• Title, Summary, Keyword: Copper

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Study on the production of porous CuO/MnO2 using the mix proportioning method and their properties (반응몰비에 따른 다공성 CuO/MnO2의 제조 및 특성 연구)

  • Kim, W.G.;Woo, D.S.;Cho, N.J.;Kim, Y.O.;Lee, H.S.
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.182-186
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the porous CuO/MnO2 catalyst was prepared through the co-precipitation process from an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate (KMnO4), manganese(II) acetate (Mn(CH3COO)2·4H2O) and copper(II) acetate (Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O). The phase change in MnO2 was analyzed according to the reaction molar ratio of KMnO4 to Mn(CH3COO)2. The reaction mole ratio of KMnO4 to Mn(CH3COO)2·4H2O was varied at 0.3:1, 0.6:1, and 1:1. The aqueous solution of Cu(CH3COO)2 was injected into a mixed solution of KMnO4 and Mn(CH3COO)2 to 10~75 wt% relative to MnO2. The Cu ion co-precipitates as CuO with MnO2 in a highly dispersed state on MnO2. The physicochemical property of the prepared CuO/MnO2 was analyzed by using the TGA, DSC, XRD, SEM, and BET. The different phase types of MnO2 were prepared according to the reaction mole ratio of KMnO4 to Mn(CH3COO)2·4H2O. The results confirmed that the porous CuO/MnO2 catalyst with γ-phase MnO2 was produced in the reaction mole ratio of KMnO4 to Mn(CH3COO)2 as 0.6:1 at room temperature.

Assessment of the Heavy Metal Contamination in Paddy Soils Below Part of the Closed Metalliferous Mine (폐금속광산 하류 논토양의 중금속 오염도 평가)

  • Kim, Min-Kyeong;Hong, Sung-Chang;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Choi, Soon-Kun;Lee, Jong-Sik;So, Kyu-Ho;Jung, Goo-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.6-13
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: Most of the tailings have been left without any management in abandoned metalliferous mines and have become the main source of heavy metal contamination for agricultural soils and crops in the these areas. METHODS AND RESULTS: This experiment was carried out to investigate the assessment of the heavy metal contamination in paddy soils located on downstream of the closed metalliferous mine. The average total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in paddy soils were 8.88, 56.7, 809, 754, and 37.9 mg/kg, respectively. Specially, the average concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn were higher than those of warning criteria for soil contamination(4 mg/kg for Cd, 200 mg/kg for Pb, and 300 mg/kg for Zn) in agricultural soil established by Soil Environmental Conservation Act in Korea. The proportions of 0.1 M HCl extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and As concentration to total concentration of these heavy metals in paddy soils were 27.7, 21.3, 35.1, 13.8 and 10.5%, respectively. The pollution index of these five metals in paddy soils ranged from 0.42 to 11.92. Also, the enrichment factor (EFc) of heavy metals in paddy soils were in the order as Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu>As, and the enrichment factor in paddy soil varied considerably among the sampling sites. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) of heavy metals in soils were in the order as Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu>As, specially, the average geoaccumulation index of Cd, Pb, and Zn (Igeo 2.49~3.10) were relatively higher than that of other metals in paddy soils. CONCLUSION: Based on the pollution index, enrichment factor, and geoaccumulation index for heavy metal in paddy soils located on downstream of closed metalliferous mine, the main contaminants are mine waste materials and mine drainage including mine activity.

A Study on Contact Dermatitis-Causing Substances Concentration in Commercial Oxidative Hair-Coloring Products (유통 산화형 염모제의 접촉성피부염 유발물질 함량 연구)

  • Na, Young Ran;Koo, Hee Soo;Lee, Seung Ju;Kang, Jung Mi;Jin, Seong Hyeon
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.203-214
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    • 2014
  • We measured the contact dermatitis-causing substances concentrations in 28 commercial oxidative hair-coloring products. This study was aimed to provide the fundamental data about oxidative hair-coloring products. We selected 10 oxidation dyes (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine, m-phenylenediamine, nitro-p-phenylenediamine, p-aminophenol, m-aminophenol, o-aminophenol, p-methylaminophenol, N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine sulfate, 2-methyl-5-hydroxyethylaminophenol) and 4 heavy metal (nikel; Ni, chromium; Cr, cobalt; Co, copper; Cu) as contact dermatitis-causing substances. To identify 10 oxidation dyes, hexane-2% sodium sulfite was used for the rapid and simple extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was used for simultaneous analysis in 12 minutes. 10 oxidative dyes were detected as indicated on the product packaging and each concentration was lower than prescribed upper concentration limit by pharmaceutical manufacturing standards. And we analysed inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) for content search of heavy metal after microwave digestion. The heavy metal average concentration in oxidative hair-coloring products was 0.572 ${\mu}g/g$ for Ni, 3.161 ${\mu}g/g$ for Cr, 2.029 ${\mu}g/g$ for Co, 0.420 ${\mu}g/g$ for Cu, respectively. The average of concentration in powder type (henna) was higher than those of other foam and cream type oxidative hair-coloring products as follows; 1.800 ${\mu}g/g$ for Ni, 10.127 ${\mu}g/g$ for Cr, 7.082 ${\mu}g/g$ for Co, 1.451 ${\mu}g/g$ for Cu. Hair coloring products were classified into the six colors - black, dark brown, brown, dark brown, light brown, red brown and analyzed. Brown color had the highest average concentration of Co and the others had the highest average concentration of Cr.

The State of Marine Pollution in the Waters adjacent to Shipyards in Korea - 2. Assessment of the Pollution of Heavy Metals in Seawater around Major Shipyards in Summer 2010 (국내 조선소 주변해역의 해양오염 현황 - 2. 2010년 하계 대형조선소 주변 해수의 중금속오염 평가)

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2015
  • In order to elucidate the current state of marine pollution of heavy metals around major shipyards in Korea, seawater samples were collected at eleven sampling stations and four control stations around 4 major shipyards located in the southeastern coast of Korea in summer 2010, and 6 kinds of metals such as copper(Cu), zinc(Zn), iron(Fe), cadmium(Cd), lead(Pb) and mercury(Hg) in seawater samples were analyzed. The analyses of heavy metals in seawater showed that the mean Cu concentrations in seawater around 4 major shipyards were in the range of $0.817{\sim}1.638{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $20{\mu}g/L$ for the protection of human health(PHH) and of $3{\mu}g/L$ for short-term protection of marine ecosystem(SPME) but higher than Cu concentration at control station by a factor of up to 2.75. The mean Zn concentrations were in the range of $0.228{\sim}0.567{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $100{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $34{\mu}g/L$ for SPME but higher than Zn concentration at control station by a factor of up to 5.91. The mean Fe concentrations were in the range of $3.332{\sim}7.410{\mu}g/L$ which were higher than Fe concentration at control station by a factor of up to 6.75. The mean Cd concentrations were in the range of $0.013{\sim}0.028{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $10{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $19{\mu}g/L$ for SPME but higher than Cd concentration at control station by a factor of up to 2.33. The mean Pb concentrations were in the range of $0.007{\sim}0.126{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $50{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $7.6{\mu}g/L$ for SPME. The mean Hg concentrations were in the range of $0.002{\sim}0.004{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $0.5{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $1.8{\mu}g/L$ for SPME. Although the concentrations of metals such as Cu, Zn and Fe which were used in shipbuilding works were lower than Korean environmental standards for PHH and SPME, the fact that the concentrations of Cu, Zn and Fe at sampling stations around major shipyards were higher than those at control stations implies that the works in shipyards had some effects on marine water quality around shipyards. Therefore, marine environment management such as the prevention and control of the discharge of various pollutants from shipyards is required on national level.

Control of Pepper Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum using Alternate Application of Agricultural Organic Materials and Iminoctadine tris + thiram (유기농업자재와 유기합성 살균제(Iminoctadine tris + thiram) 교호살포에 따른 고추 탄저병 방제 효과)

  • Hong, Sung-Jun;Kim, Yong-Ki;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.428-439
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    • 2015
  • Pepper anthracnose caused by Collectotrichum acutaum has been known as one of the most damaging diseases of pepper, which has reduced not only yield but also quality of pepper produce almost every year. This study was conducted to develop control strategy against pepper anthracnose by alternate application of agricultural organic materials and chemical fungicides. The alternate application effect of agricultural organic materials and chemical fungicides for controlling pepper anthracnose were examined in vitro and in the field. First, thirteen microbial agents and twenty two agricultural organic materials were screened for antifungal activity against C. acutatum through the dual culture method and bioassay. As a result, one microbial agent (Bacillus subtilis QST-713) and three agricultural organic materials (sulfur, bordeaux mixture, marine algae extracts) were found to show high inhibition effect against C. acutatum. In the field test, when Iminoctadine tris+thiram, a chemical fungicide for controlling pepper anthracnose, was sprayed, it reduced disease incidence by 89.5%. Meanwhile Sulfur, bordeaux mixture, copper, marine algae extracts and Bacillus subtilis QST-713 showed low disease incidence at the range of 33.1~81.0%. However, when Iminoctadine tris+thiram and agricultural organic materials(bordeaux mixture, marine algae extracts) were applied to pepper fruits alternately two times at 7 days interval, there was a 81.7 and 87.1% reduction in disease, respectively. Consequently, the alternate spray of chemical fungicide (Iminoctadine tris+thiram) and agricultural organic materials (bordeaux mixture, marine algae extracts) could be recommended as a control method to reduce the using amount of chemical fungicide.

Antioxidant Effect of Hot water and Ethanol extracts from Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes (3T3-L1 지방세포내 ROS 생성에 대한 천년초 열수 및 에탄올 추출물의 항산화 효과)

  • Yoon, Bo-Ra;Lee, Young-Jun;Kim, Sun-Gu;Jang, Jung-Young;Lee, Hyo-Ku;Rhee, Seong-Kap;Hong, Hee-Do;Choi, Hyeon-Son;Lee, Boo-Yong;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.443-450
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    • 2012
  • Recently, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-mediated generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was proposed to accelerate adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cell. We have previously shown that Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) extract significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation via downregulation of $PPAR{\gamma}$ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) gene expression. In this study, we focused on the molecular mechanism(s) of NOX4, G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and antioxidant enzymes in anti-oxidative activities of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results indicate that Cheonnyuncho extracts markedly inhibits ROS production during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Cheonnyuncho extracts suppressed the mRNA expression of the pro-oxidant enzyme such as NOX4 and the NADPH-producing G6PDH enzyme. In addition, treatment with Cheonnyuncho extract was found to upregulate mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes such as Mn-SOD (manganese-superoxide dismutase), Cu/Zn-SOD (copper/zinc-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathion reductase (GR), and catalase, all of which are important for endogenous antioxidant responses. These data suggest that Cheonnyuncho extract may be effective in preventing the rise of oxidative stress during adipocyte differentiation through mechanism(s) that involves direct down regulation of NOX4 and G6PDH gene expression or via upregulation of endogenous antioxidant responses.

Investigation of the Rice Plant Transfer and the Leaching Characteristics of Copper and Lead for the Stabilization Process with a Pilot Scale Test (논토양 안정화 현장 실증 시험을 통한 납, 구리의 용출 저감 및 벼로의 식물전이 특성 규명)

  • Lee, Ha-Jung;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.255-264
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    • 2012
  • The stabilization using limestone ($CaCO_3$) and steel making slag as the immobilization amendments for Cu and Pb contaminated farmland soils was investigated by batch tests, continuous column experiments and the pilot scale feasibility study with 4 testing grounds at the contaminated site. From the results of batch experiment, the amendment with the mixture of 3% of limestone and 2% of steel making slag reduced more than 85% of Cu and Pb compared with the soil without amendment. The acryl column (1 m in length and 15 cm in diameter) equipped with valves, tubes and a sprinkler was used for the continuous column experiments. Without the amendment, the Pb concentration of the leachate from the column maintained higher than 0.1 mg/L (groundwater tolerance limit). However, the amendment with 3% limestone and 2% steel making slag reduced more than 60% of Pb leaching concentration within 1 year and the Pb concentration of leachate maintained below 0.04 mg/L. For the testing ground without the amendment, the Pb and Cu concentrations of soil water after 60 days incubation were 0.38 mg/L and 0.69 mg/l, respectively, suggesting that the continuous leaching of Cu and Pb may occur from the site. For the testing ground amended with mixture of 3% of limestone + 2% of steel making slag, no water soluble Pb and Cu were detected after 20 days incubation. For all testing grounds, the ratio of Pb and Cu transfer to plant showed as following: root > leaves(including stem) > rice grain. The amendment with limestone and steel making slag reduced more than 75% Pb and Cu transfer to plant comparing with no amendment. The results of this study showed that the amendment with mixture of limestone and steel making slag decreases not only the leaching of heavy metals but also the plant transfer from the soil.

Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contents in Mudflat Solar Salt, Salt Water, and Sea Water in the Nationwide Salt Pan (전국 염전에서 생산된 갯벌천일염, 함수 및 해수의 중금속 함량 평가)

  • Kim, Hag-Lyeol;Yoo, Young-Joo;Lee, In-Sun;Ko, Gang-Hee;Kim, In-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.7
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    • pp.1014-1019
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contents of mudflat solar salt, salt water, and sea water produced in the nationwide salt pan. In mudflat solar salt, moisture contents were significantly different (p<0.001) between regions, ranging from 7.357% to 14.862%. Arsenic (As) content ranged from 0.007 ppm to 0.497 ppm, cadmium (Cd) from 0.000 ppm to 0.101 ppm, plumbum (Pb) from 0.000 ppm to 0.191 ppm, hydrargyrum (Hg) from 0.006 ppb to 0.180 ppb, and copper (Cu) from 0.039 ppm to 4.794 ppm between regions, which were significantly different (p<0.001). Further, As, Cd, Pb, and Hg contents of sea and salt water were not in excess of their criterion points. Our results suggest that heavy metal contents of mudflat solar salt, salt water, and sea water produced in the nationwide salt pan were at safe levels. However, continuous management of heavy metal contamination, such as PVC met, is still necessary.

Differences in Rice Quality and Physiochemical Component between Protox Inhibitor-Herbicide Resistant Transgenic Rice and Its Non-transgenic Counterpart (Protox 저해형 제초제 저항성 형질환벼와 비형질전환벼의 미질 및 이화학적 성분 차이)

  • Jung, Ha-Il;Yun, Young-Beom;Kwon, Oh-Do;Lee, Do-Jin;Back, Kyoung-Whan;Kuk, Yong-In
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2012
  • Characteristics related to grain quality and physiochemical components such as mineral, total amino acid, free amino acid, and free sugar composition were investigated in Protox inhibitor resistanttransgenic rice (MX, PX, and AP37) and its nontransgenic counterpart (WT). Head rice, palatability, protein, and whiteness (except for MX and AP37) of milled transgenic rice were high or similar to those of the non-transgenic counterpart. Immature rice, unfilled grain, and cracked kernels (PX and AP37) of milled transgenic rice were lower than those of its non-transgenic counterpart. However, there were no significant differences in damaged grain between the transgenic rice lines and its counterpart. Potassium content in PX and copper contents in PX and AP37 were only low compared with their non-transgenic counterparts, but other mineral contents in transgenic rice lines were high or showed no significant differences compared with non-transgenic counterparts. Contents of most total amino acid composition in transgenic rice lines were high or similar to those in non-transgenic counterparts, but the content of isoleucine in AP37 was only low compared with its non-transgenic counterpart. On the other hand, free amino acid, leucine and tyrosine in PX and AP37, and total free amino acid in PX were low compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. However, the content of free amino acid in other kinds in transgenic rice lines were similar to those in their non-transgenic counterparts. Contents of sucrose in MX and PX were low compared with non-transgenic counterpars, but contents of fructose, glucose, and maltose in transgenic rice lines were high or similar compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. This results indicated that Protox genes had no negative affect on the nutritional composition of rice.

Effect of Organic Materials and the Removal of Apical Shoot on Controlling Cucumber Downy Mildew (유기농업자재와 순지르기를 이용한 오이 노균병 방제)

  • Park, Jong-Won;Kim, Yong-Ki;Park, So-Hyang;Hong, Sung-Jun;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;So, Hyun-Gyu;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.919-929
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the effect of organic materials (Bordeaux, Loess-sulfur) and the removal of apical shoot against downy mildew disease on cucumber cultivated in greenhouse. Five kinds of Bordeaux were made by adjusting mixing ratio of lime and copper sulfate in order to elucidate the optimal combination. The 4-6type Bordeaux was selected as the most effective combination for controlling cucumber downy mildew. Loess-sulfur showed inhibitory activity against cucumber downey mildew, but it was less effective than Bordeaux. It was confirmed that apical shoot cutting could reduce the incidence of cucumber downy mildew disease by 56.3%. When apical shoots of susceptible cucumber variety were cut at different leaf stages, disease incidence by early apical shoot cutting treatment was lower than that of late apical shoot cutting treatment. However in a resistant variety, 'Heukryungsamcheok', disease incidences of all cucumber apical shoot cutting treatments were lower than that of non-cutting treatment, but there was no differences between apical shoot cutting treatments due to low disease incidences. In addition, when organic materials and apical shoot cutting treatment were carried out in parallel, the combined treatments of organic materials and apical shoot cutting showed low disease incidence of cucumber downy mildew compared to untreated control. The lowest disease incidence of cucumber downy mildew was recorded in the combined treatment of 4-6type Bordeaux and apical shoot cutting. This study confirmed that apical shoot cutting can reduce the disease incidence of cucumber downy mildew and the combined treatment of apical shoot cutting and organic materials showed higher suppressive effect against cucumber downy mildew.