• Title, Summary, Keyword: Critical infrastructures

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Comprehensive Security and Crisis & Emergency Management for Protecting Critical Infrastructure

  • Lee, Jae-Enn
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2009
  • Recently, interest has heightened over 'critical infrastructures' and their reliability in the face of potential terrorist attack. Assault on any of the critical infrastructures as transportation, power, water, telecommunications, and financial services, entails great consequences for their users as well as the other interdependent critical infrastructures. How to protect our vital critical infrastructures is the key question in this paper. The purpose of this article is to suggest the implications for crisis and emergency management to protect the critical infrastructures in our society. For achieving the purpose, we examined the concept of comprehensive security, national crisis, and critical infrastructure and, using the holistic approach, we examined the comprehensive emergency management for suggesting the implications for establishing the critical infrastructure protection system; building up the high reliability organization, organizing and partnering, assessing the risk, preparing first responders, working with private owners of critical infrastructures, working with communities, improving the administrative capacity.

A Study on the Integrated Management of National Critical Infrastructures (국가기반체계의 통합적 관리 연구)

  • Ryu, Ji-Hyeob;Lim, Ik-Hyun;Hwang, Eui Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of societal Security
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2009
  • The occurrence of disaster lately is coming with the more complex form and increasing the necessity of National Infrastructures Protection Plan(NIPP). International and domestic laws and systems related to critical infrastructures were investigated. The program in which the classification of national critical infrastructures was expanded eight fields to thirteen fields including emergency services, large gathering sites, defense industrial base, and national monuments was presented in this study. The plan for integrating national critical infrastructures, national important infrastructures and national security infrastructures and a NIPP framework were proposed.

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Damage Prediction of Infomation and Communication Facilities for Prolonged Power Outage (장기간 정전사태에 대비한 기반시설-정보통신시설-에서의 피해예측)

  • Song, Chang Young;Cho, In Uh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Disaster and Security
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 2012
  • Critical infrastructures (energy, information technology and communications, banking, transportation, public government services, etc.) are now more vital to modern society. Citizens, businesses and governments all rely on an array of interlinked physical and information infrastructures to satisfy their needs and perform their daily operations. At the same time, these infrastructures are becoming increasingly interdependent, such that failure of one of them can often propagate and result in domino effects. Recent dramatic episodes, from 9/11 to the Madrid train bombings, the April 2010 ash cloud the power cuts in Korea in 2011, and the cyber-attacks have highlighted the need for a comprehensive, internationally coordinated policy for the protection of critical infrastructures. For the purposes of this report, we define critical infrastructure as infrastructure whose failure would result in substantial damage to society and/or the economy.

Oversea IP Ranges Blocking for Security Enhancement of Critical Infrastructures with Cyber Threats Analysis in Electric Industry (전력분야 사이버 위협 분석 및 기반시설 보안 강화를 위한 해외 IP 대역 차단 방안 연구)

  • Han, Choong-Hee;Park, Soon-Tai;Lee, Sang-Joon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.401-415
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    • 2019
  • Recently, there has been a lot of studies and efforts to strengthen the stability of critical infrastructures against increasing cyber attacks to critical infrastructures. In this thesis, I defined what cyber threats are, after showing you various definitions about what cyber threats are and what the types are. After studying about significant cyber threats from China, I showed you the realities of cyber threats with the analysis about starting points, types of cyber threats, ratios of attacks and so on. At last, I defined guidelines about unnecessary oversea IP range blocking. Also, I proposed unnecessary oversea IP range blocking methodologies with per information system and per network system. Furthermore, I proposed blocking characteristics per security equipment and security operation improvement and blocking effects and service process to normal oversea users.

On the steel cost of circular flat-bottomed silos designed using the Eurocodes

  • Gonzalez-Montellano, Carlos;Ramirez, Alvaro;Gallego, Eutiquio;Ayuga, Francisco
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.561-572
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    • 2009
  • Nowadays, Eurocodes have become the reference standards for silo design within the European Union. They include new procedures for load assessment and structural verifications aiming to design safer silos. However, many silo manufacturers are still reluctant to use them (or at least all their prescriptions) because of the loss of competitiveness they are experiencing in comparison with former standards. This paper shows how steel cost of flat-bottomed circular silos varies when different silo geometries and stored materials are considered. The influence of critical structural verifications on steel costs, such as buckling of the silo wall, were also analyzed and some conclusions and practical recommendations for silo designers were proposed.

Probabilistic safety assessment-based importance analysis of cyber-attacks on nuclear power plants

  • Park, Jong Woo;Lee, Seung Jun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.138-145
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    • 2019
  • With the application of digital technology to safety-critical infrastructures, cyber-attacks have emerged as one of the new dangerous threats. In safety-critical infrastructures such as a nuclear power plant (NPP), a cyber-attack could have serious consequences by initiating dangerous events or rendering important safety systems unavailable. Since a cyber-attack is conducted intentionally, numerous possible cases should be considered for developing a cyber security system, such as the attack paths, methods, and potential target systems. Therefore, prior to developing a risk-informed cyber security strategy, the importance of cyber-attacks and significant critical digital assets (CDAs) should be analyzed. In this work, an importance analysis method for cyber-attacks on an NPP was proposed using the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method. To develop an importance analysis framework for cyber-attacks, possible cyber-attacks were identified with failure modes, and a PSA model for cyber-attacks was developed. For case studies, the quantitative evaluations of cyber-attack scenarios were performed using the proposed method. By using quantitative importance of cyber-attacks and identifying significant CDAs that must be defended against cyber-attacks, it is possible to develop an efficient and reliable defense strategy against cyber-attacks on NPPs.

A Study on Risk Assessments and Protection Improvement for Electric Power Infrastructures against High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (전력기반시설의 고 고도 핵 전자기파에 대한 위험성 검토 및 방호 개선방안 연구)

  • Chung, Yeon-Choon
    • Convergence Security Journal
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2019
  • In a hyper-connected society, electric power infrastructures and information and communication infrastructures are the core of critical national infrastructures. However, electric power infrastructure is very deadly to high-frequency nuclear electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) threats recently issued by North Korea, so the resilience through rapid recovery after attack is directly related to the survivability of our country. Therefore, electric power infrastructure should take precedence over any other key infrastructure, with preemptive protection measures and fast recovery plans. In this paper, the characteristics of the HEMP threats was examined, and the risks and effective major protection measures of the electric power infrastructures are discussed. In the future, it is expected that it will be able to help establish the direction of enactment and revision of legal schems related to the 'high power EMP infringement prevention' for Korea's electric power infrastructures.

A Study on the Policy Direction of Critical Infrastructure Risk Response in the Changing Digital Environment: A Comparative Study of the USA's Policy (디지털 환경변화에 따른 주요기반시설 위험대응 정책방향에 관한 연구 : 미국정책에 대한 비교 고찰)

  • Yoo, Ji-Yeon;Jeong, Na-Young
    • Journal of Security Engineering
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.59-76
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    • 2017
  • Recent technological advances, such as ICT and convergence, have led to new types of risks. Critical infrastructures have exhibited different characteristics, and their surrounding environment has changed. The disruption of critical infrastructure services can result in serious security problems, with the potential to cause social and economic damage to the nation. Existing security measures focus only on the preparation for and response to infringement accidents. Collaboration and information sharing systems are also limited, unable to respond to the risks of critical infrastructures. Therefore, in order to cope with the risks of critical infrastructure in the changing digital environment, it is necessary to establish a new policy paradigm. In this paper, we define a new policy paradigm as "resilience", which can provide continuous service in any risk situation and can quickly return to the normal state. In addition, an analysis of the USA's policy on resilience suggests that a policy direction for response to critical infrastructure risks is warranted.

Effect of higher order terms of Maclaurin expansion in nonlinear analysis of the Bernoulli beam by single finite element

  • Zahrai, Seyed Mehdi;Mortezagholi, Mohamad Hosein;Mirsalehi, Maryam
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.58 no.6
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    • pp.949-966
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    • 2016
  • The second order analysis taking place due to non-linear behavior of the structures under the mechanical and geometric factors through implementing exact and approximate methods is an indispensible issue in the analysis of such structures. Among the exact methods is the slope-deflection method that due to its simplicity and efficiency of its relationships has always been in consideration. By solving the differential equations of the modified slope-deflection method in which the effect of axial compressive force is considered, the stiffness matrix including trigonometric entries would be obtained. The complexity of computations with trigonometric functions causes replacement with their Maclaurin expansion. In most cases only the first two terms of this expansion are used but to obtain more accurate results, more elements are needed. In this paper, the effect of utilizing higher order terms of Maclaurin expansion on reducing the number of required elements and attaining more rapid convergence with less error is investigated for the Bernoulli beam with various boundary conditions. The results indicate that when using only one element along the beam length, utilizing higher order terms in Maclaurin expansion would reduce the relative error in determining the critical buckling load and kinematic parameters in the second order analysis.

SOC Investment Promotion Strategy for Strengthening Global Competitiveness (국가경쟁력 강화를 위한 SOC 투자 전략)

  • Lee, Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Professional Engineers Association
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.26-35
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    • 2012
  • Korea is now the 12th largest economy in the world, surpassing its annual trade in the amount of $1 trillion, and it has joined the socalled 20-50 Club, becoming one of the seven countries in the world with capita income of more than $20,000 with population of 50 million. However it ranked 24th of the Global competitiveness index evaluated by World Economic Forum based on the basic requirements including infrastructures, efficiency enhances, innovation and sophistication factors, etc. The extensive and efficient SOC infrastructures are critical for ensuring the global competitiveness of each country. Effective modes of SOC facilities including quality roads, railroads, ports, air transport, etc will be able to reduce the annual traffic congestion cost as well as macro economic logistics costs in Korea, thereby the global competitiveness can be strengthened in the global market.

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