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Functional Characterization of Mammary Gland of Holstein Cows under Humid Tropical Summer Climates

  • Lu, C.H.;Chang, C.J.;Lee, P.N.;Wu, C.P.;Chen, M.T.;Zhao, X.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.988-995
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    • 2003
  • Physiological parameters were measured on six primiparous, non-pregnant Holstein cows prior to peak lactation over a 3-month summer season in southwestern Taiwan. The objectives were to characterize heat stress-induced change in functionality of mammary gland under natural climates of tropical summer and to establish physiological indices applicable to this environment in referring to this change. Environmental and physiological readings, milk and blood samples were taken at 15:00 h biweekly for totally five time points during the study. Climate readings showed that the afternoon humidex value reached the highest (53.5) around mid summer. Rectal temperature of cows taken simultaneously varied between $38.26^{\circ}C$ and $40.02^{\circ}C$ in parallel to humidex. Milk production declined drastically from 29.2 to 22.2 kg/d the first month entering summer but leveled up at end of the summer season suggesting effects exerted by heat stress rather than stages of lactation. Lactose content decreased linearly (p<0.05) with times in summer, from 4.69 to 4.38%. On the other hand, activity of N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGase) in milk increased linearly to over two folds (p<0.05) during the same intervals. Elevations of fractional constituent of BSA in whey protein and serum cortisol level were also noticed in the course. Measurement of arteriovenous concentration (A-V) difference across the mammary gland demonstrated net uptake of glucose and net release of urea throughout the study period. The amount of urea released from mammary gland increased (p<0.05) progressively from 1.54 to 7.76 mg/dl during summer. It is concluded that gradual regression of mammary gland occurred along the humid tropical summer season. This regression is likely initiated through elevation of body temperature, which is irreversible above certain point. The increased release of urea from mammary gland during heat stress suggests its potential role as an early indicator of suboptimal mammary function.

Effects of Prepartum Dietary Carbohydrate Source on Metabolism and Performance of Primiparous Holstein Cows during the Periparturient Period

  • Mirzaei Alamouti, H.R.;Amanlou, H.;Rezayazdi, K.;Towhidi, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.1513-1520
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    • 2009
  • Forty-six Holstein heifers were used in a completely randomized design and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments to evaluate the effects of 2 diets varying in ruminal fermentable carbohydrate sources, namely ground corn (GC) and rolled wheat (RW), on metabolism and performance of primiparous cows in the periparturient period. The heifers were fed diets as a total mixed ration (TMR) with similar energy and crude protein content including i) 18.57% GC, or ii) 18.57% RW from -24.13${\pm}$7.73 d relative to expected calving until calving. After calving, all animals received the same lactation diet until 28 d. Animals were group fed from the beginning of the study to -7 d relative to expected calving, fed individually from d -7 to 7 days in milk (DIM), and again group fed to 28 DIM. The pre-partum diets affected (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI), energy intake, energy balance (EB) and urinary pH during the last week pre-partum. There was no effect of pre-partum carbohydrate source on overall plasma concentration of glucose, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), $\beta$-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), albumin, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), insulin, and cortisol during the periparturient period. Cows fed the RW diet during the pre-partum period had greater calcium for the first week (p<0.05) and during 28 d (p = 0.08) of lactation compared with heifers fed the GC diet. Primiparous cows fed the RW diet produced greater milk protein content and yield (p<0.05). Primiparous cows fed the RW diet had lower milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and somatic cell count (SCC) than cows fed the GC diet (p<0.05). The results of this study show that feeding pre-partum diets with a rapidly fermentable source of starch but low energy content can improve animal metabolism and performance and smooth the transition of primiparous Holstein cows from gestation to lactation.

Effects of different space allowances on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality in a grow-to-finish production system

  • Jang, J.C.;Jin, X.H.;Hong, J.S.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1796-1802
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of ninety crossbred pigs [$(Yorkshire{\times}Landrace){\times}Duroc$, $30.25{\pm}1.13kg$] were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs/pen, $0.96m^2/pig$; 0.80: five pigs/pen, $0.80m^2/pig$; 0.69: six pigs/pen, $0.69m^2/pig$) in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I, and finishing phase II). Results: There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI, p<0.01), and body weight (BW, p<0.01) with decreasing space allowance in late finishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (p<0.03). Consequently, overall ADG, ADFI, and final BW linearly declined in response to decreased space allowance (p<0.01). The pH of pork had no significant difference in 1 hour after slaughter, whereas there was a linear decrease in 24 h after slaughter with decreasing space allowance. Floor area allowance did not affect pork colors, but shear force linearly increased as floor space decreased (p<0.01). There was a linear increase in serum cortisol concentration on 14 week (p<0.05) with decreased space allocation. Serum IgG was linearly ameliorated as space allowance increased on 10 week (p<0.05) and 14 week (p<0.01). Conclusion: Data from current study indicated that stress derived from reduced space allowance deteriorates the immune system as well as growth performance of pigs, resulting in poor pork quality. Recommended adequate space allowance in a grow-to-finish production system is more than $0.80m^2/pig$ for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.

Changes of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Plasma of Rats during Cold Exposure (저온환경 적응에 있어서의 갑상선 Hormone의 변동)

  • Lee, H.W.;Kim, W.J.;Hong, S.S.;Kim, H.S.;Hong, S.U.
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 1981
  • The importance of thyroid hormones for the survival of rats in the cold is along-established fact. Hypothyroid animals are unable to survive in a cold environment. It was also reported that acute exposure of rats, guinea pigs and rabbits to cold produced an increased secretion of TSH and thereby thyroid hormone secretion within 10 to 30 min, but this increase of thyroid activity disappeared quite rapidly during warming. However, in human study no significant difference was found in the concentration of $T_4$, TSH and cortisol between summer and winter. But plasma $T_3$ concentration was increased significantly in winter in 56 adult men. On the other hand, it has been also known that catecholamines are important in the maintenance of body temperature of rat exposured to cold. Abundant evidences suggest that the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the activation of nonshivering thermogenesis and that thyroid hormone metabolism and secretion are influenced by catecholamines and consequently by the activity of the sympatheticadrenal system. Many of the metabolic effects of catecholamines are associated with an increase in the level of cAMP mediated through activation of adenylate cyclase which converts ATP to cAMP. Other studies have shown that thyroid hormones affect the amount of adenylate cyclase present in the adipose tissue. On the other hand. it was also reported that a particulate cAMP phosphodiesterase activity in fat cells was modulated by the action of thyroid hormones. The objective of the present study was to determine the interaction between thyroid activity and cyclic nucleotides during acute exposure to cold. Albino rats weighing around 200 g were used as the experimental animal. The room temperature group was kept at $25^{\circ}C$ and the cold-exposured group was kept at $4^{\circ}C$ for 1 week or 2 weeks. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups; control, KI, and MTU group. At the end of experiment the animals were etherized and blood was taken from abdominal aorta for $T_4,\;T_3$ and cyclic nucleotides. The determinations of $T_3,\;T_4$ and cyclic nucleotides were carried out with a radioimmunoassay(RIA) method. The results were summerized as followings. 1) A significant increase of thyroid weight was observed in rats exposured to cold for 2 weeks. Furthermore, in rats administered MTU while to exposure to cold the thyroid weight was also increased significantly. 2) After 2 weeks $T_3$ concentration in the plasma of cold-exposured rats was significantly increased in KI group and MTU group as well as in control group. On the contrary, after 2 weeks of cold exposure $T_4$ level was decreased in control group. 3) In the case of cyclic nucleotides, plasma cAMP was increased in the control group after 1 or 2 weeks of cold exposure. However, cAMP level in plasma was rather significantly decreased in KI group and MTU group as well as in control group.

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Effects of ambient temperature and rumen-protected fat supplementation on growth performance, rumen fermentation and blood parameters during cold season in Korean cattle steers

  • Kang, Hyeok Joong;Piao, Min Yu;Park, Seung Ju;Na, Sang Weon;Kim, Hyun Jin;Baik, Myunggi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.657-664
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was performed to evaluate whether cold ambient temperature and dietary rumen-protected fat (RPF) supplementation affect growth performance, rumen fermentation, and blood parameters in Korean cattle steers. Methods: Twenty Korean cattle steers (body weight [BW], $550.6{\pm}9.14kg$; age, $19.7{\pm}0.13months$) were divided into a conventional control diet group (n = 10) and a 0.5% RPF supplementation group (n = 10). Steers were fed a concentrate diet (1.6% BW) and a rice straw diet (1 kg/d) for 16 weeks (January 9 to February 5 [P1], February 6 to March 5 [P2], March 6 to April 3 [P3], and April 4 to May 2 [P4]). Results: The mean and minimum indoor ambient temperatures in P1 ($-3.44^{\circ}C$, $-9.40^{\circ}C$) were lower (p<0.001) than those in P3 ($5.87^{\circ}C$, $-1.86^{\circ}C$) and P4 ($11.18^{\circ}C$, $4.28^{\circ}C$). The minimum temperature in P1 fell within the moderate cold-stress (CS) category, as previously reported for dairy cattle, and the minimum temperatures of P2 and P3 were within the mild CS category. Neither month nor RPF supplementation affected the average daily gain or gain-to-feed ratio (p>0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in cold winter than spring. Plasma cortisol concentrations were lower (p<0.05) in the coldest month than in the other months. Serum glucose concentrations were generally higher in colder months than in the other months but were unaffected by RPF supplementation. RPF supplementation increased both total cholesterol (p = 0.004) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Korean cattle may not be significantly affected by moderate CS, considering that the growth performance of cattle remained unchanged, although variations in blood parameters were observed among the studied months. RPF supplementation altered cholesterol and HDL concentrations but did not affect growth performance.

DENTAL TREATMENT IN A PATIENT WITH CONGENITAL PANHYPOPITUITARISM UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA (선천성 범뇌하수체저하증(Congenital panhypopituitarism) 환자의 전신마취 하 치과치료)

  • Kim, Hyuntae;Song, Ji-Soo;Hyun, Hong-Keun;Kim, Young-Jae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Jang, Ki-Taeg;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Shin, Teo Jeon
    • The Journal of Korea Assosiation for Disability and Oral Health
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.70-73
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    • 2019
  • Congenital panhypopituitarism is an uncommon condition, present from birth, characterized by the decreased secretion of most of the hormones produced by the pituitary. The purpose of this case report is to present a case about caries treatment of a 26-month-old female patient with congenital panhypopituitarism under general anesthesia. A 26-month-old girl with congenital panhypopituitarism visited Seoul National University Dental Hospital for caries treatment of anterior primary teeth. Because of the child's age and underlying systemic disease, dental treatment under general anesthesia was considered. Prior to the dental procedure, 30mg of cortisol was administered intravenously in order to prevent possible adrenal crisis by stressful events. The dental procedure was successfully performed under general anesthesia. This case report suggests that general anesthesia may be useful for the dental treatment with congenital panhypopituitarism. Hormone deficiency should be assessed prior to dental procedure and, if necessary, stress hormone replacement therapy should be considered.

Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

  • Kang, H.J.;Lee, I.K.;Piao, M.Y.;Gu, M.J.;Yun, C.H.;Kim, H.J.;Kim, K.H.;Baik, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.436-443
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    • 2016
  • Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean ($8.7^{\circ}C$) and minimum ($1.0^{\circ}C$) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those ($13.0^{\circ}C$ and $6.2^{\circ}C$, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.

The Effects of Gilts Housed Either in Group with the Electronic Sow Feeding System or Conventional Stall

  • Jang, J.C.;Jung, S.W.;Jin, S.S.;Ohh, S.J.;Kim, J.E.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1512-1518
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    • 2015
  • This experiment was conducted to assess the welfare and productivity of gestating gilts in groups with the electronic sow feeding (ESF) system compared to conventional stalls. A total of 83 gilts ($Yorkshire{\times}Landrace$) were housed into individual stalls to be artificially inseminated. Gilts confirmed pregnant were introduced to their treatment, conventional stalls (ST) or groups with the ESF system. All gilts were taken to the farrowing crates one week prior to their expected farrowing date. In the gestation period, there were no significant differences between gilts allocated to ST and ESF on growth performance. However, backfat thickness gain (p = 0.08) and body condition score (BCS) at 110 days of gestation (p = 0.10) tended to be higher in ESF gilts than ST. Likewise, gilts housed in group showed significantly higher estimated body muscle contents at 110 days of gestation (p = 0.02) and body muscle change during gestation (p = 0.01). There was a trend for a shorter parturition time in ESF gilts (p = 0.07). In the lactation period, group housed gilts showed a tendency to increased BCS changes (p = 0.06). Reproductive performance did not differ with the exception of piglet mortality (ST = 0.2 no. of piglets vs ESF = 0.4 no. of piglets; p = 0.01). In blood profiles, ST gilts showed a higher cortisol level at 110 days of gestation (p = 0.01). Weaning to estrus interval was shorter in gilts housed in ESF than ST (p = 0.01). In locomotory behaviors, ESF gilts recorded a tendency to elevate locomotion score at 36, 70, and 110 days of gestation (p = 0.07, p = 0.06, and p = 0.06, respectively). Similarly, ESF gilts showed significantly higher incidence of scratches at 36, 70, and 110 days of gestation (p = 0.01). Moreover, farrowing rates were higher in stall treatment (97.6%) compare to group housing treatment (95.2%). In conclusion, while group housed gilts with ESF system positively affected welfare status in combination with less physiologically stressful environments and activity, it negatively effects piglet mortality, farrowing rates and injuries of gilts.

Plasma Levels of Hormones and Metabolites as Affected by the Forages Type in Two Different Types of Crossbred Holstein Cattle

  • Chaiyabutr, N.;Preuksagorn, S.;Komolvanich, S.;Chanpongsang, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1359-1366
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    • 2000
  • An experiment was carried out to study plasma levels of hormones and metabolites of crossbred Holstein cattle during late pregnancy (28 days pre partum), early lactation (30 days post partum), mid-lactation (120 days post partum) and late lactation (210 days post partum). Two breed types of Holstein $Friesian{\times}Red$ Sindhi (50:50 = 50%HF) and Holstein $Friesian{\times}Red$ Sindhi (87.5:12.5 = 87.5%HF) were divided into four groups of four animals each. Two groups of each breed were fed with either rice straw treated with 5% urea or pangola hay (Digitaria decumbens) as the source of roughage throughout the experiments. There were a substantial increases in the mean levels of total triiodothyronine ($T_3$), insulin and glucagon at the onset of lactation, and maintained in a high levels during lactation advance for all groups of experiments. The mean levels of prolactin and thyroxine ($T_4$) were not significantly different among groups of animals, but the plasma cortisol concentration was slightly higher in both groups of 50%HF in comparison with those of 87.5%HF animals. The mean levels of plasma growth hormone (GH) of both groups of 87.5%HF animals feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw markedly rose in the early period of lactation and markedly reduced in mid- and late lactation. These changes were accompanied with changes of milk yield. In contrast to 50%HF animals, plasma GH levels were considerably higher in the late pregnant period than in the early period of lactation and it remained constant as its value at the early lactation throughout the experimental period. The high levels of both plasma progesterone and estradiol concentration significantly declined after parturition and remained low through lactating period. The plasma glucose level in the 50%HF animals feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw was higher than the 87.5%HF animals in all periods of experiments. Changes in plasma FFA levels of both types of crossbred animals were depended on the endocrine status during late pregnancy and lactation. The levels of plasma FFA of 50%HF animals were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of 87.5%HF animals during late pregnancy. Both plasma ${\beta}$-hydroxybutyrate and lactate concentrations were not affected by feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw during late pregnancy and lactation. These data demonstrate that there were no differences in the physiological performances in the same crossbred animals fed either hay or urea treated rice straw. The 87.5%HF animal has the genetic potential for a high milk yield and homeorhetic adaptation for mammary function differed from 50%HF animals during periods of lactation. Altering lactation persistency in 87.5%HF is regulated mainly by chronically acting growth hormones through the period of lactation.

Enhancement of Immune Activities of Canavalia gladiata & Arctium lappa complexes in immobilization stress mouse model. (부동화 스트레스 유도 마우스 모델에서 도두(刀豆), 우방근(牛蒡根) 복합물의 면역증진 작용)

  • Lee, Ji-eun;Roh, Seong-Soo;Kim, Han-Young;Kim, Kun-hoae;Kim, Seung-Hyung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2017
  • Objective : Soybeans of Canavalia gladiata(CG) and root of Arctium lappa(AL) have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effect. However, the immunoregulatory mechanisms of its combinational prescription remain a matter of considerable debate. In the current study, we investigated whether CG and AL and its combinational prescription(CG+AL) regulate immune system using chronic immobilization-stress mouse model. Methods : C57BL/6J mice fixed for 2 hours into immobilization tube after CG, AL, CG+AL oral administration after 2 hours daily for 21 days. After every experiment has ended the C57BL/6J mice were sacrificed on 22 days. The production of Serotonin and Cortisol, lgA were observed by ELISA method, The proportion of immune cells such as T/B cell and macrophage, NK cell were measured by FACS. Then, Real-time PCR was performed to measure the mRNA expression of Inflammatory cytokines(IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-a) and T cell activation cytokines(IL-2, IL-10, IFN-gamma, IL-12p35 / p40). Result : When chronic immobilization-stress mouse model were treated with CG+AL(1:4), the expression of mRNA were significantly decreased at the Inflammatory cytokines(IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-a). While, the levels of mRNA were significantly increased at immune T cell activation cytokines. Additionally, CG+AL(1:4) combinational prescription group enhanced immune cells such as T/B cell and macrophage, NK cell. Furthermore, the Immuno-fluorescence result of brain tissue can confirm that CG+AL(1:4) group significantly increased the BDNF expression. Conclusion : These result suggest that CG+AL(1:4) combinational prescription has Immune System enhancement via stress-mediated immunocyte.