• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cost of Equity Capital

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Financial Disclosure and the Cost of Equity Capital: The Empirical Test of the Largest Listed Companies of Kazakhstan

  • Baimukhamedova, Aizhan;Baimukhamedova, Gulzada;Luchaninova, Albina
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.5-17
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    • 2017
  • This study extends research into whether disclosure of corporate and financial information is associated with firms' costs of equity capital. This study sets out to examine empirically the determinants of corporate disclosure in the annual reports of 37 largest and most liquid firms listed on Kazakhstan Stock Exchange (KASE) in Kazakhstan. It also reports the results of the association between company-specific characteristics and disclosure of the sample companies. Based on the analysis of existing empirical research, the disclosure index has been constructed and regression analysis of the influence of the disclosure index on the cost of equity capital has been conducted. The obtained results show that the received findings correlate with foreign empirical studies, and the disclosure index in this sample has a negative impact on the cost of equity capital. Using cost of equity capital estimates derived from capital asset pricing model, we find that firms with higher levels of financial transparency are associated with significantly lower costs of equity capital. Economic theory assumes that by increasing the level of corporate reporting, firms not only increase their stock market liquidity, but also decrease the investors' estimation risk, arising from uncertainty about future returns and payout distributions. The results show that firms on the Kazakhstan market can reduce their cost of equity capital by increasing the level of their voluntary corporate disclosures.

Corporate Governance and Cost of Equity: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

  • SALEHI, Mahdi;ARIANPOOR, Arash;DALWAI, Tamanna
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.7
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of corporate governance index on the cost of equity in companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. This study collects data from 975 observations during the period 2012 to 2018 to test the hypotheses using multiple linear regression model for the panel data. In this research, the independent variable of corporate governance index comprises of 27 specific corporate governance attributes. The results of hypothesis testing showed that corporate governance has a negative and significant effect on the rate of capital cost. In other words, the quality of corporate governance can lower the rate of capital cost. This result suggests that, by using a powerful corporate governance system and by declining the information asymmetry (increasing transparency) and agency conflict, we would be able to enhance the quality of financial reports. It would strengthen the capital market, attract financial suppliers and investors, and absorb the required financial resources of the firm by a lower rate. The findings of the study suggest that companies are able to reduce the cost of equity by establishing strong corporate governance. This conclusion suggests the importance and effectiveness of corporate governance in the cost of equity.

Do Earnings Manipulations Matter Differently in Different Markets of China? Cost of Capital Consequences

  • Sohn, Byungcherl Charlie;Shim, Hoshik
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Business Review
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-34
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    • 2019
  • This study investigates whether and how a firm's cost of equity capital is influenced by the extent of a firm's real earnings management (REM). Using a large sample of Hong Kong and Chinese firms over the 9-year period 2009-2017, we find that our implied cost of equity estimates are positively associated with both the extent of REM and the extent of accrual-based earnings management (AEM), but the positive association is stronger for REM than for AEM. We also provide evidence suggesting that the effect of AEM and REM on the cost of equity is more pronounced for Hong Kong firms than Chinese firms, and within Chinese firms, it is less pronounced for the state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Collectively, our results suggest that while both REM and AEM exacerbate the quality of earnings used by outside investors, REM does so to a greater extent than AEM, and thus the market demands a higher risk premium for REM activities than for AEM activities and that this cost of capital-increase effect is more prominent in a developed market like Hong Kong and mitigated by state ownership in China because of investors' expectations for a lower level of detriments to firm fundamentals by REM due to government's protection in a less developed market like China.

Capital Structure and Financial Performance: A Case of Saudi Petrochemical Industry

  • ALI, Anis;FAISAL, Shaha
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.7
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2020
  • The study investigates and measures the impact of capital structure, profitability and financial performance on the success of the business organization. Capital structure of the business organization refers to the proportion of external funds and internal funds, i.e., debt and equity. In Saudi Arabia, petrochemicals companies are working on equity, but financial performance reflects negative trend for the period 2004 to 2016. The research is based upon secondary data available on the websites of petrochemicals companies of Saudi Arabia. Financial Ratio variability analysis and Trend Indices of financial ratios (TICBI) measure and compare the financial variability and sensitivity of financial ratios of the business organization. Correlation between Trend Indices (TICBI) of independent variable and dependent variables are to be calculated to know the impact of changes in debt equity on other dependent variables. The results reveal the unexpected performance of petrochemicals companies due to under-utilization of the resources caused by low demand and lower prices of the products governed by some internal and external factors. The study finds that size, demand, cost of production, profitable streams of products, and low cost capital in external funds are the factors responsible for overall growth development of the petrochemicals industry of Saudi Arabia.

The Matching Principle, Discretionary Accrual and Cost of Capital (수익비용대응, 재량적 발생액 및 자기자본비용)

  • Lee, Kyu-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.483-488
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    • 2019
  • This study first examines whether the high matching principle reduces the cost of equity, and then examines the effect on discretionary accruals and capital cost. According to previous studies, the higher the response to revenue cost, the higher the earnings quality. The higher the quality of earnings, the lower the information risk, and the lower the information risk, the lower the capital cost of enterprise. Discretionary accruals can play two roles in opposing each other. One is that managers use the discretionary accruals to provide private information about the future of the corporation to the market, thus enhancing the usefulness of the earnings. The other is that managers can use the discretionary accruals opportunistically to distort earnings and provide misinformed information to investors, thus reducing the usefulness of earnings. The results of this study represents that the higher the responding to the revenue cost, the less the cost of equity. In the case of firms with high revenue response, we examine whether discretionary accruals reduce the cost of equity capital. As a result of the study, the higher the responding to the revenue cost, the lower the cost of equity capital. Companies with higher matching principle have been shown to reduce their capital costs by using discretionary accruals.

A Study on the Estimation of Discount Rate for the Technology Valuation of Small-Sized Venture Firm (중소벤처기업의 기술가치평가를 위한 할인율 추정에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Oong Hyun;Yang, Dong Woo
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.19-32
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    • 2005
  • The reliability of technology valuation depends on, among other things, the reliability of the discount rate estimate. The weighted average cost of capital, generally accepted as discount rate, consists of cost of equity and cost of debt. The model used to estimate the cost of equity for publicly traded firms can not be used directly for small-sized venture firms. In addition, the estimation of cost of debt become very difficult, given the limited and volatile price history, because these small-sized venture firms do not have associated credit ratings. Since two kinds of cost of capital for the small-sized venture firms can not be estimated directly from market data, this study suggests statistical frame works for estimating unknown two kinds of cost of capital. The estimates of underlying cost of capital will help determine the size of appropriate discount rate with logical and scientific way when the technology valuation for small-sized venture firms is made. This study also suggests the necessity of the risk premium for the technology competitiveness to improve the estimation of the appropriate discount rate for small-sized venture firms.

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New Method to Calculate Cost of Capital for Telecommunication Market (통신시장의 투자보수율 산정 개선방안)

  • Kim, Chang-Soo;Chon, Mi-Lim
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2012
  • Cost of capital is one of the key factors of accounting regulation policy for telecommunication market. This paper aims at investigating efficient policy improvements concerning accounting regulation for telecommunication market focused on cost of capital calculation methods and its application. At First, cost of capital estimating method should be improved. In estimating the cost of equity capital, it is necessary to use benchmark method for Equity risk premium. It will reduce analytical errors caused by a rapid economic change and inflation. It is also more desirable to use debt premium adding method for the cost of debt capital. Optimal capital structure method may be considered a better way to estimates capital structure. Secondly, cost of capital estimating process also has to be reformed. Telecommunication industry changes rapidly so it does not reflect fast environmental changes. Therefore, cost of capital should be calculated every year. Cost of capital should be calculated by individual companies. There is information asymmetry between regulators and regulatees. Because of that cost of capital calculating process takes long time and cost a lot. To solve this problem, regulator should legislate on cost of capital calculation and then regulating companies report the calculating result. Lastly, major telecommunication companies are all listed now and it is possible to calculating it separately. We must continuously improve the estimating method and application of cost of capital and due to the fast growing of telecommunication industry. The process of determining the calculating method must be discussed and best method chosen.

한국 자본소득과세의 평가와 정책방향: 미국의 근본적 세제개혁안을 통한 새로운 패러다임의 모색

  • Yun, Geon-Yeong;Hyeon, Jin-Gwon
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.191-233
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    • 2002
  • This paper is to examine some issues and policy direction of capital income taxation in Korea. Fundamental tax reform in US was reviewed to get some lessons for reforming the capital income taxation. One of main characteristics in Korea's capital income taxation is different treatment by corporation type, investment goods, and financial structures. Especially, the tax differential for debt and equity financing has been serious, as debt has been deducted as cost. We discuss that tax policy should try to satisfy the efficiency, equity, and simplicity under the structure of income based taxation for the time being. However, the changes of tax policies in advanced economies should be carefully examined, as Korea has the structure of small open economy. The current issue on the abolition of corporation income tax might be premature in logical structure and implementation. The US fundamental tax reform might be useful reference for determining the direction of capital income taxation in Korea, as it gives us some chances to discuss about tax base issue with income and consumption. Consumption based taxation is superior to income based taxation in the perspective of administrative and compliance costs. We should consider these tax costs for reforming capital income tax system in Korea.

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Bank Capital Adequacy Ratio and Bank Performance in Vietnam: A Simultaneous Equations Framework

  • DAO, Binh Thi Thanh;NGUYEN, Kieu Anh
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2020
  • Playing an important role in developing the economy and overall developments of the country, commercial banks have to be aware of their crucial presence in order to perform well and contribute significantly. At the same time, as a place to receive deposits, banks are required to be in safe situations to avoid bankruptcy or deal with financial crises. This research seeks to identify the determinants of Capital Adequacy Ratio and Banks' performance as well as the relationship between these two dependent variables. The paper uses 128 observations of 16 Vietnamese commercial banks during the period from 2010 to 2017, with two simultaneous dependent variables CAR and ROE, and independent variables including Return on Assets, Tobin Q, Credit growth, GDP growth, Equity to Deposits, Loans to Deposits, Bank size, Cost to Income, Liquidity risk, Provision for Loan loss ratio, Non-performing loans and Inflation. The results reveal that Capital Adequacy Ratio and Banks' Performance have statistically significant relationship and Credit growth, GDP growth, Equity-to-Deposit ratio and Cost-to-Income ratio all have significant effects on two dependent variables. The findings of this study suggest that commercial banks should control the respective elements in order to maintain adequate level of capital and also create effective performance.

The Critical Analysis of the Bloomberg Estimation of the Cost of Equity Capital for Korean Firms (블룸버그(Bloomberg)를 이용한 한국기업의 자기자본비용 추정에 대한 타당성 분석)

  • Park, Kyung-Do;Ahn, Seoung-Pil
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.29-47
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    • 2018
  • This paper examines the relationship between diversification and financial performance of community credit unions in Korea from 2011 to 2017. To do so, I employ fixed-effects panel analyses using credit union level panel data collected from the National Credit Union Federation of Korea. This study finds evidence that business diversification is likely to lower the ratio of troubled loans, which means improving asset quality of credit unions. However, the relationship between diversification and asset quality is not linear but nonlinear, which means over-diversification would have negative effects on asset quality. Next, diversification tends to increase profitability. Specifically, although diversification results in a rise in expenditures, an increase in profits made by diversification outweighs the rise in expenditures, which contributes to profitability. Put together, diversification would be a good business strategy to improve both profitability and asset quality. Given a result that fast loan growth deteriorates asset quality, credit unions' managers might adopt the diversification strategy to enhance asset quality, and not to pursue their own objectives motivated by moral hazards.