• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cortisol

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Effects of ambient temperature and dietary glycerol addition on growth performance, blood parameters and immune cell populations of Korean cattle steers

  • Kang, Hyeok Joong;Piao, Min Yu;Lee, In Kyu;Kim, Hyun Jin;Gu, Min Jeong;Yun, Cheol-Heui;Seo, Jagyeom;Baik, Myunggi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.505-513
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study was performed to evaluate whether ambient temperature and dietary glycerol addition affect growth performance, and blood metabolic and immunological parameters, in beef cattle. Methods: Twenty Korean cattle steers ($405.1{\pm}7.11kg$ of body weight [BW], $14.2{\pm}0.15$ months of age) were divided into a conventional control diet group (n = 10) and a 2% glycerol- added group (n = 10). Steers were fed 1.6% BW of a concentrate diet and 0.75% BW of a timothy hay diet for 8 weeks (4 weeks from July 28th to August 26th and 4 weeks from August 27th to September 26th). Blood was collected four times on July 28th, August 11th, August 27th, and September 26th. Results: The maximum indoor ambient temperature-humidity index in August (75.8) was higher (p<0.001) than that in September (70.0), and in August was within the mild heat stress (HS) category range previously reported for dairy cattle. The average daily gain (ADG; p = 0.03) and feed efficiency (p<0.001) were higher in hotter August than in September. Glycerol addition did not affect ADG and feed efficiency. Neither month nor glycerol addition affected blood concentrations of cortisol, triglyceride, or non-esterified fatty acid. Blood concentrations of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, glucose, and albumin were lower (p<0.05) on August 27th than on September 26 th, and blood phosphorus, calcium and magnesium concentrations were also lower on August 27th than on September 27th. Glycerol addition did not affect these blood parameters. Percentages of $CD4^+$ T cells and $CD8^+$ T cells were higher (p<0.05) on July 28th than on August 27th and September 26th. The blood $CD8^+$ T cell population was lower in the glycerol supplemented-group compared to the control group on July 28th and August 27th. Conclusion: Korean cattle may not be significantly affected by mild HS, considering that growth performance of cattle was better in hotter conditions, although some changes in blood metabolic and mineral parameters were observed.

Evaluation of high nutrient diets on litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows

  • Choi, Yohan;Hosseindoust, Abdolreza;Shim, YoungHo;Kim, Minju;Kumar, Alip;Oh, Seungmin;Kim, YoungHwa;Chae, Byung-Jo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.1598-1604
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The present study investigated the litter performance of multiparous sows fed 3% and 6% densified diets at farrowing to weaning during summer with mean maximum room temperature of $30.5^{\circ}C$. Methods: A total of 60 crossbred multiparous sows were allotted to one of three treatments based on body weight according to a completely randomized design. Three different nutrient levels based on NRC were applied as standard diet (ST; metabolizable energy, 3,300 kcal/kg), high nutrient level 1 (HE1; ST+3% higher energy and 16.59% protein) and high nutrient level 2 (HE2; ST+6% higher energy and 17.04% protein). Results: There was no variation in the body weight change. However, backfat thickness change tended to reduce in HE1 in comparison to ST treatment. Dietary treatments had no effects on feed intake, daily energy intake and weaning-to-estrus interval in lactating sows. Litter size, litter weight at weaning and average daily gain of piglets were significantly greater in sows in HE1 compared with ST, however, no difference was observed between HE2 and ST. Increasing the nutrient levels had no effects on the blood urea nitrogen, glucose, triglyceride, and creatinine at post-farrowing and weaning time. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, cortisol and insulin were not affected by dietary treatments either in post-farrowing or weaning time. The concentration of blood luteinizing hormone of sows in ST treatment was numerically less than sows in HE2 treatment at weaning. Milk and colostrum compositions such as protein, fat and lactose were not affected by the treatments. Conclusion: An energy level of 3,400 kcal/kg (14.23 MJ/kg) with 166 g/kg crude protein is suggested as the optimal level of dietary nutrients for heat stressed lactating sows with significant beneficial effects on litter size.

Endotoxin-induced inflammation disturbs melatonin secretion in ewe

  • Herman, Andrzej Przemyslaw;Wojtulewicz, Karolina;Bochenek, Joanna;Krawczynska, Agata;Antushevich, Hanna;Pawlina, Bartosz;Zielinska-Gorska, Marlena;Herman, Anna;Romanowicz, Katarzyna;Tomaszewska-Zaremba, Dorota
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1784-1795
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The study examined the effect of intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -on the nocturnal secretion of melatonin and on the expression of enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewes, taking into account two different photoperiodic conditions: short-night (SN; n = 12) and long-night (LN; n = 12). Methods: In both experiments, animals (n = 12) were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 6) and LPS-treated (n = 6) one. Two hours after sunset, animals received an injection of LPS or saline. Blood samples were collected starting one hour after sunset and continuing for 3 hours after the treatment. The ewes were euthanized 3 hours after LPS/saline treatment. The concentration of hormones in plasma was assayed by radioimmunoassay. In the pineal gland, the content of serotonin and its metabolite was determined by HPLC; whereas the expression of examined genes and protein was assayed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot, respectively. Results: Endotoxin administration lowered (p<0.05) levels of circulating melatonin in animals from LN photoperiod only during the first hour after treatment, while in ewes from SN photoperiod only in the third hour after the injection. Inflammation more substantially suppressed biosynthesis of melatonin in ewes from SN photoperiod, which were also characterised by lower (p<0.05) cortisol concentrations after LPS treatment compared with animals from LN photoperiod. In the pineal gland of ewes subjected to SN photoperiod, LPS reduced (p<0.05) serotonin content and the expression of melatonin biosynthetic pathway enzymes, such as tryptophan hydroxylase and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase. Pineal activity may be disturbed by circulating LPS and proinflammatory cytokines because the expression of mRNAs encoding their corresponding receptors was determined in this gland. Conclusion: The present study showed that peripheral inflammation reduces the secretion of melatonin, but this effect may be influenced by the photoperiod.

Changes in expression of monocarboxylate transporters, heat shock proteins and meat quality of Large White Yorkshire and Ghungroo pigs during hot summer period

  • Parkunan, Thulasiraman;Das, Arun K.;Banerjee, Dipak;Mohanty, Niharika;Paul, Avishek;Nanda, P.K.;Biswas, TK;Naskar, Syamal;Bag, Sadhan;Sarkar, Mihir;Mohan, Narayana H.;Das, Bikash Chandra
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.246-253
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Present study explores the effect of hot summer period on the glycolytic rate of early post-mortem meat quality of Ghungroo and Large White Yorkshire (LWY) pig and comparative adaptability to high temperature between above breeds by shifting the expression of stress related genes like mono-carboxylate transporters (MCTs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). Methods: Healthy pigs of two different breeds, viz., LYW and Ghungroo (20 from each) were maintained during hot summer period (May to June) with a mean temperature of about $38^{\circ}C$. The pigs were slaughtered and meat samples from the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were analyzed for pH, glycogen and lactate content and mRNA expression. Following 24 h of chilling, LD muscle was also taken from the carcasses to evaluate protein solubility and different meat quality measurements. Results: LWY exhibited significantly (p<0.01) higher plasma cortisol and lactate dehydrogenase concentration than Ghungroo indicating their higher sensitivity to high temperature. LD muscle from LWY pigs revealed lower initial and ultimate pH values and higher drip loss compared to Ghungroo, indicating a faster rate of pH fall. LD muscle of Ghungroo had significantly lower lactate content at 45 min postmortem indicating normal postmortem glycolysis and much slower glycolytic rate at early postmortem. LD muscle of LWY showed rapid postmortem glycolysis, higher drip loss and higher degrees of protein denaturation. Ghungroo exhibited slightly better water holding capacity, lower cooking loss and higher protein solubility. All HSPs (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90) and MCTs (MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4) in the LD muscle of pigs inclined to increase more in Ghungroo than LWY when exposed to high temperature. Conclusion: Effect of high temperature on the variation of HSPs and MCTs may play a crucial role in thermal tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions, pH regulation, muscle acidification, drip loss, protein denaturation and also in postmortem meat quality development.

Seawater Adaptability of Land-locked Masu Salmon Oncorhynchus masou masou by Acclimation (순치 기간에 따른 육봉형 산천어(Oncorhynchus masou masou)의 해수 적응능력)

  • Kim, Pyong-Kih;Kim, Jae-Won;Park, Jeong-Hwan;Seong, Ki-Baik;Kim, Hyeon-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.753-758
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    • 2011
  • The seawater adaptability of land-locked masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou masou via acclimation was examined for aquaculture purposes. The survival, blood chemistry, and histological changes of masu salmon (150 g) were measured after 7-, 15-, and 30-day acclimation periods. After a total of 60 days in seawater cultures that incorporated the various acclimation periods, survival was 83.5, 87.2, and 91.0% for the 7-, 15-, and 30-day periods, respectively; thus, survival increased with longer periods of acclimation. Feeding efficiencies were 32.1, 52.0, and 40.6% for the 7-, 15-, and 30-day periods, and specific growth rates were 0.14, 0.26, and 0.23%, respectively. Generally, masu salmon appeared to exhibit better growth performance after an acclimation period of 15 days. Cortisol concentrations [mean ${\pm}$ SD] for 7, 15, and 30 days of acclimation were $21.0{\pm}6.5$, $17.8{\pm}4.8$, and $21.2{\pm}5.4\;{\mu}g/dl$, with the lowest values occurring with 15 days of acclimation. Osmolarities were $359.2{\pm}26.1$, $350.4{\pm}29.2$, and $354.6{\pm}29.3$ mOsm/kg, and glucose concentrations were $60.7{\pm}20.7$, $72.9{\pm}17.3$, and $76.6{\pm}14.1$ mg/dl for the 7-, 15-, and 30-day acclimation periods, respectively (P < 0.05). The histological study revealed that both gills and both kidneys of the masu salmon exhibited middle- to end-stage and middle-stage lesions in the 7- and 15-day groups, respectively, whereas these organs only had early-stage lesions in the 30-day group in the final experiment. Therefore, the seawater acclimation of masu salmon should involve more than 30 days in seawater.

Studies of the Effect of Vinegar Ingestion after the Strenuous Wingate Test on Energy Substrates during Recovery Periods (고강도의 윙게이트 테스트 후 식초섭취에 의한 회복기의 에너지기질 변화 연구)

  • Song, Young-Ju;Ryu, Sung-Pil
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1345-1352
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the effect of brown-rice vinegar (BRV) ingestion after strenuous Wingate tests on energy substrates during a 2 hr recovery period. For this, seven healthy male adolescents were chosen as subjects. They performed 3 Wingate tests to induce fatigue, after which they ingested brown-rice vinegar (BRV) drink and/or water as a control (CON) after 15 min of the test. Blood was obtained pre-exercise and 30 min, 60 min, and 120 min post-exercise, and blood glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, ammonia, and cortisol were analyzed. After 120 min of recovery period, the 4th Wingate test was conducted to calculate the power recovery ratio of the 3rd and 4th trials. Breathing frequency, oxygen saturation, and heart rate did not show significant changes. Blood glucose level was lower in CON than BRV after 120 min of recovery, and blood lactate and ammonia levels were lower in BRV at 60 and 120 min. The higher free fatty acids were found at 60 and 120 min in BRV. In addition, Wingate power recovery ratio of peak power and peak power/body weight was significantly higher in BRV compared to CON. These results suggested that BRV ingestion after strenuous exercise facilitates fatigue recovery. Therefore, BRV might be effectively used as an ergogenic aid for events in which competitors compete two or more times a day.

Molecular Analysis of Growth Factor and Clock Gene Expression in the Livers of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

  • Kim, Joo-Heon;Shim, Cheol-Soo;Won, Jin-Young;Park, Young-Ji;Park, Soo-Kyoung;Kang, Jae-Seon;Hong, Yong-Geun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 2009
  • Many biological systems are regulated by an intricate set of feedback loops that oscillate with a circadian rhythm of roughly 24 h. This circadian clock mediates an increase in body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and cortisol secretion early in the day. Recent studies have shown changes in the amplitude of the circadian clock in the hearts and livers of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. It is therefore important to examine the relationships between circadian clock genes and growth factors and their effects on diabetic phenomena in animal models as well as in human patients. In this study, we sought to determine whether diurnal variation in organ development and the regulation of metabolism, including growth and development during the juvenile period in rats, exists as a mechanism for anticipating and responding to the environment. Also, we examined the relationship between changes in growth factor expression in the liver and clock-controlled protein synthesis and turnover, which are important in cellular growth. Specifically, we assessed the expression patterns of several clock genes, including Per1, Per2, Clock, Bmal1, Cry1 and Cry2 and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and -2 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-${\beta}1$ in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Growth factor and clock gene expression in the liver at 1 week post-induction was clearly increased compared to the level in control rats. In contrast, the expression patterns of the genes were similar to those observed after 5 weeks in the STZ-treated rats. The increase in gene expression is likely a compensatory change in response to the obstruction of insulin function during the initial phase of induction. However, as the period of induction was extended, the expression of the compensatory genes decreased to the control level. This is likely the result of decreased insulin secretion due to the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas by STZ.

Immunological Aspects of Contemporary Exercise (운동과 면역반응에 대한 고찰)

  • Kwak, Yi-Sub;Kim, Chul-Woo;Paik, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.1166-1171
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    • 2007
  • Exercise is the strongest stress to which the body is ever exposed. The body responds to this stress through a set of physiological changes in its metabolic, hormonal, and immunological systems. In this study, responses of the immune system to the long-term aerobic and anaerobic exercises have been investigated. Regular moderate exercise is associated with a reduced incidence of infection compared with a sedentary groups. Aerobic training increases the heart rate and enhances the body's intake of oxygen long enough to benefit the condition of the body. In recent years, the importance of exercise in everyday life has been rapidly increasing. Moderate exercise appears to stimulate the immune system. And also, Exercise elicits an increase in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets (including NK cells) which is followed by a decrease in the numbers of cells during recovery from exercise. However, prolonged bouts of strenuous exercise cause a temporary depression of various aspects of immune functions (e.g. lymphocyte proliferation, monocyte antigen presentation, open window periods, exercise induced asthma, exercise induced anaphylaxis) that usually lasts 2-24 hr after exercise depending on the intensity and duration of the exercise bout. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) was defined as a decrease of at least 15% in pre exercise forced expiratory volume in one second at any time point after exercise. This includes elevation of cortisol and cathecholamines in plasma. On the other hand, highly trained athletes exhibit a chronic mild hypercortisolism at baseline that maybe an adaptive change to chronic exercise. And, Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Recent evidence suggests that antioxidant vitamin supplementation may also reduce exercise stress and impairment of leukocyte functions.

Effects of Rhodiola rosea (KH101) on Anti-fatigue in Forced Swimming Rats (홍경천(紅景天)추출물(KH101)이 강제유영 흰쥐의 피로회복에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Hyuk-Sang;Kim, Eun-Young;Shim, Eun-Sheb;Lee, Hyun-Sam;Moon, Eun-Jung;Jin, Zhen-Hua;Kim, Sun-Yeou;Sohn, Young-Joo;Sohn, Nak-Won
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.922-938
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : Rhodiola rosea has been used in herbal medicine to treat various conditions, such as antimelancholia, antifatigue, improvement of work competence and prevention of altitude sickness. In this study, we investigated effects of Rhodiola rosea extract (KH101) on fatigue in forced swimming rats. Methods : Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with fatigue by forced swimming, then rats in each group were treated with KH101. We observed changes of glucose, LDH and cortisol in serum and LDH, glycogen, hexokinase, citrate synthase MDH, SDH and CK in muscle. Results : Obtained results were as follows: 1. Continuance times of exercise significantly increased in all groups at day 1, in the 50 mg/kg concentration group at day 2, in all groups at day 3 and in the 50 mg/kg conc. group at day 4. 2. In serum, glucose significantly decreased in all concentration groups. 3. In the soleus muscle, LDH significantly decreased in the 50 mg/kg concentration group. HK significantly decreased in the 100 mg/kg conc. group. SDH significantly increased in the 100 mg/kg conc. MDH were significantly decreased in all conc. groups. 4. In the gastrocnemius muscle, HK significantly decreased in all concentration groups, while MDH significantly increased all conc. groups. Conclusions : It is concluded that the KH101 has and anti-fatigue effect in rats. Additional studies are needed to find the mechanism of the association between each single herb.

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Effects of Organic Acids on Growth Performance, Gastrointestinal pH, Intestinal Microbial Populations and Immune Responses of Weaned Pigs

  • Li, Zheji;Yi, Ganfeng;Yin, Jingdong;Sun, Peng;Li, Defa;Knight, Chris
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.252-261
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    • 2008
  • Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of feeding organic acids and antibiotic growth promoters in weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 nursery pigs (Large White$\times$Landrace; initial weight $7.80{\pm}0.07kg$) were randomly allotted into one of four dietary treatments. Pigs in treatment 1 were fed a complex starter diet. Treatments 2 to 4 were the same as treatment 1 but supplemented with antibiotics (200 ppm chlortetracycline plus 60 ppm Lincospectin), 0.5% potassium diformate or 0.5% dry organic acid blend ACTIVATE Starter DA (ASD). During the 4-week post-weaning period, pigs fed ASD or antibiotics had better gain (p = 0.03) and feed efficiency (p = 0.04) than pigs fed the control diet. On d 14 post-weaning, pigs fed the control diet had the lowest fecal lactobacilli count among all dietary treatments (p = 0.02), whereas pigs fed ASD or antibiotics had a trend for lower fecal E. coli count compared to the control pigs (p = 0.08). Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) of pigs fed ASD did not differ from pigs fed the control diet (p>0.05) at d 14 after weaning. In Exp. 2, 24 weaned pigs (Large White$\times$Long White; initial weight $5.94{\pm}0.33kg$) were allotted into four groups and housed individually. Pigs were fed a control diet or diets supplemented with antibiotics (100 ppm colistin sulfate, 50 ppm Kitasamycin plus 60 ppm Olaquindox), 0.5% or 1% ASD. All pigs were orally challenged with E. coli $K88^+$ on d 5. During d 5 to 14 after challenge, pigs fed antibiotics, 0.5% or 1% ASD had better gain (p = 0.01) and feed efficiency (p = 0.03) than pigs fed the control diet. On d 14, compared to the control pigs, pigs fed 0.5% ASD had higher lactobacilli in the duodenum and pigs fed 1% ASD and antibiotics had a trend for higher lactobacilli in the ileum (p = 0.08). Pigs fed antibiotics, 0.5% or 1% ASD diets tended to have decreased ileal E. coli count compared to those fed the control diet (p = 0.08). Serum interleukin-6 and cortisol and digesta pH values were not affected by treatment or time. These results indicate that feeding ASD can improve the growth performance of weaning pigs, mainly via modulating intestinal microflora populations without affecting gastrointestinal pH or immune indices.