• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cortisol

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Enhancement of Immune Activities of Canavalia gladiata & Arctium lappa complexes in immobilization stress mouse model. (부동화 스트레스 유도 마우스 모델에서 도두(刀豆), 우방근(牛蒡根) 복합물의 면역증진 작용)

  • Lee, Ji-eun;Roh, Seong-Soo;Kim, Han-Young;Kim, Kun-hoae;Kim, Seung-Hyung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2017
  • Objective : Soybeans of Canavalia gladiata(CG) and root of Arctium lappa(AL) have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effect. However, the immunoregulatory mechanisms of its combinational prescription remain a matter of considerable debate. In the current study, we investigated whether CG and AL and its combinational prescription(CG+AL) regulate immune system using chronic immobilization-stress mouse model. Methods : C57BL/6J mice fixed for 2 hours into immobilization tube after CG, AL, CG+AL oral administration after 2 hours daily for 21 days. After every experiment has ended the C57BL/6J mice were sacrificed on 22 days. The production of Serotonin and Cortisol, lgA were observed by ELISA method, The proportion of immune cells such as T/B cell and macrophage, NK cell were measured by FACS. Then, Real-time PCR was performed to measure the mRNA expression of Inflammatory cytokines(IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-a) and T cell activation cytokines(IL-2, IL-10, IFN-gamma, IL-12p35 / p40). Result : When chronic immobilization-stress mouse model were treated with CG+AL(1:4), the expression of mRNA were significantly decreased at the Inflammatory cytokines(IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-a). While, the levels of mRNA were significantly increased at immune T cell activation cytokines. Additionally, CG+AL(1:4) combinational prescription group enhanced immune cells such as T/B cell and macrophage, NK cell. Furthermore, the Immuno-fluorescence result of brain tissue can confirm that CG+AL(1:4) group significantly increased the BDNF expression. Conclusion : These result suggest that CG+AL(1:4) combinational prescription has Immune System enhancement via stress-mediated immunocyte.

Growth Performance and Blood Chemistry of Starry Flounder Platichthys stellatus Fed Extruded and Moist Pellet (공급 사료에 따른 강도다리 (Platichthys stellatus)의 성장과 혈액성분의 변화)

  • Park, Seongdeok;Kim, Jae Won;Kim, Pyong Kih;Jeon, Joong-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2016
  • This study was evaluated individual growth and hematological changes of young starry flounder, using hyperpigmentation marks on the blind side of body after feeding extruded pellet (EP) and moisture pellet (MP) for 45 days. As a result, the fish grew up to $220.1{\pm}47.8g$ in the EP treatment and $224.7{\pm}42.4g$ in the MP treatment, so the weight gain was significantly higher in the MP treatment ($74.6{\pm}17.3%$) than in the EP treatment ($63.7{\pm}16.9%$) (P<0.05). Osmolalities of flounder after 45 days culture were similar between the treatments (P>0.05), showing values of $359.8{\pm}4.2mOsm\;kg^{-1}$ in the EP treatment and $358.5{\pm}6.2mOsm\;kg^{-1}$ in the MP treatment. Similarly, other blood chemistry indicators such as sodium, chloride, total protein, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, BUN, creatinine, ammonia, triglyceride, cortisol, GOT, GPT and hematocrit showed no differences between the treatments. However, the free fatty acid concentration was significantly higher in the MP treatment than in the EP treatment (P<0.05).

Effect of misting and wallowing cooling systems on milk yield, blood and physiological variables during heat stress in lactating Murrah buffalo

  • Yadav, Brijesh;Pandey, Vijay;Yadav, Sarvajeet;Singh, Yajuvendra;Kumar, Vinod;Sirohi, Rajneesh
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.2.1-2.10
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    • 2016
  • Background: Heat stress adversely affects the physiological and metabolic status, and the productive performance of buffalo. Methods: The present study was conducted to explicate the effect of misting and wallowing cooling strategies during heat stress in lactating Murrah buffalo. The study was conducted for three months (May-July) of which first two months were hot dry and last month was hot humid. Eighteen lactating buffaloes, offered the same basal diet, were blocked by days in milk, milk yield and parity, and then randomly allocated to three treatments: negative control (no cooling), cooling by misting, and cooling by wallowing. Results: The results showed higher (P < 0.05) milk yield in buffaloes of misting and wallowing group compared to control during the experimental period however wallowing was found more (P < 0.05) effective during July (hot humid period). Both the treatments resulted into significant (P < 0.05) reduction in rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory rate (RR) compared to control animals during study period whereas wallowing was found to be effective on pulse rate (PR) only during July. Both treatments were resulted in mitigating the heat stress mediated decrease in packed cell volume (PCV), lymphocytopnoea and neutrophilia whereas decrease in total erythrocyte count (TEC) and monocytes was only mitigated by wallowing. Heat load induced alteration in serum creatinine and sodium concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by misting and wallowing whereas aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and superoxide dismutase activity, and reactive oxygen species concentration could be normalized neither by misting nor by wallowing. The significant (P < 0.05) increment in serum cortisol and prolactin levels observed in June and July period in control animals was significantly (P < 0.05) prevented by misting and wallowing. Conclusions: It can be concluded that misting and wallowing were equally effective in May and June (hot dry period) whereas wallowing was more effective during hot humid period in preventing a decline in milk production and maintaining physiological, metabolic, endocrine and redox homeostasis.

Evaluation of high nutrient diets on litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows

  • Choi, Yohan;Hosseindoust, Abdolreza;Shim, YoungHo;Kim, Minju;Kumar, Alip;Oh, Seungmin;Kim, YoungHwa;Chae, Byung-Jo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.1598-1604
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The present study investigated the litter performance of multiparous sows fed 3% and 6% densified diets at farrowing to weaning during summer with mean maximum room temperature of $30.5^{\circ}C$. Methods: A total of 60 crossbred multiparous sows were allotted to one of three treatments based on body weight according to a completely randomized design. Three different nutrient levels based on NRC were applied as standard diet (ST; metabolizable energy, 3,300 kcal/kg), high nutrient level 1 (HE1; ST+3% higher energy and 16.59% protein) and high nutrient level 2 (HE2; ST+6% higher energy and 17.04% protein). Results: There was no variation in the body weight change. However, backfat thickness change tended to reduce in HE1 in comparison to ST treatment. Dietary treatments had no effects on feed intake, daily energy intake and weaning-to-estrus interval in lactating sows. Litter size, litter weight at weaning and average daily gain of piglets were significantly greater in sows in HE1 compared with ST, however, no difference was observed between HE2 and ST. Increasing the nutrient levels had no effects on the blood urea nitrogen, glucose, triglyceride, and creatinine at post-farrowing and weaning time. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, cortisol and insulin were not affected by dietary treatments either in post-farrowing or weaning time. The concentration of blood luteinizing hormone of sows in ST treatment was numerically less than sows in HE2 treatment at weaning. Milk and colostrum compositions such as protein, fat and lactose were not affected by the treatments. Conclusion: An energy level of 3,400 kcal/kg (14.23 MJ/kg) with 166 g/kg crude protein is suggested as the optimal level of dietary nutrients for heat stressed lactating sows with significant beneficial effects on litter size.

Endotoxin-induced inflammation disturbs melatonin secretion in ewe

  • Herman, Andrzej Przemyslaw;Wojtulewicz, Karolina;Bochenek, Joanna;Krawczynska, Agata;Antushevich, Hanna;Pawlina, Bartosz;Zielinska-Gorska, Marlena;Herman, Anna;Romanowicz, Katarzyna;Tomaszewska-Zaremba, Dorota
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1784-1795
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The study examined the effect of intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -on the nocturnal secretion of melatonin and on the expression of enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewes, taking into account two different photoperiodic conditions: short-night (SN; n = 12) and long-night (LN; n = 12). Methods: In both experiments, animals (n = 12) were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 6) and LPS-treated (n = 6) one. Two hours after sunset, animals received an injection of LPS or saline. Blood samples were collected starting one hour after sunset and continuing for 3 hours after the treatment. The ewes were euthanized 3 hours after LPS/saline treatment. The concentration of hormones in plasma was assayed by radioimmunoassay. In the pineal gland, the content of serotonin and its metabolite was determined by HPLC; whereas the expression of examined genes and protein was assayed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot, respectively. Results: Endotoxin administration lowered (p<0.05) levels of circulating melatonin in animals from LN photoperiod only during the first hour after treatment, while in ewes from SN photoperiod only in the third hour after the injection. Inflammation more substantially suppressed biosynthesis of melatonin in ewes from SN photoperiod, which were also characterised by lower (p<0.05) cortisol concentrations after LPS treatment compared with animals from LN photoperiod. In the pineal gland of ewes subjected to SN photoperiod, LPS reduced (p<0.05) serotonin content and the expression of melatonin biosynthetic pathway enzymes, such as tryptophan hydroxylase and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase. Pineal activity may be disturbed by circulating LPS and proinflammatory cytokines because the expression of mRNAs encoding their corresponding receptors was determined in this gland. Conclusion: The present study showed that peripheral inflammation reduces the secretion of melatonin, but this effect may be influenced by the photoperiod.

Effects of different space allowances on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality in a grow-to-finish production system

  • Jang, J.C.;Jin, X.H.;Hong, J.S.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1796-1802
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of ninety crossbred pigs [$(Yorkshire{\times}Landrace){\times}Duroc$, $30.25{\pm}1.13kg$] were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs/pen, $0.96m^2/pig$; 0.80: five pigs/pen, $0.80m^2/pig$; 0.69: six pigs/pen, $0.69m^2/pig$) in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I, and finishing phase II). Results: There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI, p<0.01), and body weight (BW, p<0.01) with decreasing space allowance in late finishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (p<0.03). Consequently, overall ADG, ADFI, and final BW linearly declined in response to decreased space allowance (p<0.01). The pH of pork had no significant difference in 1 hour after slaughter, whereas there was a linear decrease in 24 h after slaughter with decreasing space allowance. Floor area allowance did not affect pork colors, but shear force linearly increased as floor space decreased (p<0.01). There was a linear increase in serum cortisol concentration on 14 week (p<0.05) with decreased space allocation. Serum IgG was linearly ameliorated as space allowance increased on 10 week (p<0.05) and 14 week (p<0.01). Conclusion: Data from current study indicated that stress derived from reduced space allowance deteriorates the immune system as well as growth performance of pigs, resulting in poor pork quality. Recommended adequate space allowance in a grow-to-finish production system is more than $0.80m^2/pig$ for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.

Analysis of the Physiological Healing Effects by Forest Types - Focused on Hypertensive and Diabetic - (숲의 종류에 따른 생리적 치유효과 분석 - 고혈압과 당뇨병 환자를 중심으로 -)

  • Jeong, Na-Ra;Ahn, Deug-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2015
  • This study analyzes the physiological healing effects on users according to forest types. Forest types are classified into Chamaecyparis obtusa, Quercus serrata and Pinus densiflora and the subjects of this study, 64 hypertensives, 59 diabetics and 59 ordinary people, were tested to observe their physiological effects. The index of physiological reaction comprises electroencephalogram(EEG), heart rate variability(HRV), blood pressure and cortisol level. An analysis of the stress-buffering effect from the physiological reactions of the overall subjects indicates that Quercus serrata forests have a higher stress-buffering effect than others in terms of central nervous, endocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Chamaecyparis obtusa forests are contributory to soothing stress in the central nervous and endocrine systems. Pinus densiflora forests contribute in some indexes of the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In contrast, Pinus densiflora forests are less influential on a stress-buffering effect than the other two. In the level of the effect for lowering blood pressure, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Quercus serrata forests are more effective than Pinus densiflora forests. Therefore, staying in the first two forests can heighten the healing effect of the lowering of blood pressure for hypertensive patients. Every forest is efficacious to lowering diabetic blood glucose levels. Spending time in Quercus serrata forests is more effective for hypoglycemic.

An Analysis of the Healing Effects of Forest Therapy and Horticultural Therapy (숲치유와 원예치료의 치유효과 분석)

  • Park, Sun-A;Jeong, Moon-Sun;Lee, Myungwoo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 2015
  • Stresses from desolate urban environments cause illnesses and worsen health conditions of urban residents, while natural environments have a positive influence on human. Natural healing programs such as forest therapy and horticultural therapy can be differentiated by the characteristic of activity space. However, previous studies of healing programs have focused on either forest therapy or horticulture therapy and there is a limit to comprehending the effects of adopting and connecting various healing programs. This study compares and analyzes the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy and horticultural therapy to identify the effects and differences by types of healing programs. The before and after effects of horticultural therapy and forest therapy are measured by experiment and survey for 5 days with 5 subjects in each program. For physiological reaction, blood pressure, pulse, and cortisol levels are measured and the profile of moods states(POMS) is used to measure psychological reaction. Collected data are analyzed with the analysis of variance(ANOVA) and Paired-Sample T-test in SPSS 18.0. The results of this study are as follows: 1) forest therapy and horticultural therapy show positive effects in physiological and physiological aspects, 2) forest therapy is more effective than horticultural therapy in physiological relaxation and stress mitigation, 3) horticultural therapy has a tendency to alleviate depression more effectively than forest therapy. In conclusion, this study contributes to providing fundamental information for the development of healing programs and design guidelines for healing spaces through identifying the characteristics of each healing program.

DENTAL TREATMENT IN A PATIENT WITH CONGENITAL PANHYPOPITUITARISM UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA (선천성 범뇌하수체저하증(Congenital panhypopituitarism) 환자의 전신마취 하 치과치료)

  • Kim, Hyuntae;Song, Ji-Soo;Hyun, Hong-Keun;Kim, Young-Jae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Jang, Ki-Taeg;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Shin, Teo Jeon
    • The Journal of Korea Assosiation for Disability and Oral Health
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.70-73
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    • 2019
  • Congenital panhypopituitarism is an uncommon condition, present from birth, characterized by the decreased secretion of most of the hormones produced by the pituitary. The purpose of this case report is to present a case about caries treatment of a 26-month-old female patient with congenital panhypopituitarism under general anesthesia. A 26-month-old girl with congenital panhypopituitarism visited Seoul National University Dental Hospital for caries treatment of anterior primary teeth. Because of the child's age and underlying systemic disease, dental treatment under general anesthesia was considered. Prior to the dental procedure, 30mg of cortisol was administered intravenously in order to prevent possible adrenal crisis by stressful events. The dental procedure was successfully performed under general anesthesia. This case report suggests that general anesthesia may be useful for the dental treatment with congenital panhypopituitarism. Hormone deficiency should be assessed prior to dental procedure and, if necessary, stress hormone replacement therapy should be considered.

Effects of ambient temperature and rumen-protected fat supplementation on growth performance, rumen fermentation and blood parameters during cold season in Korean cattle steers

  • Kang, Hyeok Joong;Piao, Min Yu;Park, Seung Ju;Na, Sang Weon;Kim, Hyun Jin;Baik, Myunggi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.657-664
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was performed to evaluate whether cold ambient temperature and dietary rumen-protected fat (RPF) supplementation affect growth performance, rumen fermentation, and blood parameters in Korean cattle steers. Methods: Twenty Korean cattle steers (body weight [BW], $550.6{\pm}9.14kg$; age, $19.7{\pm}0.13months$) were divided into a conventional control diet group (n = 10) and a 0.5% RPF supplementation group (n = 10). Steers were fed a concentrate diet (1.6% BW) and a rice straw diet (1 kg/d) for 16 weeks (January 9 to February 5 [P1], February 6 to March 5 [P2], March 6 to April 3 [P3], and April 4 to May 2 [P4]). Results: The mean and minimum indoor ambient temperatures in P1 ($-3.44^{\circ}C$, $-9.40^{\circ}C$) were lower (p<0.001) than those in P3 ($5.87^{\circ}C$, $-1.86^{\circ}C$) and P4 ($11.18^{\circ}C$, $4.28^{\circ}C$). The minimum temperature in P1 fell within the moderate cold-stress (CS) category, as previously reported for dairy cattle, and the minimum temperatures of P2 and P3 were within the mild CS category. Neither month nor RPF supplementation affected the average daily gain or gain-to-feed ratio (p>0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in cold winter than spring. Plasma cortisol concentrations were lower (p<0.05) in the coldest month than in the other months. Serum glucose concentrations were generally higher in colder months than in the other months but were unaffected by RPF supplementation. RPF supplementation increased both total cholesterol (p = 0.004) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Korean cattle may not be significantly affected by moderate CS, considering that the growth performance of cattle remained unchanged, although variations in blood parameters were observed among the studied months. RPF supplementation altered cholesterol and HDL concentrations but did not affect growth performance.