• Title, Summary, Keyword: Corn grain

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Effect of corn grain particle size on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of Holstein steers fed total mixed ration

  • Kim, Do Hyung;Choi, Seong Ho;Park, Sung Kwon;Lee, Sung Sill;Choi, Chang Weon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.80-85
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of corn grain particle size on ruminant fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein steers fed total mixed ration (TMR) as a basal diet to explain fundamental data of corn grain for cattle in Korea. Methods: Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (body weight $592{\pm}29.9kg$) fed TMR as a basal diet were housed individually in an auto temperature and humidity modulated chamber ($24^{\circ}C$ and 60% for 22 h/d). Treatments in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design were TMR only (control), TMR with whole corn grain (WC), coarsely ground corn grain (CC), and finely ground corn grain (FC), respectively. The corn feeds substituted for 20% energy intake of TMR intake. To measure the ruminal pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acids (VFA), ruminal digesta was sampled through ruminal cannula at 1 h intervals after the morning feeding to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics. Blood was sampled via the jugular vein after the ruminal digesta sampling. Results: There was no difference in dry matter (DM) intake between different corn particle size because the DM intake was restricted to 1.66% of body weight. Different corn particle size did not change mean ammonia N and total VFA concentrations whereas lower (p<0.05) ruminal pH and a ratio of acetate to propionate, and higher (p<0.05) propionate concentration were noted when the steers consumed CC compared with WC and FC. Concentration of blood metabolites were not affected by different particle size of corn grain except for blood triglyceride concentration, which was significantly (p<0.05) increased by FC. Conclusion: Results indicate that feeding CC may increase feed digestion in the rumen, whereas the FC group seemed to obtain inadequate corn retention time for microbial degradation in the rumen.

Influence of Replacing Corn Grain by Enzose (Corn Dextrose) on Nutrient Utilization, Thyroid Hormones, Plasma Metabolites, and Weight Gain in Growing Lambs

  • Shahzad, M. Aasif;Nisa, M.;Sarwar, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.946-951
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    • 2011
  • The study was conducted to evaluate enzose (corn dextrose), a corn milling byproduct, as substitute for corn grain as energy in growing lambs. Five iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated. The control diet (E0) had no enzose whereas enzose replaced 20, 40, 60 and 80% corn grain in E20, E40, E60 and E80 diets on the basis of energy supply, respectively. Fifty growing lambs were divided into 5 groups, 10 animals in each, in a randomized complete block design. Nutrients (dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fibre) intake and digestibilities increased with gradual replacement of corn grain by enzose. Lambs fed E80 diet also retained higher nitrogen (N) than those fed E0 diet. Plasma glucose, $T_3$ and $T_4$ increased while urea N decreased in lambs receiving higher enzose content. Maximum weight gain was recorded in lambs fed diets containing maximum concentration of E as a replacement for corn grains. A better feed conversion ratio was recorded in lambs fed E80 compared with those fed E0 diet. The study suggests that enzose can be used as an economical feed ingredient to replace corn grain upto 80%, without any adverse effects on growth performance of growing lambs.

Nutrient composition and in vitro fermentability of corn grain and stover harvested at different periods in Goesan, a mountainous area

  • Nogoy, Kim Margarette;Zhang, Yan;Lee, Ye Hyun;Li, Xiang Zi;Seong, Hyun A;Choi, Seong Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.1
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    • pp.18-27
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    • 2019
  • With South Korea's limited capability of feed production because of its relatively small cultivable area, the country is pushed to depend on foreign feed imports despite the immensely fluctuating price of corn. Hence, intensive efforts to increase the total cultivable area in Korea like extending of farming to mountainous area is being practiced. Corn was planted in Goesan County, a mountainous area in the country. Grain and stover were harvested separately in three harvest periods: early-harvest (Aug 8), mid-harvest (Aug 18), and late-harvest (Aug 28). The nutrient composition such as dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fat (EE), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) was determined after harvest. Effective degradability (ED) of the major nutrients (DM, NDF, ADF, and CP) were measured through in vitro fermentation of rumen fluid from Hanwoo (Korean cattle). pH, ammonia-N concentration, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, and gas production were periodically measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Corn grain showed higher nutrient content and ED than stover. It also had higher gas production but its pH, ammonia-N, and total VFA concentration were lower than corn stover. The best nutrient composition of corn grain was observed in early-harvest (high CP, EE, NDF, OM, NFC, and low ADF). Early-harvest of corn grain also had high effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM), effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber (EDNDF), effective degradability of acid detergent fiber (EDADF), and total VFA concentration. On the other hand, the best nutrient composition of stover was observed in mid-harvest (high DM, CP, NDF, and low ADF). EDDM, EDNDF, and EDADF were pronounced in early-harvest and mid-harvest of stover but the latter showed high total VFA concentration. Hence, early and mid-harvested corn stover and grain in a mountainous area preserved their nutrients, which led to the effective degradation of major nutrients and high VFA production.

Nitrogen Use and Yield of Silage Corn as Affected by Hairy Vetch(Vicia villosa Roth) Soil-incorporated at Different Time in Spring

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Lee, Ho-Jin;Hur, Il-Bong;Kim, Si-Ju;Kim, Chung-Guk;Jo, Hyeon-Suk;Lee, Jung-Sam
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.272-275
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    • 2000
  • Winter green manure crops including legume increase grain yield of subsequent crop and substitute N fertilizer requirement with organic-No Hairy vetch grows vigorously and can provide N-rich green manure for corn with its soil incorporation after wintering. But, grain yield of corn as succeeding crop would be reduced if its planting time is delayed until late spring. This experiment was carried out to find the proper incorporation time of hairy vetch green manure and planting time of subsequent corn in cropping system with winter hairy vetch(green manure)-summer corn. Hairy vetch was incorporated into soil at a ten-day interval between April 10 and May 10 and corn was planted at 5 days after each hairy vetch incorporation. Soil nitrate concentration on April 10 and 20 in hairy vetch plot was slightly lower than that at winter fallow. Above-ground dry matter and organic-N of hairy vetch increased linearly with delayed hairy vetch incorporation time from April 10 to May 10. Average dry matter and organic-N produced by hairy vetch were 5.7 ton/ha and 248 kgN/ha, respectively. Corn growth and yield decreased as delayed corn planting time after May in spite of increasing dry matter and N-yield of hairy vetch. Nitrogen concentration of corn grain, stalk and whole plant at harvest were the highest in May 5 planting, but total N-uptake of May 5 planting were not different from that of April 25 planting because of lower grain yield. It was concluded that the proper incorporation time of hairy vetch and corn planting time were April 20 and April 25, respectively, because grain yield was the highest and corn could use hairy vetch-N effectively to produce dry matter.

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Effects of Feeding Increasing Proportions of Corn Grain on Concentration of Lipopolysaccharide in the Rumen Fluid and the Subsequent Alterations in Immune Responses in Goats

  • Huo, Wenjie;Zhu, Weiyun;Mao, Shengyong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1437-1445
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding increasing proportions of corn grain on concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the rumen fluid and the subsequent alterations in immune responses as reflected by plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) in goats. Nine goats were assigned to three diets (0%, 25%, and 50% corn grain) in a $3{\times}3$ Latin square experimental design. The results showed that as the proportion of dietary corn increased, the ruminal pH decreased (p<0.001), and the concentrations of propionate (p<0.001), butyrate (p<0.001), lactic acid (p = 0.013) and total volatile fatty acid (p = 0.031) elevated and the ruminal LPS level increased (p<0.001). As the proportion of dietary corn increased, the concentration of SAA increased (p = 0.013). LPS was detectable in the blood of individual goats fed 25% and 50% corn. A real-time PCR analysis showed that the copy number of phylum Bacteroidetes (p<0.001) was reduced ($4.61{\times}10^9$ copies/mL to $1.48{\times}10^9$ copies/mL) by the increasing dietary corn, and a correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the number of Bacteroidetes and rumen LPS levels. Collectively, these results indicated that feeding goats high proportions (50%) of corn grain decreased the ruminal pH, increased LPS in the rumen fluid and tended to stimulate an inflammatory response.

Removal of Some Metals in Drinking Water by Preparing Barley or Corn Tea (보리차 및 옥수수차 제조에 따른 음용수 중 일부 금속들의 제거)

  • 이수형;박송자;김희갑
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2001
  • Barley or corn tea, which is usually prepared with municipal chlorinated tap water, is commonly consumed by the public as a substitute for the supplied water itself. This is because most people believe that harmful organic and inorganic compounds can be removed from the tap water by the adsorption mechanism during the tea preparation. In this study, three kinds of commercial grain tea materials-roasted barley grains, a tea bag containing barley grain pieces, and roasted corn grains-were tested for metal removal by preparing 1 liter of tea with deionized/distilled water according the manufacturer's recommended preparation procedures, assuming that the water is contaminated with eight selected metals at levels of 50$\mu\textrm{g}$/l. Of the tested teas, barley tea prepared with roasted grains showed the highest removal efficiency for Cu, As, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd, ranging from 48 to 71%, followed by corn tea with roasted grains and barley tea with a tea bag. Cr was nearly maintained at the initial concentration in all kinds of tea. The Mn levels. however, were elevated during the tea preparation, particularly in both barley teas, probably because the metal was extracted into the water from the tea materials without significant adsorption. Therefore, it should be considered in the ingestion exposure analysis for metals that their concentrations are altered during the tea preparation with roasted barley or corn grain materials.

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The Nutritive Value of Thin Stillage and Wet Distillers' Grains for Ruminants - Review -

  • Mustafa, A.F.;McKinnon, J.J.;Christensen, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1609-1618
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    • 2000
  • Thin stillage and distillers' grains are byproducts remaining after alcohol distillation from a fermented cereal grain mash. Both byproducts are used as energy and protein sources for ruminants. Due to its liquid nature, more than 50% of thin stillage bypasses the rumen. Thin stillage can be fed alone or in combination with distillers' grains. However, a better utilization by beef cattle is anticipated when thin stillage replaces water as a fluid source. Ruminal undegraded protein content of distillers' grains is greatly affected by type of cereal grain and by drying. Corn distillers' grains have a higher ruminal undegraded protein content than wheat distillers' grains while dried distillers' grains have a higher ruminal undegraded protein content than the wet distillers' grains. Wet and dried distillers' grains can replace up to 50% of corn grain in beef cattle diets without affecting animal performance. The estimated NEg of corn distillers' grains for beef cattle ranges from 100 to 169% of that of corn. In general, wet corn distillers' grains have a higher NEg value than dried corn distillers' grains and the addition of thin stillage improves the NEg of distillers' grains. Improved performance of ruminats fed distillers' byproducts can be attributed to high digestible fiber content, improved rumen environment and a shift in organic matter digestion from the rumen to the small intestine.

Yield and Nitrogen Uptake of Corn in Corn after Soybean Cropping

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Lee, Ho-Jin;Lee, Jin-Wook
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.266-271
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    • 2001
  • Soybean can produce high-N residue due to N-fixation, so soybean rotation may increase yield of subsequent corn and reduce N fertilizer on the corn fairly. To find out the contribution of nitrogen to subsequent corn following soybean cultivation, soil nitrate, corn yield, and nitrogen uptake were measured for three continuous corn cropping years after soybean rotation. Three N rates of 0, 80, and 160 kg/ha were applied to three continuous corn following soybean cropping. At 6-leaf stage, soil nitrate amount at the soil depth of 0-30cm ranged from 60 to 80 kgN/ha higher in the first corn cropping year than that in the second and third corn cropping years. Judging from corn N status such as SPAD value, N concentration of ear-leaf and stover at silking stage, N contribution of previous soybean to corn in the first corn year was N fertilizer of approximately 80 kg N/ha. Stover N uptake at silking stage increased from 47 to 52 kg N/ha at the 0, and 80 kg N/ha of N rates in the first corn cropping year compared with those in the second and third corn cropping years. Corn grain yield at the 0 kg N/ha of N rate was 6-7 ton/ha higher in the first corn cropping year than that in the second and third corn cropping years, respectively. When compared the first corn year following soybean cropping with the second and third corn cropping years, N uptake of grain and stover at harvest with low N rates such as 0 and 80 kg N/ha increased from 45 to 67kg N/ha, from 35 to 60 kg N/ha, respectively. N uptake of whole plant by soybean rotation increased from 93 to 118 kg N/ha in the first year compared with that in the second and third corn cropping years. However, the N contribution by soybean cropping was small in the second and third continuous corn cropping years. Therefore, it was concluded that the nitrogen fertilizer of 80-100 kg N/ha in the first corn cropping year could be saved by soybean rotation and annual alternative corn-soybean rotation could be the best rotation system.

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Comparison of in vitro ruminal fermentation incubated with different levels of Korean corn grains with total mixed ration as a basal

  • Hamid, Muhammad Mahboob Ali;Park, Ha Young;Choi, Chang Weon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.419-427
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    • 2018
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of Korean corn grain on in vitro ruminal fermentation with total mixed ration (TMR) as a basal feed. Three ruminal cannulated Holstein steers (Body Weight $479{\pm}33.0kg$) were used as rumen fluid donors. Treatments for in vitro fermentation were TMR only (control, 3.0 g), TMR substituted partially with high level (HC, TMR 1.5 and corn 1.5 g), and with low level of Korean corn grain (LC, TMR 2.25 and corn 0.75 g), respectively. To measure in vitro ruminal pH, gas production, ammonia N and volatile fatty acids (VFA), the in vitro fermentation incubation was triplicated at $39^{\circ}C$, 120 rpm for 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Mean ruminal pH was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for HC than control. Changes in rumen pH was rather similar between the groups till 6 h after incubation, but the lowest pH for HC (pH 5.10) appeared at 48 h compared with control and LC. Total gas production was tended (p < 0.09) to be higher and ammonia N was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for HC than control and LC. Total VFA was higher (p < 0.05) for HC and LC than control but no differences appeared between HC and LC. Overall, the present data indicate that feeding different levels of Korean domestic corn grain may lead to high and sustainable starch degradation in the rumen.

Effects of Partial Replacement of Corn Grain and Soybean Meal with Agricultural By-Product Feeds on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Optimum Levels of Mixing Ratio (농산부산물을 이용한 In Vitro 반추위발효 특성 및 적정 배합수준을 통한 옥수수 및 대두박 대체 효과)

  • Park, Joong-Kook;Lim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Sang-Bum;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Lee, Hyun-June;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Cho, Won-Mo;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.441-450
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of partial replacement of corn grain and soybean meal with agricultural by-product feeds on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and optimum levels of mixing ratio. The agricultural by-products to examine the effectiveness of the partial replacement of concentrate were wheat bran, corn gluten feed, bakery waste, soybean curd, rice bran, green kernel rice, soybean hull, distillers' grain, and mushroom substrate. In the first experiment, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of feedstuffs were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after incubation. In the second experiment, fermentation characteristics were investigated with green kernel rice and soybean curd which replaced corn grain or soybean meal. Feed were formulated with 40% corn grain + 20% soybean meal (T1), 40% corn grain + 17.5% soybean meal + 2.5% soybean curd (T2), 25% corn grain + 20% soybean meal + 15% green kernel rice (T3), and 30% corn grain + 15% soybean meal + 6% green kernel rice + 9% soybean curd (T4), respectively, with forage source of 10% alfalfa hay, 20% timothy hay, and 10% corn silage as fed-basis. In 24 and 48 hour cultivations, T4 showed significantly lower pH compared to T1, whereas in 3 and 24 hour cultivations, T4 showed significantly higher DM degradation compared to T1. In addition, the gas production of T3 was also higher than T1 (p<0.05). Overall results of the present experiments indicated that green kernel rice and soybean curd as agricultural by-products have the possibility of partial replacements of corn grain and soybean meal.