• Title/Summary/Keyword: Copper

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Preparation and Characterization of Copper Oxychloride from Acidic Copper Chloride Etchant (PCB 산업에서 배출되는 산성 염화동 폐액으로부터 Copper Oxychloride의 제조 및 특성분석)

  • 김영희;김수룡;정상진;이윤주;어영선
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.3-10
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    • 2003
  • Copper oxychloride used as an agricultural fungicide has been recovered from copper-containing waste etchant by the neutralization with alkali hydroxides. Large amount of copper-containing waste etchant is generated from Printed Circuit Board industry. In an environmental and economic point of view, retrieve of the valuable natural resource from the waste is important. Recycling process of copper oxychloride from the waste etchant is discovered through the our study. In the range of reaction temp. 2$0^{\circ}C$-4$0^{\circ}C$, pH 5-7, pure copper oxychloride was able to prepare and the yield of copper oxychloride was higher than 95%. Physical properties of the sample have been characterized using SEM, XRD, TGA, ICP and Atomic absorption spectroscopy.

The Effects of Different Copper (Inorganic and Organic) and Energy (Tallow and Glycerol) Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Fecal Excretion Profiles in Growing Pigs

  • Huang, Y.;Yoo, J.S.;Kim, H.J.;Wang, Y.;Chen, Y.J.;Cho, J.H.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.573-579
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of different copper (inorganic and organic) and energy (tallow and glycerol) sources on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gas emission, diarrhea incidence, and fecal copper concentration in growing pigs by using a 2${\times}$2 factorial design. In this trial, 96 pigs (63 d of age) were employed, with an average initial weight of 28.36${\pm}$1.14 kg. The dietary treatments were i) basal diet with 134 ppm copper (Korea recommendation) as $CuSO_4$+tallow; ii) basal diet with 134 ppm Cu as $CuSO_4$+glycerol; iii) basal diet with 134 ppm copper as CuMet+tallow; and iv) basal diet with 134 ppm copper as CuMet+ glycerol. Throughout the entire experimental period, no differences were noted among treatment groups with regard to the magnitude of improvement in ADG (average daily gain), ADFI (average daily feed intake) and G/F (gain:feed) ratios. The nitrogen (N) digestibility of pigs fed on diets containing organic copper was improved as compared with that observed in pigs fed on diets containing inorganic copper (p<0.05). An interaction of copper${\times}$energy was observed in the context of both nitrogen (p<0.05) and energy (p<0.01) digestibility. Ammonia emissions were significantly lower in the organic copper-added treatment groups than in the inorganic copperadded treatment groups (p<0.05). Mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide emissions were reduced via the addition of glycerol (p<0.05). No significant effects of copper or energy source, or their interaction, were observed in reference to diarrhea appearance and incidence throughout the entirety of the experimental period. The copper concentration in the feces was significantly lower in the organic copper source treatment group than was observed in the inorganic copper source treatment group (p<0.05). The results of this experiment show that organic copper substituted for inorganic copper in the diet results in a decreased fecal copper excretion, but exerts no effect on performance. The different energy (tallow and glycerol) sources interact with different copper sources and thus influence nutrient digestibility. Glycerol supplementation may reduce the concentrations of odorous sulfuric compounds with different Cu sources.

Review of Copper Trihydroxychloride, a Green Pigment Composed of Copper and Chlorine (구리와 염소 주성분 녹색 안료 코퍼 트리하이드록시클로라이드(Copper Trihydroxychloride)에 대한 고찰)

  • Oh, Joonsuk;Lee, Saerom;Hwang, Minyoung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.64-87
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    • 2020
  • Copper trihydroxychloride (atacamite, botallackite, paratacamite, etc.), the first green pigment used in Mogao Grotto's mural paintings of China, has been known as "copper green", "green salt", and "salt green", etc. and has been used as an important green pigment with malachite. At first, the natural mineral atacamite was employed, but after the Five Dynasties (907~960 CE), synthetic copper trihydroxychloride was primarily used. In Chinese literature, copper green, green salt, and salt green are recorded as being made via reaction with copper powder, Gwangmyeongyeom (natural sodium chloride), and Yosa (natural ammonium chloride), and the prepared material was analyzed to be copper trihydroxychloride. Copper trihydroxychloride pigment was not found in paintings prior to the Joseon Dynasty (1392~1910 CE) in Korea. In analysis of the green pigments used in paintings and the architectural paintworks in the Joseon Dynasty, copper trihydroxychloride was also shown to have been used as an important green pigment with malachite (Seokrok). In particular, the proportion of copper trihydroxychloride use was high in Buddhist paintings, shamanic paintings, and dancheongs (decorative coloring on wooden buildings). Some of these turned out to be synthetic copper trihydroxychloride, but it is unclear whether the rest of them are synthetic or natural pigments due to a lack of analyzed data. From literature and painting analyses, the pigment name of copper trihydroxychloride in the Joseon Dynasty turns out to be Hayeob, a dark green pigment. It is believed to have first been prepared by learning from China in the early Joseon period (early 15th century) and its use continued until the late 19th century with imported Chinese pigment. Round or oval particles with a dark core of copper trihydroxychloride which were used in Chinese literature were similar to the synthetic copper trihydroxychloride pigments used in the Joseon Dynasty and Chinese paintings. Therefore, the synthetic copper trihydroxychloride pigments of Korea and China are believed to have been prepared in a similar way.

Aggregation of Thin Copper Wire by Ball Milling Treatment (볼밀처리에 의한 구리세선의 응집)

  • Hwang, Jisu;Cho, Seong Su;Seong, Chang Jun;Yoo, Kyoungkeun
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2020
  • Recycling processes of spent copper wires cosisnt of several steps of cutting and chopping processes for peeling covering materials followed by gravity separation processes, where copper is recovered. Because copper thin wires could be lost during further recycling processes, the wire may need to be further treated. In the present study, the copper thin wire was treated with ball milling to prevent the loss. Since the aggregation of the copper wire could be formed by bending and entangling the copper wire each other, the degree of flexion of the copper wire was measured after ball milling. When the 0.5 cm and 3 cm copper wires were used, the 0.5 cm copper wire was not bent and the 3 cm copper wires were aggregated regardless of the ball addition. When the 1 cm and 2 cm copper wires were used, the degree of flexion was remarkable when the balls were added. In the tests using 2 cm copper wires, the aggregation ratio of the copper wire gradually increased with the amount of the 20 mm alumina ball, and when 200 ml of 30 mm alumina ball was used, the aggregation ratio increased to 89.29 %, but after increasing the ball amount further, the aggregation ratio decreased. Thus, it is expected that the loss of the copper wire could be reducedif when the copper thin wire is treated with ball milling by the aggregation of copper thin wires.

A Regional Study for Developments of Kyeongnam Copper Metallogenic Province (경남지구(慶南地區) 동광상(銅鑛床)의 종합개발(綜合開發)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究))

  • Kim, Sun Uk
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.133-170
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    • 1973
  • The metamorphosed belt on cherty and andesitic rocks of the Gyeongnam province area has been well known as the most important copper matallogenetic province in Korea and locally has been investigated by several geologists. This report is summarized about geology, occurrence of ore deposits, the study of the present status of mine developments and exploitations and the suggestions of future proposed of copper mine developments and harmoniously and reseonably planning of demands and supply of copper ore. For convenience of study the writer divided the survey region as 4 areas, according to the conditions of mine location. They are (1) Goseong copper area (2) Gunbuk-Haman copper area (3) Masan-Changwon copper area (4) Tongrae-Ilgwang copper area. The geology of the above 4 areas consits of Cretaceous Gyongsang System, which is divided into Silla series, Nakdong Series and Bulguksa Series. The former has intrusive and extrusive andesite and sedimentary formation, and the latter has dioritic and hornblende granite. Ore deposits which is mostly vein types are confined mostly in the andesite and cherty rocks of Silla and Nakdong Series. It is observed slight hydrothermal alteration, i. e. propylitization, chloritization, saussuritization and silicification. It seems that the ore was formed by hydrothermal solution and secondary enrichement. The ore minerals are mainly chalcopyrite and pyrite, with small amounts of malachite, azurite, chalcocite, cuprite, galena, and sphalerite, magnetite, tetrahedrite and etc.. The efficient plan of copper mine developments in surveyed region are as following; (a) Gyeongnam Copper districts are divided in 4 area as mentioned above. (b) Each area would be likely developed as group-working as one unit. For the sufficiently supplying a demand of electric copper, the importations of high grade copper ore in foreign country are invitable at present status of copper mine developments and exploitations.

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Biocides Effect on the Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Pure Copper by Desulfovibrio sp.

  • Onan, Mert;Ilhan-Sungur, Esra;Gungor, Nihal Dogruoz;Cansever, Nurhan
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2018
  • The aims of this study were to determine the corrosion behavior of pure copper in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and also to investigate the effects of glutaraldehyde (GD) and isothiazolinone (ISO) on the corrosion behavior of pure copper in the presence of this sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) strain by using electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical measurements of pure copper were carried out at specified time intervals (0, 8, 24, 48, and 96 hr) over a period of exposure. Corrosion rates of pure copper from anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes and corrosion potential ($E_{corr}$) were determined. Biofilm and corrosion products on the copper surfaces were observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses. The effects of solution types (PC (Postgate's C medium) and SRB (Desulfovibrio sp.)) and exposure times of copper and biocides (ISO or GD) on the corrosion rates of pure copper were evaluated by statistical analyses. As a result of the FESEM analysis, biofilm formation was observed on the surfaces of pure copper exposed to the Desulfovibrio sp. cultures both with and without the biocides. The results show that the pure copper was corroded by Desulfovibrio sp. However, the addition of GD or ISO to the Desulfovibrio sp. culture resulted in a decrease in the corrosion rate of the pure copper. It was also observed that both of the biocides showed a similar effect on pure copper's corrosion rate caused by Desulfovibrio sp.

Effect of Copper on the Growth and Methanol Dehydrogenase Activity of Methylobacillus sp. Strain SK1 DSM 8269

  • Kim, Si W.;Kim, Young M.
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.172-178
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    • 1996
  • Methylobacillus sp. strain SK1, which grows only on methanol, was found to grow in the absence of added copper. The doubling time (t$_{d}$ = 1.3 h) of the bacterium growing at the exponential growth phase at 30.deg.C in the absence of copper was the same as that of the cell growing in the presence of copper. The bacterium growing after the exponential phase in the absence of copper, however, grew faster than the cell growing in the presence of copper. Cells harvested after thee arly stationary phase in the presence of copper were found to exhibit no methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) activity, but the amount and subunit structure of the enzyme in the cells were almost the same as that in cells harboring active MDH. Pellets of the cells harvested after the early stationary phase in the presence of copper were pale green. Cell-free extracts prepared from cells harvested at the early stationary phase in the presence of copper were pink and exhibited MDH activity, but it turned dark-green rapidly from the surface under air. The green-colored portions of the extracts showed no MDH activity and contained c-type cytochromes that were oxidized completely. The inactive MDH activity and contained c-type cytochromes that were oxidized completely. The inactive MDH proteins in the green portions were found to have antigenic sites identical to those of the active one as the inactive MDHs in cells grown in the presence of copper. The bacterium was found to accumulate copper actively during the exponential growth phase. MDH prepared from cells grown in the presence or absence of copper was found to be more stable under nitrogen gas than under air. Methanol at 10 mM was found to enhance the stability of the MDH under air.r.

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Hematological and serum biochemical studies in fresh water fish exposed to acute and chronic copper and mercury toxicity

  • H.A., Sawsan;H.M., Amira;M.B., Mostafa;AM.M., Nashaat
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 2017
  • A total number of 668 apparently healthy fish were obtained from farm to study the effect of two heavy metals in a form of (Copper sulfate and Mercuric chloride) on some hematological and biochemical parameters of blood. The $LC_{50}$ /96 hr. of Cu and Hg were estimated and fish exposed to $\text\tiny{^1/_2}$ $LC_{50}$ for 7 days and for $1/_{10}$ $LC_{50}$ for 8 weeks from each product separately. Results showed decrease in RBCs count, PCV% and Hb in acute and chronic mercury while a significant increase was shown in acute and chronic copper toxicity, total leucocytic count showed decrease in acute mercury toxicity and increase in the chronic case, while in copper toxicity non-significant decrease in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity was noticed. Elevated serum urea and creatinine in both acute and chronic mercury and copper toxicity was detected. No changes in total bilirubin in the acute mercury and chronic copper toxicity while significant increase in chronic mercury and acute copper. Elevation of serum AST and ALT in some days of acute toxicity of mercury and copper while in chronic mercury toxicity a significant elevation of both serums AST and ALT were detected .while in chronic copper toxicity serum AST was fluctuated and ALT showed no significant changes. CK study revealed significant decrease in acute mercury with fluctuation in the chronic toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed fluctuation in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity. Glucose value decreased in acute and chronic mercury toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed significant increase in the acute and increase followed by significant decrease in the chronic copper toxicity.

A Study on Thermal Properties of Ethylene Glycol Containing Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (산화구리 나노분말을 포함하는 에틸렌글리콜 용액의 열전특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Chang-Kyu;Lee, Gyoung-Ja;Rhee, Chang-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.276-280
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    • 2010
  • In the present work, ethylene glycol-based (EG) copper oxide nanofluids were synthesized by pulsed wire evaporation method. In order to explode the pure copper wire, high voltage of 23 kV was applied to the both ends of wire and argon/oxygen gas mixture was used as reactant gas. EG-based copper oxide nanofluids with different volume fraction were prepared by controlling explosion number of copper wire. From the transmission electron microscope (TEM) image, it was found that the copper oxide nanoparticles exhibited an average diameter about 100 nm with the oxide layer of 2~3 nm. The synthesized copper oxide consists of CuO/$Cu_2O$ phases and the Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area was estimated to be $6.86\;m^2\;g^{-1}$. From the analyses of thermal properties, it is suggested that viscosity and thermal conductivity of EG-based copper oxide nanofluids do not show temperature-dependent behavior over the range of 20 to $90^{\circ}C$. On the other hand, the viscosity and thermal conductivity of EG-based copper oxide nanofluids increase with volume fraction due to the active Brownian motion of the nanoparticles, i.e., nanoconvection.

Combined Effects of Copper and Temperature on Antioxidant Enzymes in the Black Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli

  • Min, Eun Young;Baeck, Su Kyong;Kang, Ju-Chan
    • Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.345-353
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    • 2014
  • Copper has been widely used to control algae and pathogens in fish culture ponds. However, its toxic effects on fish depend not only on its concentration in the water but also on the water quality. A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess copper toxicity in the black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli using a panel of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), at different levels of copper at three water temperatures (WT, 18, 23, $28^{\circ}C$) for 4 days. After exposure to two copper concentrations (100 and $200{\mu}g/L$), GSH levels and GST activities increased significantly, depending on WT (P < 0.05) in the liver, gill, and kidney of the black rockfish. GPx and SOD activities decreased significantly with both increasing WT and copper treatment in the organs of black rockfish (P < 0.05). These changes can be seen as initial responses to temperature stress and as a sustained response to copper exposure. This also indicates that GSH and related enzymes activities were sensitive indexes to stress by toxicants such as copper. The present findings suggest that simultaneous stress due to temperature change and copper exposure can accelerate changes in enzymes activities in the black rockfish. This provides another example of synergism between environmental temperature and pollutants, which may have important implications for the survival of fish in polluted environments during seasonal warming and/or global climate change.