• Title, Summary, Keyword: Corpus Linguistics

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A Corpus-Based Study of the Use of HEART and HEAD in English

  • Oh, Sang-suk
    • Language and Information
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.81-102
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this paper is to provide corpus-based quantitative analyses of HEART and HEAD in order to examine their actual usage status and to consider some cognitive linguistic aspects associated with their use. The two corpora COCA and COHA are used for analysis in this study. The analysis of COCA corpus reveals that the total frequency of HEAD is much higher than that of HEART, and that the figurative use of HEART (60%) is two times higher than its literal use (32%); by contrast, the figurative use of HEAD (41%) is a bit higher than its literal use (38%). Among all four genres, both lexemes occur most frequently in fictions and then in magazines. Over the past two centuries, the use of HEART has been steadily decreasing; by contrast, that the use of HEAD has been steadily increasing. It is assumed that the decreasing use of HEART has partially to do with the decrease in its figurative use and that the increasing use of HEAD is attributable to its diverse meanings, the increase of its lexical use, and the partial increase in its figurative use. The analysis of the collocation of verbs and adjectives preceding HEART and HEAD, as well the modifying and predicating forms of HEART and HEAD also provides some relevant information of the usage of the two lexemes. This paper showcases that the quantitative information helps understanding not only of the actual usage of the two lexemes but also of the cognitive forces working behind it.

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Automatic Processing of Predicative Nouns for Korean Semantic Recognition. (한국어 의미역 인식을 위한 서술성 명사의 자동처리 연구)

  • Lee, Sukeui;Im, Su-Jong
    • Korean Linguistics
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    • v.80
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    • pp.151-175
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    • 2018
  • This paper proposed a method of semantic recognition to improve the extraction of correct answers of the Q&A system through machine learning. For this purpose, the semantic recognition method is described based on the distribution of predicative nouns. Predicative noun vocabularies and sentences were collected from Wikipedia documents. The predicative nouns are typed by analyzing the environment in which the predicative nouns appear in sentences. This paper proposes a semantic recognition method of predicative nouns to which rules can be applied. In Chapter 2, previous studies on predicative nouns were reviewed. Chapter 3 explains how predicative nouns are distributed. In this paper, every predicative nouns that can not be processed by rules are excluded, therefore, the predicative nouns noun forms combined with the case marker '의' were excluded. In Chapter 4, we extracted 728 sentences composed of 10,575 words from Wikipedia. A semantic analysis engine tool of ETRI was used and presented a predicative nouns noun that can be handled semantic recognition language.

An Analysis of the process acting as a driver of the expansion of meanings in the synonym-antonym net: the meanings of '틀리다' ranging from "be wrong" to "be different" ([다름]의 '틀리다'를 형성하는 유의-반의 관계망 분석)

  • Shin, Jung-Jin
    • Korean Linguistics
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    • v.78
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    • pp.31-54
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    • 2018
  • '맞다(right)', which is inversely related to 'teullida', has a synonymic relationship with '같다(same)' depending on the sense. Naturally, the '같다' is usually inversely related to '다르다(be different)' as symmetry verb. The meaning of '다르다' is 'teullida' and there is a close meaning relationship network in the network of words. In other words, the process acting as a driver of the expansion of meanings based on the antonym-relation of (1)'틀리다${\leftrightarrow}$맞다', and the s?ynonym-relation of (2)'맞다 = 같다' forms a network, and the relation between them and the opposite semantics is (3)'같다=맞다${\leftrightarrow}$다르다'. And many of today's speakers speak (4)'teullida' of [difference]. Therefore, after the application of the synonymic analogy, eventually, the antonymic analogy is formed, and the word formed is 'teullida' of [difference]. This, of course, forms another type of enlargement of the meaning.

A Phonetic Study of Vowel Raising: A Closer Look at the Realization of the Suffix {-go} (모음 상승 현상의 음성적 고찰: 어미 {-고}의 실현을 중심으로)

  • LEE, HYANG WON;Shin, Jiyoung
    • Korean Linguistics
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    • v.81
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    • pp.267-297
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    • 2018
  • Vowel raising in Korean has been primarily treated as a phonological, categorical change. This study aims to show how the Korean connective suffix {-go} is realized in various environments, and propose a principle of vowel raising based on both acoustic and perceptual data. To that end, we used a corpus of spoken Korean to analyze the types of syntactic constructions, the realization of prosodic boundaries (IP and PP), and the types of boundary tone associated with {-go}. It was found that the vowel tends to be raised most frequently in utterance-final position, while in utterance-medial position the vowel was raised more when the syntactic and prosodic distance between {-go} and the following constituent was smaller. The results for boundary tone also showed a correlation between vowel raising and the discourse function of the boundary tone. In conclusion, we propose that vowel raising is not simply an optional phenomenon, but rather a type of phonetic reduction related to the comprehension of the following constituent.

A Study on the Analysis of Korean Native Speakers's Utterance Fluency (한국어 모어 화자의 발화 유창성 분석 연구)

  • Lee, Jin
    • Korean Linguistics
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    • v.81
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    • pp.245-265
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to prepare the basis for a more objective evaluation of oral fluency by analyzing Korean native speaker's utterance. Traditionally, fluency evaluation tended to rely on the evaluators' experience and subjective idea. Therefore, there has been a need of setting the evaluation standard in numeric form that is easily measurable. In this study, I will analyze Korean native speaker's utterance in focus of pause. Total number of 875 pauses were extracted from the 21st Century Sejong Korean spoken corpus, and the elements before and after the pauses were annotated. From the analysis results, the pauses were divided between fluent pauses and influent pauses. If the length of fluent pauses do not exceed reasonable length of pause for native Korean speakers, there was no point reduction. On the other hand, if the influent pauses are made more frequently than the native Korean speakers, then it is subject to point reduction.

Analysis of the Timing of Spoken Korean Using a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Model

  • Chung, Hyun-Song;Huckvale, Mark
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.77-91
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    • 2001
  • This paper investigates the timing of Korean spoken in a news-reading speech style in order to improve the naturalness of durations used in Korean speech synthesis. Each segment in a corpus of 671 read sentences was annotated with 69 segmental and prosodic features so that the measured duration could be correlated with the context in which it occurred. A CART model based on the features showed a correlation coefficient of 0.79 with an RMSE (root mean squared prediction error) of 23 ms between actual and predicted durations in reserved test data. These results are comparable with recent published results in Korean and similar to results found in other languages. An analysis of the classification tree shows that phrasal structure has the greatest effect on the segment duration, followed by syllable structure and the manner features of surrounding segments. The place features of surrounding segments only have small effects. The model has application in Korean speech synthesis systems.

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Derivational Morphology in a Tagged Corpus (형태소 분석 말뭉치의 파생명사 처리)

  • Cha, Joon-Kyung;Kang, Beom-Mo
    • Annual Conference on Human and Language Technology
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    • pp.390-394
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    • 2000
  • 이 논문은 형태소 분석 말뭉치를 구축하면서 제기되었던 파생 명사 처리의 문제점을 논의하고 그 해결 방안을 모색한 것이다. 파생 명사의 분석에서 국어학적 전산 언어학적으로 유의미한 분석 범위를 정할 때 몇가지 고려해야 할 사항이 있다. 접두사는 어기가 불규칙하므로 규칙으로 자동처리가 어렵다. 형태소 분석의 대상은 생산성이 높고, 어기와 범주를 변화시키는 서술성 접두사로 그 범위를 정할 수 있을 것이다. 접미사의 분석은 생산성이 높고 규칙적인 굴절 접미사가 분석의 대상이 되며, 또한 서술성을 갖는 한자어계 접미사도 분석 대상이 된다. 파생 명사의 분석에 있어서 접사는 그 위상이 동요되므로 접두사는 관형사와 구별이 어렵고 접미사는 의존명사와 구별이 어렵다. 그러므로, 대용량의 형태소 분석 말뭉치를 효율적으로 구축하기 위해서는 접사에 대한 다각적인 검토가 필요할 것이다.

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Corpus-Linguistical Analysis of Newspaper Articles (신문 기사의 코퍼스 언어학적 분석)

  • Song, Kyung-Hwa;Kang, Beom-Mo
    • Annual Conference on Human and Language Technology
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2006
  • 본 연구에서는 신문 기사에 대한 실증적 언어 분석을 목적으로 하여, <21세기 세종계획>에 의해 구축된 대용량의 신문 기사 말뭉치를 다양한 각도로 계량화하여 분석한다. 신문 기사를 표제, 전문, 본문의 구성으로 나누고 각 구성의 특징에 따라 형태 분석 말뭉치, 형태의미 분석 말뭉치, 구문 분석 말뭉치를 이용하여 분석한다. 본 연구는 대량의 신문 기사 말뭉치를 이용한 계량적 방법이라는데 의의가 있다 이러한 연구 방법을 통하여 기존의 직관을 이용한 연구 방법들과 차별화 된 실증적 연구로서 신문 이론을 검증하고, 신문 기사의 새로운 언어 현상을 발견할 수 있을 것이다.

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How Korean Learner's English Proficiency Level Affects English Speech Production Variations

  • Hong, Hye-Jin;Kim, Sun-Hee;Chung, Min-Hwa
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2011
  • This paper examines how L2 speech production varies according to learner's L2 proficiency level. L2 speech production variations are analyzed by quantitative measures at word and phone levels using Korean learners' English corpus. Word-level variations are analyzed using correctness to explain how speech realizations are different from the canonical forms, while accuracy is used for analysis at phone level to reflect phone insertions and deletions together with substitutions. The results show that speech production of learners with different L2 proficiency levels are considerably different in terms of performance and individual realizations at word and phone levels. These results confirm that speech production of non-native speakers varies according to their L2 proficiency levels, even though they share the same L1 background. Furthermore, they will contribute to improve non-native speech recognition performance of ASR-based English language educational system for Korean learners of English.

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Rhythmic Differences between Spontaneous and Read Speech of English

  • Kim, Sul-Ki;Jang, Tae-Yeoub
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2009
  • This study investigates whether rhythm metrics can be used to capture the rhythmic differences between spontaneous and read English speech. Transcription of spontaneous speech tokens extracted from a corpus is read by three English native speakers to generate the corresponding read speech tokens. Two data sets are compared in terms of seven rhythm measures that are suggested by previous studies. Results show that there is a significant difference in the values of vowel-based metrics (VarcoV and nPVI-V) between spontaneous and read speech. This manifests a greater variability in vocalic intervals in spontaneous speech than in read speech. The current study is especially meaningful as it demonstrates a way in which speech styles can be differentiated and parameterized in numerical terms.

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