• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cortisol

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Exploring Subjective Stress, Sleep and Diurnal Variation of Salivary Cortisol in Korean Female Adults (여대생의 스트레스, 수면, 타액 코티솔 일중변동 연구)

  • Lee, Sunock;Suh, Minhee
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study was to find a specific time of day with a stable cortisol level and to investigate the relationship between salivary cortisol and sleep. Methods: A total of 36 Korean female college students participated in the study. Salivary specimens were collected 6 times a day for 2 days in different stressful situations. Sleep characteristics were measured using an actigraph while salivary specimens were collected. Perceived stress was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Recent Stress. Results: Depending on whether there were morning peak and/or afternoon elevations in the cortisol levels, the type of diurnal cortisol pattern was classified into 4 types. None of the cortisol levels in different times of the day showed significant relationships to perceived stress levels. Cortisol levels in the morning, levels of peak cortisol and diurnal differences of cortisol were significantly correlated with sleep duration. The time with most stable cortisol level was 9-10 pm. Conclusion: It is recommended that measurements of salivary cortisol are taken from 9-10 pm since it showed a stable value regardless of diurnal cortisol rhythm and sleep. Sleep duration should be considered as an important confounding factor in measuring cortisol levels in the morning and the diurnal differences of cortisol.

Cytoprotective Effect of Zinc-Mediated Antioxidant Gene Expression on Cortisol-Induced Cytotoxicity (Cortisol 유발 세포독성에 대한 아연 관련 항산화 유전자 발현 증가에 의한 세포보호 효과)

  • Chung, Mi Ja;Kim, Sung Hyun;Hwang, In Min
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.649-656
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    • 2015
  • The protective effect of zinc against cortisol-induced cell injury was examined in rainbow trout gill epithelial cells. Cells exposed to cortisol for 24 h showed increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with zinc ($100{\mu}M$ $ZnSO_4$) reduced the severity of both LDH release and cell death as well as protected cells against cortisol-induced caspase-3 activation, indicating reduction of apoptosis. Cortisol-induced cell death, leakage of LDH, and caspase-3 activation were blocked by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist Mifepristone (RU-486), suggesting that cell injury was cortisol-dependent. In addition, we studied the effect of zinc on the expression of antioxidant genes such as metallothionein A (MTA), metallothionein B (MTB), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) during cortisol-induced cell injury. MTA, MTB, GST, and G6PD mRNA levels increased after treatment with zinc or cortisol, separately or in combination. Higher mRNA levels of MTA, MTB, GST, and G6PD were detected when cells were treated with $100{\mu}M$ $ZnSO_4$ and $1{\mu}M$ cortisol in combination at the same time compared to treatment with zinc or cortisol separately. Cells treated with zinc showed increased intracellular free zinc concentrations, and this response was significantly enhanced in cells treated with cortisol and zinc. In conclusion, zinc treatment inhibited cortisol-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis through indirect antioxidant action.

The Relationship of Examination Stress with Serum Cortisol and Prolactin Levels (시험스트레스와 혈청 Cortisol 및 Prolactin치 간의 관계)

  • Koh, Kyung-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 1995
  • The primary aim of this study is to find out the relationship of examination stress with serum cortisol and prolatin levels. 20 male medical students participated in this study. Global assessment of recent stress (GARS) scale and SCL-90R were used to measure stress perception and psychopathology. Radioimmunoassay was used to assess serum cortisol and prolactin. Serum cortisol level was significantly higher during exam period than during nonexam period. However, there was no significant difference in serum prolactin level between the two periods. In psychopathology, only interpersonal sensitivity had a significantly negative correlation with serum cortisol level during exam period. On the other hand, stress perception had no significant correlation with serum cortisol and prolactin levels during each of exam and non-exam period. The results suggest that cortisol is more likely to be associated with psychological stress such as examination than prolactin, and that specific psychopathology such as interpersonal sensitivity is more likely to be associated with lower serum cortisol level.

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Development of ELISA for cortisol and it's application to clinical use (ELISA를 이용한 cortisol 측정법의 정립 및 임상적 응용)

  • Na, Ki-jeong;Lee, Chang-woo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.731-741
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    • 1996
  • ELISA kit for cortisol was developed and then evaluated. Polyclonal antihydrocortisone-3-(o-carboxymethyl)oxime BSA rabbit serum was used to coat the 96-well microplates. The minimum detection limit of the kit was 250pg of cortisol per milliliter. The within-run variation and the day to day variation of the ELISA system were 2.0 and 5.9 at maximum, respectively. The kit was used to determine whether salivary cortisol concentration could replace blood cortisol concentration in dexamathasone suppression test of dogs. Changes of cortisol concentration were measured in serum or saliva after intravenous administration of 0.01mg of dexamethasone per kilogram of body weight. Blood alone, saliva alone or both were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 minutes after injection of dexamethasone. The change in blood cortisol concentration was found to be suitable in dexamathasone suppression test of dogs, but the change in salivary cortisol concentration was not. The kit was also used to determine whether salivary cortisol concentration could be a stress index as well as blood cortisol concentration in dogs. Two types of trial were performed to estimate the stress either by blood or salivary cortisol concentration. The first trial was stress experiment by intravenous injection of 0.2IU of PZI-insulin per kilogram body weight. Either blood alone or saliva alone was collected at 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after insulin administration. Both blood and salivary cortisol concentration were found to be suitable index in estimating stress from hypoglycemia by injection of insulin. The second trial was stress experiment by electrical irritation. The dogs were irritated with anti-bark device for 10 seconds. Blood was collected before and at 2 and 5 minutes after electrical irritation. Saliva was collected before and at 3 and 6 minutes after electrical irritation. The blood cortisol concentration, but not the salivary cortisol concentration was found to be suitable index in estimating stress from electrical irritation. Cushing syndrome in a dog was also successfully diagnosed with this kit.

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Gender Differences in the Diurnal Rhythm of Salivary Cortisol in Adolescents : Area under the curve analysis (청소년의 성별에 따른 Cortisol 분비의 일주기 차이 : 반복측정에 따른 Area Under the Curve 분석법 사용)

  • Lee, Sang-Kwan
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.829-836
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : This study investigated the diurnal rhythm of cortisol in male and female adolescents. Methods : Salivary cortisol was examined in 52 normally developing subjects aged 13 to 14 years. Subjects provided saliva samples at 08:00h, 12:00h, 16:00h and 20:00h. Results : Males and females showed similar pattern of cortisol, which elevated cortisol in the morning and decreased in the evening. There were no differences of gender at 08:00h, 12;00h and 20:00h. There were also not difference between males and females using an area under the curve analysis. Conclusions : The same diurnal cortisol rhythm were found in male and female adolescents. Further research is needed to examine differences of gender in cortisol awakening response.

The Relation Between Temperament and Accumulated Cortisol Levels Among Toddlers Following Childcare Use (영아의 기질과 누적 코티솔 수준의 관계: 어린이집 이용 여부에 따른 차이)

  • Song, Ji-Na;Yi, Soon-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2016
  • Objective: This study aimed to examine the difference in toddlers' accumulated cortisol levels based on childcare experience in toddlerhood and the relationship between temperament and accumulated cortisol levels. Methods: Hair sample were collected for measure accumulated cortisol level in 87 toddlers. The Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) was used to measure temperament. Results: First, toddlers in childcare showed higher accumulated cortisol levels than in-home toddlers. Second, toddlers in childcare, exhibited a significant correlation between accumulated cortisol levels and surgency. Third, the accumulated cortisol levels of in-home toddlers exhibited a significant correlation with negative affect. In this research, there was significant range in the accumulated cortisol level according to childcare use, and the factors related to accumulated cortisol levels were different in each context. Conclusion: The results of this research support the "susceptibility to context of HPA axis" and imply a needed discussion about the effect of childcare experiences in toddlerhood.

Effects of Cortisol on Endoplasmic Reticulum-stress, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Mouse Muscle C2C12 Cells (생쥐 근육세포에서 코티졸이 세포질세망 스트레스, 자연 세포사멸과 자가포식에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Donghyun;Kim, Kyoung Hwan;Lee, Ji Hyun;Cho, Byung-Wook
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1127-1131
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    • 2018
  • Cortisol, a steroid hormone, functions within metabolism, immune response, and stress. Intense or prolonged physical exercise increases cortisol levels to enhance the gluconeogenesis pathway and stabilize blood glucose level. However, cortisol also exerts a negative impact on muscle function and creates a stressful environment in skeletal muscle cells. The present study investigated the function of cortisol as a stress hormone. To examine the effect of the exercise-induced hormone cortisol on skeletal muscles, C2C12 cells were cultured and treated with cortisol at different concentrations. As a result, we found that the morphology of C2C12 changed remarkably with 5 ug/ml cortisol treatment. Western blot analysis was conducted to learn whether ER-stress and autophagy were induced. We found that the expression ratio of LC3I/LC3II decreased and BiP expression increased after cortisol treatment. In addition, immunocytochemistry analysis with IER3 antibody clearly showed that apoptosis is induced after 12-hour cortisol treatment. These results indicate that cortisol treatment could induce apoptosis, ER-stress, and autophagy in muscle cells. This study would provide valuable information in the study of the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle cells and the development of additives to reduce cortisol stress.

Effects of Short-term Immobilization Stress on the Mouse Serum Concentrations of Cortisol and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulphate (단기 속박스트레스가 마우스 혈청 Cortisol, Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulphate 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • 차정호;최광수;최형송
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2000
  • We have investigated the effect of short-term immobilization stress on the serum concentrations of cortisol and DHEAS in BALB/c male mice. Serum cortisol and DHEAS concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay(RIA). We found there were significantly increased in the cortisol levels in 30 min-stressed group(Ⅰ-30N) compared with control(C) group (p<0.01), and also increased with significance in 120 min-stressed group(I-120N) compared with C group(p<0.01). Cortisol concentrations were significantly increased in both 30 min-stressed group(Ⅰ-30T), and 120 min-stressed group(Ⅰ-120T) compared with C group(p<0.01). The sustained increase of cortisol levels were observed in both SG treated and SG non-treated group. Serum cortisol levels were lower in SG treated group than SG non-treated group with significance(p<0.01). By contrast, DHEAS levels were slightly decreased without significance in Ⅰ-30N, but significantly decreased in Ⅰ-120N compared with C group(p<0.01). There were slightly decreased in the DHEAS levels in Ⅰ-30T, but significantly decreased in Ⅰ-120T compared with C group(p<0.01). However, SG treatment did not induce any significant changes of DHEAS levels in both 30 min and 120 min-stressed group. Though short-term immobilization stress, the continuous decline of DHEAS levels were observed. Therefore, these results show that short-term immobilization stress affects the serum concentrations of cortisol and DHEAS in mice.

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Change of Blood Cortisol Concentration in Domestic Cats by Various Stress Types (스트레스 유형에 따른 고양이 혈중 Cortisol농도의 변화)

  • 나기정
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1998
  • The present study was performed to evaluate circadian rhythm of blood nortisol concentration and change of blood cortisol concentration by various stress type in domestic cats. The ELISA kit for cortisol measurement was evaluated on the effective assay range, day to day variation, within-run variation and accuracy. The results were 1-1,000 ng/ ml, 0.7-5.9%, 0.9-4.5% and 98%, respectively. The circadian rhythm of serum cortisol concentration is presented in cats. Change of serum cortisol concentration was also examined with several stressors, stimulation with hamster as a prey, beep electronic sounds, vehicle transportation and unfamiliar environment. Unfamiliar environment showed most remarkable change in serum cortisol level.

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The Relations of Preschoolers' Cortisol Pattern at Home to Tendency of Internalizing Behavior (유아의 가정에서의 코티솔 패턴과 내면화 행동성향 간의 관계)

  • Lee, Young;Shin, Yee-Jin;Chung, Jee-Nha;Min, Sung-Hye;Min, Hyun-Suk;Lee, Kyung-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.45 no.9
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2007
  • The purposes of this study were to look at the patterns of Korean preschoolers' cortisol levels at home and to examine the relations of cortisol pattern to the preschooler's internalizing behavioral tendency with focused on behavioral inhibition and internalizing problematic behavior. The subjects of the study were forty 4-year old preschoolers(27 boys and 13 girls). Saliva was collected at home during the weekends, and cortisol was analyzed by Radioimmunoassay procedure. "Strange Peer Situation Experiment" developed by Rubin, Coplan, Fox and Calkins(1995) and revised by Rubin, Burgess and Hastings(2002) was used to measure the preschooler's behavior inhibition. Problematic behavior was measured through a "Korean Children's Behavior Checklist" (Oh, K. J., Lee, H. R., Hong, K. E., & Ha, E. H., 1997). The results were as follows: First, on average for a 4-year old, the level of cortisol was 0.22 in the morning, and 0.14 in the afternoon. There was a pattern that cortisol levels had declined in the afternoon. There was no difference in cortisol levels between genders. Secondly, there was a tendency that children of higher inhibition level at the lab showed the higher cortisol levels in the morning. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Thirdly, the higher the cortisol levels at home, the more showed internalizing behavior. Externalizing behavior was not correlated with the cortisol levels. It was concluded that cortisol may be related to children's internalizing behavior tendency.