• Title/Summary/Keyword: Copyright

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The Effect of Mean Brightness and Contrast of Digital Image on Detection of Watermark Noise (워터 마크 잡음 탐지에 미치는 디지털 영상의 밝기와 대비의 효과)

  • Kham Keetaek;Moon Ho-Seok;Yoo Hun-Woo;Chung Chan-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.305-322
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    • 2005
  • Watermarking is a widely employed method tn protecting copyright of a digital image, the owner's unique image is embedded into the original image. Strengthened level of watermark insertion would help enhance its resilience in the process of extraction even from various distortions of transformation on the image size or resolution. However, its level, at the same time, should be moderated enough not to reach human visibility. Finding a balance between these two is crucial in watermarking. For the algorithm for watermarking, the predefined strength of a watermark, computed from the physical difference between the original and embedded images, is applied to all images uniformal. The mean brightness or contrast of the surrounding images, other than the absolute brightness of an object, could affect human sensitivity for object detection. In the present study, we examined whether the detectability for watermark noise might be attired by image statistics: mean brightness and contrast of the image. As the first step to examine their effect, we made rune fundamental images with varied brightness and control of the original image. For each fundamental image, detectability for watermark noise was measured. The results showed that the strength ot watermark node for detection increased as tile brightness and contrast of the fundamental image were increased. We have fitted the data to a regression line which can be used to estimate the strength of watermark of a given image with a certain brightness and contrast. Although we need to take other required factors into consideration in directly applying this formula to actual watermarking algorithm, an adaptive watermarking algorithm could be built on this formula with image statistics, such as brightness and contrast.

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A Study on Mapping Relations between eBook Contents for Conversion (전자책 문서 변환을 위한 컨텐츠 대응 관계에 관한 연구)

  • 고승규;임순범;김성혁;최윤철
    • The Journal of Society for e-Business Studies
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 2003
  • By virtue of diverse advantages derived from digital media, eBook is getting started to use. And many market research agencies have predicted that its market will be greatly expanded soon. But against those expectations, copyright-related problems and the difficulties of its accessing inherited from various eBook content formats become an obstacle to its diffusion. The first problems can be solved by DRM technology. And to solve the second problems, each nation has published its own content standard format. But the domestic standards are useful only the domestic level, they still leave the problems in the national level. The variety of content formats has created a demand for mechanisms that allow the exchange of eBook contents. Therefore we study the mapping relations between eBook contents for conversion. To define the mapping relations, first we extract the mapping both between eBook contents and between normal XML documents. From those mappings, we define seven mapping relations and classify them by cardinality. And we analyze the classified relations, which can be generated by automatic, or not. Using these results, we also classify the eBook content conversion as automatic, semi-automatic, and manual. Besides, we provide the conversion templates for mapping relations for automatic generation of conversion scripts. To show the feasibility of conversion templates, we apply them to the eBook content conversion. Experiment shows that our conversion templates generate the conversion scripts properly. We expected that defined mapping relations and conversion templates can be used not only in eBook content conversion , but also in normal XML document conversion.

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A Study on the Retransmission Consent and Arbitration for the Retransmission of Terrestrial Broadcasting Signal in Japan (지상파채널의 재전송 동의와 중재 기준에 관한 연구 - 일본의 사례분석을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Kyung-Hwan
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.48
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    • pp.46-62
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    • 2009
  • The current study attempted to review the standards of retransmisison consent and arbitration for the terrestrial broadcasting signal. The standards are based upon the principles encouraged by the MIAC(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications). It has been criticized that the standards of judgement for the retransimission consent and arbitration are ambiguous and arbitrary in Japan. In 2009, MIAC announced five decisions regarding the retransmission of over-the-air. The result of the current study found that the regulations of compulsory over-the-air signal retransmission have been sustained until now. The retransmission policy of the Japan government based upon three principles; localism, proper cause and copyright act. The judgment is dependent on the intrepretation of MIAC's standard about these three principles.

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Open Digital Textbook for Smart Education (스마트교육을 위한 오픈 디지털교과서)

  • Koo, Young-Il;Park, Choong-Shik
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.177-189
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    • 2013
  • In Smart Education, the roles of digital textbook is very important as face-to-face media to learners. The standardization of digital textbook will promote the industrialization of digital textbook for contents providers and distributers as well as learner and instructors. In this study, the following three objectives-oriented digital textbooks are looking for ways to standardize. (1) digital textbooks should undertake the role of the media for blended learning which supports on-off classes, should be operating on common EPUB viewer without special dedicated viewer, should utilize the existing framework of the e-learning learning contents and learning management. The reason to consider the EPUB as the standard for digital textbooks is that digital textbooks don't need to specify antoher standard for the form of books, and can take advantage od industrial base with EPUB standards-rich content and distribution structure (2) digital textbooks should provide a low-cost open market service that are currently available as the standard open software (3) To provide appropriate learning feedback information to students, digital textbooks should provide a foundation which accumulates and manages all the learning activity information according to standard infrastructure for educational Big Data processing. In this study, the digital textbook in a smart education environment was referred to open digital textbook. The components of open digital textbooks service framework are (1) digital textbook terminals such as smart pad, smart TVs, smart phones, PC, etc., (2) digital textbooks platform to show and perform digital contents on digital textbook terminals, (3) learning contents repository, which exist on the cloud, maintains accredited learning, (4) App Store providing and distributing secondary learning contents and learning tools by learning contents developing companies, and (5) LMS as a learning support/management tool which on-site class teacher use for creating classroom instruction materials. In addition, locating all of the hardware and software implement a smart education service within the cloud must have take advantage of the cloud computing for efficient management and reducing expense. The open digital textbooks of smart education is consdered as providing e-book style interface of LMS to learners. In open digital textbooks, the representation of text, image, audio, video, equations, etc. is basic function. But painting, writing, problem solving, etc are beyond the capabilities of a simple e-book. The Communication of teacher-to-student, learner-to-learnert, tems-to-team is required by using the open digital textbook. To represent student demographics, portfolio information, and class information, the standard used in e-learning is desirable. To process learner tracking information about the activities of the learner for LMS(Learning Management System), open digital textbook must have the recording function and the commnincating function with LMS. DRM is a function for protecting various copyright. Currently DRMs of e-boook are controlled by the corresponding book viewer. If open digital textbook admitt DRM that is used in a variety of different DRM standards of various e-book viewer, the implementation of redundant features can be avoided. Security/privacy functions are required to protect information about the study or instruction from a third party UDL (Universal Design for Learning) is learning support function for those with disabilities have difficulty in learning courses. The open digital textbook, which is based on E-book standard EPUB 3.0, must (1) record the learning activity log information, and (2) communicate with the server to support the learning activity. While the recording function and the communication function, which is not determined on current standards, is implemented as a JavaScript and is utilized in the current EPUB 3.0 viewer, ths strategy of proposing such recording and communication functions as the next generation of e-book standard, or special standard (EPUB 3.0 for education) is needed. Future research in this study will implement open source program with the proposed open digital textbook standard and present a new educational services including Big Data analysis.