• Title, Summary, Keyword: Corn Dietary Fiber

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Effects of Feed Moisture on the Physicochemical Properties of Extruded Corn Fibers (수분주입량에 따른 압출성형 옥수수 섬유질의 물리화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Cheol-Hyun;Ryu, Gi Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.427-433
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    • 2013
  • This study was designed to examine changes in the physicochemical properties of extruded corn fibers with different amounts of feed moisture (30, 40, and 50%). The screw speed and die temperature were fixed to 200 rpm and $140^{\circ}C$, respectively. The crude ash, fat, and protein in corn fiber decreased from the extrusion process. The insoluble dietary fiber in corn fibers decreased, while soluble dietary fiber increased at a feed moisture of 30%. The specific length of the extruded corn fiber increased while the specific mechanical energy input, density, breaking strength, and elastic modulus decreased. The water absorption index (WAI) and reducing sugar content of the corn fibers did not significantly change, but the water soluble index (WSI) decreased as the feed moisture content of the corn fiber increased. On the other hand, the WAI of de-starched corn fiber decreased while WSI and reducing sugars increased as the feed moisture content of the corn fiber increased.

COMPARISON OF UTILIZATION OF CELLULOSE AND CORN DIETARY FIBER AS AN ENERGY SOURCE IN CHICKS

  • Muramatsu, T.;Morishita, T.;Furuse, M.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 1992
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate effects of fiber source on growth performance, N and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility, and utilization of energy in chicks fed an isocaloric low-energy diet from 7 to 21 days of age. Two fiber sources, cellulose and corn dietary fiber (CDF), were included in a diet at 10, 20 and 30% at the expense of kaolin, an inert diluent. The CDF contained 76.5% NDF consisting mainly of hemicellulose. The results showed that growth performance, N and NDF digestibility, dietary DE and ME values, energy deposition, and NE for production in birds fed CDF were inferior to those in birds fed cellulose. It can be concluded, from the present study, that chicks can utilize cellulose more efficiently than CDF up to a level of 30%.

Effects of Dietary Fats and Fibers on Modulation of Biomarkers and Tumor Incidence in Rats during 1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis

  • Park, Joo-Sun;Park, Hyun-Suh
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2001
  • This study investigated the effect of different dietary fats and fibers on colon tumor incidence and cell proliferation, the levels of eicosanoids and polyamines in colonic mucosa of DMH-treated rats. The experiment was conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats using a 2 $\times$3 factorial design with two fats (corn oil and DHA-rich fish oil) and two fibers (cellulose and pectin) and a fiber-free control. The rats were find an experimental diet containing 15% (w/w) dietary fat and 6% (w/w) fiber for 25 weeks. Tumor incidence was Bower in rats fed fish oil as opposed to corn oil. The levels of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosanoids ($PGE_2, and TXB_2$) in normal colonic mucosa were significantly lower in rats fed fish oil and there was a concomitant increase of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The levels of eicosanoids and AA in tumor tissues were significantly higher than those of normal colonic mucosa. The level of polyamines in normal colonic mucosa was not affected by dietary fats but was significantly lower than that in rumor tissues. Dietary fiber did not have a significant effect on rumor incidence and the levels of AA, eicosanoids and polyamines. Overall, fish oil rich in DHA reduced cell prolifiration and thus inhibited colon carcinogenesis through its effect on the distribution of AA and production of eicosanoids in normal colonic mucosa. However, its effect on colon carcinogenesis revealed a lack of consistency depending on the type of dietary fiber in diet.

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Effect of Dietary Fiber Levels on The Production Parameters in Colored Broiler Chicks (식이섬유 수준에 따른 유색육용계의 능력과 도체특성)

  • 김대진;한성운
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.278-285
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    • 1996
  • This experiments was conducted to determine the effect of dietary fiber(DF) levels with diets of isocaloric (3,010 kcal/1kg diet) and isoprotein(21% of diet) on colored brolier chicks(Juk jun hatchery farm). Four groups of 6 chicks 4 replication. were fed corn-soy meal diets containing 0% (DF, 5%), 2%(DF, 6%), 4%(DF, 7%), and 6%(DF, 8%) of dehydrated alfalfa meal(AM) from 21 to 42 days of age. The addition of dietary fiber levels to the broiler chicks diets did noty affect body weight, feed efficiency, energy efficiency and protein efficiency, but affect feed intake of chicks fed 6% of fiber. The level of fiber diets did not affect gizzard weight of female(1.45g/100g BW) and male(1.25g/100g BW), but affect small intestine length of female. When comparing two the dietary fiber levels, 5% and 8%, the contents of the total serum cholesterol was slightly higher in chicks fed 5% of fier than that of 8% without significant. However, total serum cholesterol levels of female(121mg/dl) and male(119mg/dl) were not influenced by increased dietary fiber levels. The liver weight was not influenced by increasing of dietary fiber levels (female 2.03g and male 2.05g/100g BW). The yields of dressed weight(72% of shrunk body weight), skin weight)11% of dressed weight) were not influenced by increased dietary fiber.

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Effect of Dietary Fiber and Fat on Tumor Incidence and Cell Proliferation of Colonic Mucosa in DMH-Treated Rats (Dimethylhydrazine으로 처리한 쥐에서 식이섬유소와 지방종류가 대장의 종양발생율과 세포증식에 미치는 영향)

  • 최주선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.697-707
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    • 1998
  • This study was designed to observe the effect of dietary fiber and fat on colon tumor incidence and cell proliferation. Male Sqraue Dawley rats(n=225) at 7 weeks of age, were divided into 3 groups depending on the type of fat b(beef tallow, corn oil and DHA-rich fish oil) and each group was again divided into 3 groups depending on type of fiber(fiber-free, perctin and cellulose) . The experimental diet containing dietary fat at 15%(w/w) and fiber at 6%(w/w) levels was fed for 25 weeks. At the same time, each rats was intramuscularly injected with DMH two times a week for 6 weeks to geive total dose of 180mg/kg body weight. Cell proliferation was measured by in vivo incroporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA. Fish oil decreased the tumor incidence (9.67%) compared with beef talow (33.39%) and corn oil (21.21%). Tumor incidence was decreased in all groups that fed cellulose (11.67%) compared with those of fiber-free(21.74%) and pectic(19.70%). Most of tumors was distributed at the site of the distal colon. The rats fed both fish oil and cellulose significantly decreased th enumber of tumors and tumor incidence compared to other groups. Fish oil was more effective in preventing cell prolofieration by decreasing crypt length and labeling index(LI) compared with beef tallow(p<0.05). Cell proliferation in distal colon was more developed to the upper part of the crypt compared to proximal colon. Overall tumor incidence and cell proliferation were more affected by dietary fat. But the effect of dietary fiber was different depending on type of fat in the experimental diet. These results suggest that a DHA -rich fish oil may has more decisive effect in inhibiting the cell proliferation in colon.

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Apparent or Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids of Diets Containing Different Protein Feedstuffs Fed at Two Crude Protein Levels for Growing Pigs

  • Adebiyi, A.O.;Ragland, D.;Adeola, O.;Olukosi, O.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.1327-1334
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    • 2015
  • The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Twenty boars ($Yorkshire{\times}Landrace$) with average initial body weight of $35({\pm}2.6)kg$ were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) that were either adequate (19%) or marginal (15%) in CP using a triplicated $6{\times}2$ Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet. Apparent ileal digestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the corn-DDGS diet. The AID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. Standardized ileal digestibility of AA was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet for all AA except Trp and Pro. The SID of Ile, Leu, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. It was concluded that protein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs.

Influence of dietary nonstructural carbohydrate concentration on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers

  • Ramos-Avina, Daniel;Plascencia, Alejandro;Zinn, Richard
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.859-863
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Since very little information exists about the topic; in this experiment we compare, in a long-term finishing program, the growth-performance responses and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers where non-structural carbohydrate concentration of the diet is reduced from 64% to 51% (dry matter basis). Methods: Sixty Holstein steer calves ($129{\pm}2.2kg$) were blocked by initial weight into five groups and randomly assigned within weight groupings to 10 pens. Calves were fed with a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets containing 51% higher fiber (HF) or 64% lower fiber (LF) nonstructural carbohydrates. Non-structural carbohydrates concentrations were manipulated substituting dried distiller grain with solubles and alfalfa hay for flaked corn. Cattle were weighed every 112 days and at the end of the experiment (day 308) when the cattle were harvested and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Results: Steers fed the HF diet showed improvement (8.8%) in average daily gain (ADG) during the initial 112-d period. This effect was followed by a numerical trend for greater ADG throughout the remainder of the study so that overall ADG tended to be greater (4.9%, p = 0.06) for the HF than for LF. There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake. Gain efficiency and estimated dietary net energy (NE) were greater 8.3% and 5.2%, respectively for HF during the initial 112-d period. Overall (308-d) gain efficiency and estimated dietary NE were similar for both dietary treatments. However, due to differences in tabular dietary NE, the ratio of observed:expected dietary NE tended to be greater (4.1%, p = 0.06) for the HF vs LF diet. There were no treatment effects on carcass characteristics except for a tendency toward a slightly greater (0.5%, p = 0.09) estimated carcass yield. Conclusion: Reducing the non-structural carbohydrate concentration of a conventional steam-flaked corn-based growing finishing diet for Holstein steers can effectively enhance growth performance, particularly during the early growing and late finishing phases.

The Composition of Dietary Fiber on New Vegetables (쌈샐러드 채소류의 일반성분과 식이섬유에 관한 연구)

  • 김지민;김대진
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.852-856
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to determine on the proximate analysis and the several structural carbohydrate for 11 kinds of new vegetables. The samples were dried at 6$0^{\circ}C$ for 24 hrs and ground to pass a 0.5 mm screen. The crude protein and crude fat contents of new vegetables were 2∼3 times higher than those of grain as dry matter basis. However the crude ash content of new vegetables was 7 times higher than that of grain. Total dietary fiber was ranged from 32.61% (Costamary) to 41,22% (Treviso) as dry matter basis. Insoluble dietary fiber was ranged from 21.58% (Red leaf beet) to 28.95% (Treviso) as dry matter basis. Soluble dietary fiber was ranged from 6.60% (Nakai) to 14.70% (Common danelion) as dry matter basis. Total carbohydrates was ranged from 73.62% (Salad bowl) to 36.30% (Red leaf beet) as dry matter basis. Neutral detergent fiber was ranged from 48.83% (Nakai) to 29.60% (Red leaf beet) as dry matter basis. Acid detergent lignin was ranged from 27.65% (Salad bowl) to 2.92% (Corn salad) as dry matter basis. Hemicellulose was ranged from 22.55% (Nakai) to 2.15% (Salad bowl).

Determination of the energy contents and nutrient digestibility of corn, waxy corn and steam-flaked corn fed to growing pigs

  • Ma, Dongli;Li, Juntao;Huang, Chengfei;Yang, Fengjuan;Wu, Yi;Liu, Ling;Jiang, Wei;Jia, Zhicheng;Zhang, Peijun;Liu, Xuezhen;Zhang, Shuai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1573-1579
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The research was conducted to determine the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents as well as the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in corn, waxy corn and steam-flaked corn fed to growing pigs. Methods: Eighteen growing pigs with initial body weight of $15.42{\pm}1.41kg$ were randomly allotted to three diets including a corn diet, a waxy corn diet and a steam-flaked corn diet in a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained six replicates. The experiment lasted for 12 days, which comprised 7-d adaptation to diets followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. The energy contents and the nutrient digestibility in three ingredients were calculated using direct method. Results: Compared to normal corn, both the amylose and dietary fiber contents in waxy corn were numerically lower, but the starch gelatinization degree was numerically greater. Moreover, the DE and ME contents as well as the ATTD of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (ADF) in waxy corn were significantly greater (p<0.05) than those in normal corn when fed to growing pigs. Furthermore, the steam-flaked corn had greater (p<0.05) DE and ME contents, and ATTD of ether extract and ADF compared to normal corn. Conclusion: Both variety and processing procedure have influence on chemical compositions, energy contents and nutrient digestibility of corn. The waxy corn and steam-flaked corn had greater degree of starch gelatinization and DE and ME contents compared to normal corn when fed to growing pigs.

Supplementary Effect of the High Dietary Fiber Rice on Blood Glucose in Diabetic KK Mice (고식이섬유쌀의 급여가 KK 당뇨 마우스의 혈당에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성현;박홍주;조소영;정인경;조용식;김태영;황흥구;이연숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to investigate the supplementary effects of Suwon 464, which has over two times of dietary fiber content compared with normal rice (Ilpum), on blood glucose in diabetic mice. We supplied 5 kinds of experimental diets (corn starch diet as a control (CO), Ilpum polished rice diet (IP), Ilpum brown rice diet (IB), polished rice diet (SP) and brown rice diet (SB) of Suwon 464) to diabetic mice for 8 weeks, after analyzing dietary fiber contents of 5 experimental diets. Diet intake, body weight and contents of blood glucose, hemoglobin $A_{lc}$ and insulin were measured. The dietary fiber contents in CO, IP, IB, SP, and SB diets were 1.0, 1.2, l.4, l.4, and 2.0% respectively. Body weight was lower in SB group than the other groups though there was no significant difference in diet intake among experimental groups. The concentration of blood glucose in diabetic mice was lower in SB group than the other groups during the supplementary period of experimental diets. The hemoglobin Ale and serum insulin levels were lower in SP and SB groups. These results suggested that the brown rice of Suwon 464 with high dietary fiber can control diabetes in diabetic mice by reducing the blood glucose and hemoglobin Ale. (Korean J Nutrition 37(2): 75-80, 2004)