relative standard deviations (RSD) were all less than 10%, irrespective sample types and fortification levels. As no interference was found in any samples, limit of quantitation (LOQ) was estimated to be 0.008 mg/kg for the analytes except showing higher sensitivity of 0.002 mg/kg for chlorothalonil. GC/Mass spectrometric method using selected-ion monitoring technique was also provided to confirm the suspected residues. The proposed method was reproducible and sensitive enough to determine the residues of captan, folpet, captafol, and chlorothalonil in agricultural commodities for routine analysis.

Effect of Organic Residue Incorporation on Salt Activity in Greenhouse Soil (시설재배지 토양에서 유기자재 투입이 염류활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Seul-Bi;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Hong, Chang-Oh;Kim, Sang-Yoon;Lee, Yong-Bok;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.28 no.4
    • /
    • pp.397-402
    • /
    • 2009
  • In Korea, salt stress is one of the major problems limiting crop production and eco-environmental quality in greenhouse soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of organic residues (Chinese milk vetch, maize stalk, rice straw, and rye straw) for reducing salt activity in greenhouse soil. Organic residues was incorporated with salt-accumulated soil (EC, 3.0 dS $m^{-1}$) at the rate of 5% (wt $wt^{-1}$) and the changes of electrical conductivity (EC) was determined weekly for 8 weeks under incubation condition at $30^{\circ}C$. The EC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and water soluble ions in soil was strongly affected by C/N ratio of organic residues. After 8 weeks incubation, the concentration of water soluble $NO_3{^-},\;Ca^{2+}$, and $Mg^{2+}$ was significantly decreased in organic residues having high C/N ratio (maize stalk, rice straw, and rye straw) incorporated soil compared to organic residues having lower C/N ratio (Chinese milk vetch) incorporated soil. The EC value in Chinese milk vetch incorporated soil was higher than control treatment. In contrast, maize stalk, rice straw, and rye straw amended soil was highly decreased the EC value compared to control and Chinese milk vetch applied soil after 4 weeks incubation. Our results indicated that incorporation of organic residues having high C/N ratio (>30) could reduce salt activity resulting from reducing concentration of water soluble ions.