• Title, Summary, Keyword: Crop residues

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Herbicidal Activity of Rotation Crop Residues on Weeds and Selectivity to Crops (윤작작물 잔류물의 제초활성 및 작물에 대한 선택성)

  • Uddin, Md. Romij;Pyon, Jong-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2010
  • Allelopathic activity of rotation crop residues to common weeds and selectivity of crops were studied for developing an alternative weed control strategy in upland organic farming. All rotation crop residues with various ratios suppressed weed growth, but the growth of crop species stimulated a little when those were grown with the mixture of rotation crop residues except a few crop species. Among the rotation crop residues used in this study hairy vetch was the most effective, followed by Chinese milkvetch, barley and rye in suppression of weed growth. The 90:10 (crop:soil, v/v) treatments incorporation rate of crop residues such as hairy vetch and Chinese milkvetch suppressed completely the growth of all weed species tested in this study. The effect of crop residues on suppression of weed growth reduced to 90% when the incorporation rates decreased to 60% [60:40 (crop:soil, v/v). It was noticed that broadleaf weed species were more susceptible to rotation crop residues than grass weed species. In the influence of crop residues on the crop growth, no growth inhibition was found in red pepper, lettuce and perllia at any incorporation rates, but tomato, cucumber and corn were slightly inhibited in a few cases at their highest incorporation levels. This study demonstrated that rotation crop residues especially hairy vetch and Chinese milkvetch have high herbicidal effects against weeds without inhibiting the growth of crop species.

Nutritional Evaluation of Some Tropical Crop Residues: In Vitro Organic Matter, Neutral Detergent Fibre, True Dry Matter Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Using the Hohenheim Gas Test

  • Aregheore, E.M.;Ikhatua, U.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.747-751
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    • 1999
  • The Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to assess the nutritional value of some crop residues of known in vivo digestibility. The crop residues are groundnut shells (GNS) corn cobs (CC); cassava peels (CaP); unripe and ripe plantain peels (UPP, RPP) and citrus pulp/peels (CPP). Compared to other crop residues, crude protein (CP) content of CC was low. Except for CaP and CPP that had low neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), other residues contained a high amount of cell wall constituents. Net gas production was significantly different among the crop residues (p<0.05). Gas production was highest in CPP followed by CaP. CC, UPP and RPP have the same volume of net gas production, while the least net gas production was in GNS. True dry matter (TDM) digestibility was significantly different (p<0.05) among the residues. GNS was the least in TDM digestibility. CaP, UPP and RPP had similar TDM digestibility values, while the highest TDM digestibility was obtained in CPP. OM digestibility was different among the residues (p<0.05). CaP and CPP had the same ME value while CC, UPP and RPP had close ME values and GNS the least in ME (p<0.05). The potential extent (b) and rate (c) of gas production were statistical different among the residues (p<0.05). The Hohenheim gas test gave high in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility for CC, CaP, UPP and RPP and CPP. Fermentable carbohydrates and probably available nitrogen in the crop residues influenced net gas production. The results showed that crop residues besides, providing bulk are also a source of energy and fermentable products which could be used in ruminant livestock production in the tropics.

Changes of Soil Physical Properties by Manured Sorghum Residues Incorporation

  • Jung, Ki-Yuol;Yun, Eul-Soo;Park, Chang-Young;Hwang, Jae-Bok;Choi, Young-Dae;Oh, In-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 2013
  • Although sorghum residue production was estimated to be $8{\sim}10Mg\;ha^{-1}$, most sorghum straw was used to be burnt or removed after harvest. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of manured sorghum residues on soil physical properties from 2010 to 2012 in the converted paddy field. Five treatment with 3 replication consisted of control, inorganic fertilizer (NPK), manured residues, sorghum stover and sawdust manure. The incorporation level of organic source was $10Mg\;ha^{-1}$ without inorganic fertilizer NPK. The investigated physical parameters were bulk density (BD), porosity, water stability aggregate (WSA), water infiltration rater (WIR), penetration resistance (PR) and soil water retention characteristics (WRC) with soil depth. The incorporation of manured sorghum residues improved WIR significantly over inorganic fertilizer (NPK), sorghum residues and sawdust manure. The BD by incorporating with manured residues on sorghum was reduced significantly with crop residue over plot of NPK and sawdust. Significant increase in WSA was observed with stubble incorporation alone or manured sorghum residues. Soil WRC were significantly enhanced with manured sorghum residue incorporated without NPK. The average PR at 0~15 cm was 0.54 MPa for manured sorghum residues. For sawdust manure plot it was 0.42 MPa, for Sawdust manure plot 0.39 MPa and for NPK plot 0.54 MPa.

MICROBIAL COLONISATION AND DEGRADATION OF SOME FIBROUS CROP RESIDUES IN THE RUMEN OF GOATS

  • Ho, Y.W.;Abdullah, N.;Jalaludin, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.519-524
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    • 1996
  • An investigation was carried out to study the microbial colonization and degradation of five crop residues, viz., sago waste, rice straw, oil palm trunk shavings, untreated palm press fibre and palm press fibre teated with 3% ammonium hydroxide in the rumen of goats. Colonisation by rumen bacteria and fungi was already established on all the five crop residues 8 h after incubation. However, the extent of colonization varied among the crop residues. Microbial colonization was poor on palm press fibre (treated and untreated) but more extensive on sago waste, oil palm trunk shavings and rice straw. By 24 h, most of the soft-walled tissues in sago waste, rice straw and oil palm trunk shavings were degraded leaving the thick-walled tissues extensively colonized by bacteria and fungi. Degradation on palm press fibre was still limited. At 48 h, the thick-walled tissues of sago waste, oil palm trunk shavings and rice straw showed various degrees of degradation - from small erosion zones to large digested areas. Bacterial growth was similar to that at 24 h but fungal growth was less. On palm press fibre, microbial colonization was more extensive than at 24 h but degradation of the fibres was still limited. Degradation of all the five crop residues at 72 h was somewhat similar to that at 48 h. Overall, microbial colonization and degradation were the most extensive on sago waste, followed by rice straw and oil palm trunk shavings, and the least on palm press fibre (treated and untreated). Dry matter loss of the five crop residues at the various incubation periods also showed the same order of degradation.

Trends in Agricultural Waste Utilizatili-zation

  • Han, Youn-Woo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Applied Microbiology Conference
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    • pp.113.1-113
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    • 1979
  • Each year, vast amount of agricultural crop residues are produced (about 60 percent of the total crop production), which have not been effectively utilized because they are bulky and lignocellulosic, thus having little fuel energy per unit volume. Using treated plant residues as animal feeds could result in an ultimate saving of fossil fuel energy and a more effective utilizat ion of products created by the photosynthetic process. Feeding the residues to animals would decrease the pollution potential, but these residues are difficult for even a ruminant animal to digest. If cellulosic wastes produced from cereal grain straw and wood could be digested, land now used for producing forage add grain cnuld be shifted to food crops for humans. During the past decade, considerable efforts were made to utilize crop residues. These utilization methods can be broadly grouped into for categories: (1) direct uses, (2) mechanical conversions, (3) chemical conversions and (4) biological conversions. Agricultural crop residues consist mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, andother plant carbohydrates. The nature of the constituents of these residues can be best utilized as one of the five FS: Fuel, Fiber, Fertilizer, Feed and Food. Many processes have teen proposed and some are in industrial production stage. However, economics of the process depend on the location where availability of other competitive products are different.

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Utilization of Sunflower Crop Residues as Feed in Small Ruminants

  • Rasool, Ejaz;Khan, M.F.;Nawaz, M.;Rafiq, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.272-276
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    • 1998
  • Sheep and goats in Pakistan have not been able to produce to the best of their potential. This may primarily be attributed to under feeding and malnutrition. Ranges have been depleted due to overgrazing and mismanagement and are not in position to feed the existing small ruminant population. To overcome the shortage of good quality fodder and balanced feed supply, the alternate means like cereal straws and other crop residues are being commonly used. Sunflower crop residues like stalks and heads provide a good quality forage for livestock. These crop byproducts are rich in crude protein and lower in crude fibre. Their inclusion in the diet of small ruminants at 20, 30 and 40 percent levels in ration has shown significantly (p < 0.05) increased feed intake and weight gain. Daily feed intake was 1,130, 1,180 and 1,750 g for sunflower crop residue, soybean crop residue and wheat straw, respectively, when added at the rate of 20 percent in the ration. The drymatter digestibility of sunflower, soybean crop residues and wheat straw was also comparable. The maximum performance of the animals was observed at the 20 percent level of inclusion of sunflower crop residue in the diet.

Assessment of Methane (CH4) Emissions from Rice Paddy and Crop Residues Burning in 2011 with the IPCC Guideline Methodology

  • Choi, Eun Jung;Lee, Jong Sik;Jeong, Hyun Cheol;Kim, Gun Yeob;So, Kyu Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.575-578
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    • 2013
  • Rice cultivation in the paddy field and the burning of crop residues have been identified as the important sources of methane emission in agricultural sector. This study aimed at assessment of the methane emission from croplands in the year of 2011 with the IPCC guideline methodology. Methane from rice cultivation was emitted 6,813 $CO_2$-eq Gg in 2011. According to the water management, methane emission amounts by continuously flooded and intermittently flooded were 1,499 and 5,314 $CO_2$-eq Gg, respectively. Methane emission by crop residues burning was highest in red pepper and followed by rice straw, pulses and barely in 2011. Methane emission by field burning was very little compared with rice cultivation.

Assessment of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions from Farmland in 2011 with IPCC Guideline Methodology

  • Jeong, Hyun Cheol;Kim, Gun Yeob;Lee, Jong Sik;Choi, Eun Jung;Ko, Jee Yeon;So, Kyu Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.570-574
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to assess $N_2O$ emissions in agricultural soils of Korea under the 1996 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) methodology. $N_2O$ emissions in agricultural soils were calculated the sum of direct emission and indirect emission by the N sources and emissions by field burning of crop residues. $N_2O$ emission was highest in animal manure as 1,547 $CO_2$-eq Gg. Indirect emissions by atmospheric deposition and leaching and runoff were 1,463 and 1,753 $CO_2$-eq Gg, respectively. $N_2O$ emission by field burning of crop residues was highest in pepper due to the residue/crop ratio and field burning ratio.

Inappropriate Anxieties about Crop Protection Residues in Food

  • Atreya, Naresh-C
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.125-134
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    • 2002
  • Crop Protection Products (CPPs) are a useful weapon in our fight against the pests, diseases and weeds that harm or destroy our food. To be effective CPPs need to exhibit some persistence. The consequence of this is that residues of the original material or its metabolites may remain on food and thus there is a potential for the intake of such residues. The issue of CPP residues in food is an emotional subject and is rarely debated rationally or supported by scientific facts. Media headlines like “Poison in our food” or “These days enough Pesticides (CPPs) are sprayed onto vegetables to turn you into one” are testimony to the high level of emotion that surrounds the subject of CPP residues in food. Recent surveys of consumers have indicated that more than 80 percent view CPP residues in food as a “serious hazard”. This significantly exceeds concerns over drugs, hormones in meat, nitrates in food, irradiated foods, food additives, or artificial colours.

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Biochemical Methane Potential of Agricultural Byproduct in Greenhouse Vegetable Crops (국내 주요 시설채소 부산물의 메탄 생산 퍼텐셜)

  • Shin, Kook-Sik;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Eun;Yoon, Young-Man
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.1252-1257
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    • 2011
  • Number of crop residues generated at large amount in agriculture can be utilized as substrate in methane production by anaerobic digestion. Greenhouse vegetable crop cultivation that adopting intensive agricultural system require the heating energy during winter season, meanwhile produce waste biomass source for the methane production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the methane production potential of greenhouse vegetable crop residues and to estimate material and energy yield in greenhouse system. Cucumber, tomato, and paprika as greenhouse vegetable crop were used in this study. Fallen fruit, leaf, and stem residues were collected at harvesting period from the farmhouses (Anseong, Gyeonggi, Korea) adopting an intensive greenhouse cultivation system. Also the amount of fallen vegetables and plant residues, and planting density of each vegetable crop were investigated. Chemical properties of vegetable waste biomass were determined, and theoretical methane potentials were calculated using Buswell's formula from the element analysis data. Also, BMP (Biochemical methane potential) assay was carried out for each vegetable waste biomass in mesophilic temperature ($38^{\circ}C$). Theoretical methane potential ($B_{th}$) and Ultimate methane potential ($B_u$) off stem, leaf, and fallen fruit in vegetable residues showed the range of $0.352{\sim}0.485Nm^3\;kg^{-1}VS_{added}$ and $0.136{\sim}0.354Nm^3\;kg^{-1}VS_{added}$ respectively. The biomass yields of residues of tomato, cucumber, and paprika were 28.3, 30.5, and $21.5Mg\;ha^{-1}$ respectively. The methane yields of tomato, cucumber, and paprika residues showed 645.0, 782.5, and $686.8Nm^3\;ha^{-1}$. Methane yield ($Nm^3\;ha^{-1}$) of crop residue may be highly influenced by biomass yield which is mainly affected by planting density.