• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cow

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Inhibitive Activity of Cow Urine and Cow Dung against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of Cucumber

  • Basak, A.B.;Lee, Min-Woong;Lee, Tae-Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.175-179
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    • 2002
  • A study on comparative efficacy and in vitro activity of fresh cow urine and cow dung for controlling Sclerotinia rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of cucumber was carried out following mycelial growth inhibition test, treated and untreated sclerotia with these organic matters at different days of incubation. Results showed that cow urine suppressed more effectively the mycelial growth even after 5 days of incubation in comparison to cow dung. The highest inhibition 75.9% of mycelial growth was recorded in cow dung potato dextrose agar(CUPDA) after 3 days of incubation and least 22.7% was in cow dung potato dextrose agar(CUPDA) after same days of incubation. Mycelial growth from sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum was also influenced by PDA medium mixed with cow urine and cow dung. After 6 days of incubation in CUPDA mycelial growth was only 12.9 mm whereas in CDPDA and PDA the corresponding growth at the same time were 65.8 mm and 80.0 mm. Treated sclerotia of the selected fungus with cow urine had a very effective role on suppression of mycelial growth than that of untreated one. No mycelial growth was observed up to 4 days in treated sclerotia with cow urine. After 5 days only 0.9 mm mycelial growth was measured in treated sclerotia, while in case of untreated sclerotia the growth was 42.6 mm. Application of cow urine and cow dung on growing plants inoculated with the pathogen at different concentrations also proved their inhibitive effects.

Quantitative Detection of Cow Milk in Goat Milk Mixtures by Real-Time PCR

  • Jung, Yu-Kyung;Jhon, Deok-Young;Kim, Kang-Hwa;Hong, Youn-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.827-833
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to develop a fluorogenic real-time PCR-based assay for detecting and quantifying amounts of cow milk in cow/goat milk mixtures or goat milk products. In order to quantify the exact amount of cow milk in cow/goat raw milk mixtures and commercial goat milk products, it was necessary to achieve quantitative extraction of total genomic DNA from the raw milk matrix. Both mammalian-specific PCR and cow-specific PCR were performed. A cow-specific 252 bp band obtained from the raw cow milk and raw goat milk mixtures, commercial goat milk, and two goat milk powders was identified, along with the relationship between the cow milk amount and band intensity of the electrophoresis image. The detection threshold was found to be 0.1%. The expression of cow's 12S rRNA in the cow/goat milk mixtures, commercial goat milk, and two goat milk powders was identified. The expression quantity of the milk 12S rRNA increased with increasing ratios of the cow/goat milk mixtures. Using these calibrated relative expression levels as a standard curve in the cow/goat raw milk mixtures, the contents of cow milk were 1.8% in the commercial goat milk, 9.6% in goat milk powder A, and 11.6% in goat milk powder C. However, cow milk was not detected in goat milk powder B.

Development of Computer Vision System for Individual Recognition and Feature Information of Cow (II) - Analysis of body parameters using stereo image - (젖소의 개체인식 및 형상 정보화를 위한 컴퓨터 시각 시스템 개발(II) - 스테레오 영상을 이용한 체위 분석 -)

  • 이종환
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.65-76
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    • 2003
  • The analysis of cow body parameters is important to provide some useful information fur cow management and cow evaluation. Present methods give many stresses to cows because they are invasive and constrain cow postures during measurement of body parameters. This study was conducted to develop the stereo vision system fur non-invasive analysis of cow body features. Body feature parameters of 16 heads at two farms(A, B) were measured using scales and nineteen stereo images of them with walking postures were captured under outdoor illumination. In this study, the camera calibration and inverse perspective transformation technique was established fer the stereo vision system. Two calibration results were presented for farm A and fm B, respectively because setup distances from camera to cow were 510 cm at farm A and 630cm at farm B. Calibration error values fer the stereo vision system were within 2 cm for farm A and less than 4.9 cm for farm B. Eleven feature points of cow body were extracted on stereo images interactively and five assistant points were determined by computer program. 3D world coordinates for these 15 points were calculated by computer program and also used for calculation of cow body parameters such as withers height. pelvic arch height. body length. slope body length. chest depth and chest width. Measured errors for body parameters were less than 10% for most cows. For a few cow. measured errors for slope body length and chest width were more than 10% due to searching errors fer their feature points at inside-body positions. Equation for chest girth estimated by chest depth and chest width was presented. Maximum of estimated error fur chest girth was within 10% of real values and mean value of estimated error was 8.2cm. The analysis of cow body parameters using stereo vision system were successful although body shape on the binocular stereo image was distorted due to cow movements.

Feasibility test for Solidified Fuel with Cow Manure (고체연료화 방법을 적용한 우분 처리 가능성 평가)

  • Jeong, Kwang-Hwa;Kim, Jung-Kon;Lee, Dong-Jun
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.112-119
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    • 2017
  • In this study, the availability of cow manure as raw material for solid fuel production was investigated. Since the water content of the cow manure was too high, it was dewatered using a laboratory hydraulic compressure ($11.3kg/cm^2$). The moisture content of the cow manure decreased from 82.01% to 73.36 wt.%. The dewatered cow manure was homogenized by the experimental apparatus and then put into the rotating cylindrical apparatus. From the consecutive processes, the cow ball-shaped pellet which size ranged from 3.0 to 25.0 mm was produced. The major factor for making palletized fuel from cow manure was the moisture content. Based on the experimental data, the moisture content of cow manure for pelletizing cow manure was identified as 65~75 wt.%. When the moisture content of the cow manure was lower than 30 wt.%, the diameter of the pellets maded from cow manure was smaller than 3 mm. On the other hand, when the water content of the cow manure was higher than 75 wt/%, the diameter of the processed pellets tended to be larger than 25 mm. The characteristics of the processed cow manure pellets was analyzed to be in accordance with the livestock solid fuel quality standard. The pyrolysis characteristic of the pellet was analyzed by raising the heating temperature of the experimental equipment from 200 to $900^{\circ}C$. The mass change between of 20 and $130^{\circ}C$ corresponds to the amount of moisture contained in the cow manure. The amount of moisture was about 15% of the total weight of cow manure samples. The cow manure pellet was thermally stable up to $280^{\circ}C$. It can be interpreted that combustion of cow manure pellet does not occur until the surface temperature reaches $280^{\circ}C$. The mass change of pellet between of 280 and $450^{\circ}C$ was considered to be due to the vaporization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the cow manure pellet. The maximum production of VOCs was showed near $330^{\circ}C$.

In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Cow Urine and Dung to Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae

  • Basak, A.B.;Lee, Min-Woong;Lee, Tae-Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.51-54
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    • 2002
  • This paper deals with the study on comparative efficacy and in vitro activity of cow urine and cow dung for controlling root rot disease of cucumber caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae Snyder & Hansen following slide germination and mycelial growth inhibition tests. Results showed that both germination of conidia and the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth decreased or suppressed and varied greatly with respect to different hour and days of incubation and kind of bio-matters. In between two bio-matters cow urine was found more effective than that of cow dung in conidial germination. No germination of conidia was recorded after one hour of incubation in any medium whereas in cow urine germination of conidia was not also observed even after 2 hours of incubation. After 7 hours of incubation out of 200 conidia of F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae, 28 in cow urine and 64 in cow dung were germinated while in control a total germinated conidia was 185. In case of percentage inhibition of conidial germination the highest percentage(100%) was recorded in cow urine after 2 hours of incubation followed by 3 hours(96.0%), 4 hours(91.0%) and 6 hours(89.4%). During the test on inhibition of mycelial growth, the highest percentage(62.8%) was recorded in cow urine potato dextrose agar(CUPDA) medium tested after 4 days of incubation, followed by 3 days(60.5%), 5 days(56.5%) and 2 days(55.0%). In this test cow dung potato dextrose agar(CDPDA) had less efficacy in suppression of the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth.

Viscosity and Sensory Characteristics of Cow-soy Milk (콩우유와 우유 혼합유의 점도 및 관능적 특성에의 영향인자 영향)

  • Jeong, Nam-Yong;Kim, U-Jeong;Kim, Dong-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.353-360
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    • 1994
  • Effect of pH, calcium, sucrose, heating and mixing ratio of soy and cow milk was studied on the viscosity and the sensory characteristics of cow-soy milk. The viscosity of soymilk was significantly affected by pH with showing maximum at 6.0 and the pH effect was decreased as the ratio of cow talk increased. A addition of sucrose or calcium affected little on the viscosity and a negative linear relationship was found be tween viscosity and an increase in cow milk ratio. Sensory characteristics of grassy and beany odor and taste of soymilk were rapidly decreased and nutty flavor and total acceptability were increased during initial 30 min of boiling. A further increase in boiling affected little on tastes and odors of soymilk. The beany odor and taste linearly decreased and milk flavor Increased as the ratio of cow milk increased. The total acceptability of 50 : 50 was found to be maximum for cow and soy mixed milks.

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Development of Computer Vision System for Individual Recognition and Feature Information of Cow (I) - Individual recognition using the speckle pattern of cow - (젖소의 개체인식 및 형상 정보화를 위한 컴퓨터 시각 시스템 개발 (I) - 반문에 의한 개체인식 -)

  • 이종환
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.151-160
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    • 2002
  • Cow image processing technique would be useful not only for recognizing an individual but also for establishing the image database and analyzing the shape of cows. A cow (Holstein) has usually the unique speckle pattern. In this study, the individual recognition of cow was carried out using the speckle pattern and the content-based image retrieval technique. Sixty cow images of 16 heads were captured under outdoor illumination, which were complicated images due to shadow, obstacles and walking posture of cow. Sixteen images were selected as the reference image for each cow and 44 query images were used for evaluating the efficiency of individual recognition by matching to each reference image. Run-lengths and positions of runs across speckle area were calculated from 40 horizontal line profiles for ROI (region of interest) in a cow body image after 3 passes of 5$\times$5 median filtering. A similarity measure for recognizing cow individuals was calculated using Euclidean distance of normalized G-frame histogram (GH). normalized speckle run-length (BRL), normalized x and y positions (BRX, BRY) of speckle runs. This study evaluated the efficiency of individual recognition of cow using Recall(Success rate) and AVRR(Average rank of relevant images). Success rate of individual recognition was 100% when GH, BRL, BRX and BRY were used as image query indices. It was concluded that the histogram as global property and the information of speckle runs as local properties were good image features for individual recognition and the developed system of individual recognition was reliable.

Algorithm for Measurement of the Dairy Cow's Body Parameters by Using Image Processing

  • Seo, Kwang-W.;Lee, Dae-W.;Choi, Eun-G.;Kim, Chi-H.;Kim, Hyeon-T.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.122-129
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: Recent mechatronics technology is the most appropriate high technology in agricultural applications to save repetitious labor. Method: Cow's body parameters were measured by several traditional measurers. Image processing technology was used to measure automatically their parameters to reduce labor and time. The parameters were measured form a small model cow which is easily measured, instead to a real cow. The image processing system designed and built for this project was composed of a PC, grabber card, and two cameras, which are located on the side and the top of the model cow. Tests of verification had measured 10 dairy cows. Result: Nine parameters of the model cow's body were measured, and the difference between the real data and the data by image processing was less than 16.7%. Based on the results of the research, the parameters of a real cow had measured of chest depth, withers height, Pelvic arch height, body length, slope body length, chest width, hip width, thurl width, and pin bone width were compared with image processing data. Conclusions: In the Demonstration test, Result had obtained similar data of cow model experiments, and the most of errors were shown less than 5% relatively good result.

Anatomical and Histological Features and Ovarian Hormone Analysis of Ovarian Cysts in Korean Native Cow and Dairy Cow (한우(韓牛) 및 유우(乳牛)의 난소난종(卵巢囊腫)에 관한 해부조직학적(解剖組織學的) 소견(所見) 및 난소(卵巢)호르몬 분석(分析))

  • Kang, Byung-kyu;Choi, Han-sun;Chung, Young-ki
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 1987
  • A total of 1200 Korean native cow and 240 dairy cow genitalia were collected during the slaughtering process in Seoul and Kwang Ju abattoir and were examined from July 1985 to March 1986. Ovarian follicles were classified as cystic if the diameter was greater than 2.5cm or if follicles were multiple. In order to investigate the ovarian cysts, anatomical and histological examinations were performed. In addition progesterone and estrogen level in different types of cystic follicular fluid and serum were measured by radioimmunoassay. The results were summerized as follows: 1. The incidences of ovarian cysts were 2.0% in Korean native cow and 7.9% in dairy cow. 2. In distribution of cysts in the left, right and both ovaries, the most encountered ovary was right one. The frequency was 45.8% in right ovaries, 33.4% in left ovaries and 20.8% in both ovaries in Korean native cow. On the contrary the frequency was 42.1% in right ovaries, 31.8% in both ovaries and 26.3% in left ovaries in dairy cow. 3. Six speciemens (25.0%) of Korean native cow and six specimens (31.6%) of dairy cow were associated with corpora lutes in both ovaries. 4. The luteinization of theca layer was most significant in the group 2Aa (71.4%) and 2Ba (38.5%) which associated with no granulosa cell and corpora lutea in the same cystic ovaries. 5. Correlation of progesterone concentration between cystic fluid and serum was found only in the group 2Aa and 2Ab (r=0.86). Progesterone and estrogen concentrations in cystic fluid were closely related to the degree of degeneration of granulosa cell layer. The cystic follicles that consist of thickened theca and degenerated granulosa cell layers contained a large amount of progesterone, and small amount of estrogen. In conclusion, various types of ovarian cysts with various levels of progesterone and estrogen were observed in Korean native cow.

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Ammonia Emission and Nitrogen and Phosphorous Loss by Rainfall from Cow Manure Pile (우분 야적시 암모니아 휘산량과 강우에 의한 질소 및 인산 유출량 평가)

  • Yun, Hong-Bae;Lee, Youn;Lee, Sang-Min;Kim, Suk-Chul;Hong, Seung-Gil;Lee, Yong-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.392-396
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    • 2009
  • For the reduction of ammonia ($NH_3$) volatilization from the cow manure composting process, a cow manure pile was covered with vinyl (white polyethylene) and the ammonia emissions were evaluated using the dynamic chamber system for 47 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss from cow manure pile by rainfall was also measured in this study. In the cow manure pile without covering, the amount of $NH_3$ emission was 0.78 N kg/Mg which accounted for 9.4% of total nitrogen contents in the cow manure. Eighty nine percent of the total $NH_3$ emission during experimental period from the cow manure pile without covering was emitted for the first 21 days. The vinyl covering of cow manure pile reduced 91% of $NH_3$ emission compared to the pile without covering. The amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus loss by rainfall from cow manure pile without covering were 1.27 N kg/Mg and 0.23 P kg/Mg for 47 days, respectively. Results from this study demonstrated that vinyl covering of cow manure pile could reduce $NH_3$ emission and loss of nitrogen and phosphorus by rainfall during composting.