• Title/Summary/Keyword: Copper

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Study of defect characteristics by electrochemical plating thickness in copper CMP (Copper CMP에서 Electrochemical Plating 두께에 따른 Defect 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Gun;Kim, Nam-Hoon;Kim, Sang-Yong;Chang, Eui-Goo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.125-126
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    • 2005
  • Recently semiconductor devices are required more smaller scale and more powerful performance. For smaller scale of device, multilayer structure is proposed. And, for the higher performance, interconnection material is change to copper, because copper has high EM(Electro-migration)and low resistivity. Then copper CMP process is a great role in a multilayer formation of semiconductor. Copper process is different from aluminum process. ECP process is one of the copper processes. In this paper, we focused on the defects tendency by copper thickness which filled using ECP process. we observed hump high and dishing. Conclusively, hump hight reduced at copper thickness increased Also dishing reduced.

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Recovery of Nickel and Copper from Scraped Nickel Condensers

  • Liang, Ruilu;Kikuchi, Eiji;Kawabe, Yoshishige;Sakamoto, Hiroshi;Fujita, Toyohisa
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.188-192
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    • 2001
  • Magnetic separation and sulphidization-flotation for recovery of nickel and copper from two types of scraped condenser wastes, containing 8- l4% nickel and 2-4% copper, were studied. The effects of magnetic field intensities, classification, and grinding on the recovery of nickel and copper were investigated. According to the characteristics of nickel and copper in the scraps, classification-magnetic separation, different magnetic field intensities, and stages-grinding-cleaning of rough concentrate were investigated. The nickel concentrates containing 38-65% nickel with 84-97% recoveries and the copper concentrates containing 25-43% nickel with 35-60% recoveries were obtained by classification-magnetic separation. In addition, copper concentrates containing 26-45% copper with 76-88% recoveries were obtained by sulphidization-flotation from magnetic tailings and middling products.

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A Study on Improvement of Light Fastness on Silk-Dyed Fabric by Aftertreatment with Copper Sulfate/Thiourea (황산구리/치오요소 후처리에 의한 견직물의 일광 견뢰도 증진에 관한 연구)

  • 윤정임;김경환
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1993
  • The Silk fabric was dyed with various acid dyes, and than treated with copper sulfate or copper sulfate/thiourea. Munsell color system, dye exhaustion and light fastness were investigated for the treated fabrics. The results obtaind are as follows: 1) The color variation of the silk-dyed fabric by aftertreatment with copper sulfate was shown redish, but original color with copper sulfate/thiourea. 2) Copper sulfate/thiourea was much more effective than copper sulfate only to increase the light fastness. 3) The crease recovery was increased by aftertreatment with copper sulfate/thiourea. 4) Dye exhaustion and tensile strength of the silk-dyed fabric by aftertreatment with copper sulfate was decreased about 8-15% more than those of untreated.

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A Study on Improvement of Fastness on Cotton-dyed Fabric by Aftertreatment with Copper Sulfate/Thiourea (황산구리/치오요소 후처리에 희한 직접염료의 견뢰도 증진에 관한 연구(II))

  • Yoon, Jung Im;Kim, Kyung Hwan
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1993
  • The Cotton fabric was dyed with various directd dyes, and then treated with copper sulfate or copper sulfate/thiourea. Munsell color system, dye exhaustion, tensile strength, light fastness, washing fastness and rubbing fastness were investigated for the treated fabrics. The results obtaind are as follows: 1. The color variation of the cotton-dyed fabric by aftertreatment with copper sulfate was shown redish, but original color with copper sulfate/thiourea. 2. Copper sulfate/thiourea was much more effective than copper sulfate only to increase the light fastness, washing fastness and rubbing fastness. 3. Dye exhaustion of the cotton-dyed fabric by aftertreatment with copper sulfate was decreased about 20% more than those of untreated. 4. Tensile stregth of cotton-dyed fabric by aftertreatment with copper sulfate/thiourea was decrease about 10% more than those of untreated.

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Fabrication of copper thin foils with 36 microns by cold rolling (냉간 압연 공정에 의한 두께 $36{\mu}m$ 동극박 제조 공정 해석)

  • Lee, S.H.;Kim, B.M.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.413-416
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    • 2007
  • In general, by means of the electrodepositing technique, a copper foil sample was prepared with a high purity and a high density. But the mechanical properties of the electrodepositing copper foil was lower than it's the rolling copper foil. However, the production of copper foil with approximately 36 microns thick in rolling process was very difficult. This paper describes the outline of the high accuracy cold rolling in 6 high mill which was developed for the purpose of rolling very thin accurate gauge copper foil(36 micron thick), and give several rolling characteristic of 600 mm wide copper foil. a) Large strain can be accumulated pass by pass in industrial multi-pass rolling processing to overcome large critical strain for thickness accuracy through optimization of rolling schedule. b) Also, permissible tension for rolling 0.45 $\sim$ 0.036 mm thick copper strip stably in accordance with the each pass work had been established by FEM simulation results. c) During the plate rolling process, considerable values of the forces of material pressure on the tool occur. These pressures cause the elastic deformation of the roll, thus changing the shape of the deformation region. A numerical simulation of roll deflection during cold rolling is presented in the paper. d) The proposed pass schedule can roll very thin copper foil of 36 micron thickness to a tolerance of ${\pm}1$ microns. The validity of simulated results was verified into rolling experiments on the copper foil.

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Surface Modification of Silica Spheres for Copper Removal

  • Kim, Byoung-Ju;Park, Eun-Hye;Kang, Kwang-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.60 no.5
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    • pp.317-320
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    • 2016
  • Efficient copper removal from water was achieved by using surface modified silica spheres with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) using base catalyst. The surface modification of silica spheres was performed by hydrolysis and condensation reactions of the MPTMS. The characteristic infrared absorption peaks at 2929, 1454, and 1343 cm−1 represent the −CH2 stretching vibration, asymmetric deformation, and deformation, respectively. The absorption peaks at 2580 and 693 cm−1 corresponding the −SH stretching vibration and the C-S stretching vibration indicate the incorporation of MPTMS to the surface of silica spheres. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) image of the surface modified silica sphere (SMSS) shows nano-particles of MPTMS on the surface of silica spheres. High concentration of copper solution (1000 ppm) was used to test the copper removal efficiency and uptake capacity. The FESEM image of SMSS treated with the copper solution shows large number of copper lumps on the surface of SMSS. The copper concentration drastically decreased with increasing the amount of SMSS. The residual copper concentrations were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The copper removal efficiency and uptake capacity with 1000 ppm of copper solution were 99.99 % and 125 mg/g, respectively.

Effect of Copper ion on Xanthine Oxidase Activity and Type Conversion (Xanthine oxidase 활성 및 형전환에 미치는 구리이온의 영향)

  • Huh, Keun;Lee, Sang-Il;Park, Jeen-Woo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 1994
  • Copper intoxication and disturbance of copper metabolism induced various oxygen-derived free radicals related damages. The effect of copper ion on xanthine oxidase activity and type conversion of the enzyme which is concerned to generation of reactive oxygen species, was investigated, It was observed that xanthine oxidase activity was increased by addition of copper ion in the reaction mixture in proportional to the concentration of the metal ion until $60\;{\mu}M$, while the enzyme activity was inhibited in higher concentration of copper treatment. On the other hand, xanthine dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by copper ion addition with concentration dependently. Preincubation of enzyme source with $30\;{\mu}M$ of copper ion, which concentration marked increased the xanthine oxidase activity, unchanged the enzyme activity and type conversion compare to control in vitro system. It was also observed that copper induced xanthine oxidase activity and the enzyme type conversion was protected by dithiothreitol and penicillamine. These results indicate that the increment of the type conversion of xanthine oxidase necessarilly need the presence of copper ion in enzyme assay system.

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Spatial Pattern of Copper Phosphate Precipitation Involves in Copper Accumulation and Resistance of Unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 Biofilm

  • Chen, Guangcun;Lin, Huirong;Chen, Xincai
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.2116-2126
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    • 2016
  • Bacterial biofilms are spatially structured communities that contain bacterial cells with a wide range of physiological states. The spatial distribution and speciation of copper in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms that accumulated 147.0 mg copper per g dry weight were determined by transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and micro-X-ray fluorescence microscopy coupled with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) analysis. It was found that copper was mainly precipitated in a $75{\mu}m$ thick layer as copper phosphate in the middle of the biofilm, while there were two living cell layers in the air-biofilm and biofilm-medium interfaces, respectively, distinguished from the copper precipitation layer by two interfaces. The X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of biofilm revealed that species resembling $Cu_3(PO_4)_2$ predominated in biofilm, followed by Cu-Citrate- and Cu-Glutathione-like species. Further analysis by micro-XANES revealed that 94.4% of copper were $Cu_3(PO_4)_2$-like species in the layer next to the air interface, whereas the copper species of the layer next to the medium interface were composed by 75.4% $Cu_3(PO_4)_2$, 10.9% Cu-Citrate-like species, and 11.2% Cu-Glutathione-like species. Thereby, it was suggested that copper was initially acquired by cells in the biofilm-air interface as a citrate complex, and then transported out and bound by out membranes of cells, released from the copper-bound membranes, and finally precipitated with phosphate in the extracellular matrix of the biofilm. These results revealed a clear spatial pattern of copper precipitation in unsaturated biofilm, which was responsible for the high copper tolerance and accumulation of the biofilm.

Study on the Preparation of Copper Sulfate by Copper Powder using Cation Membrane Electrowinning Prepared from Waste Cupric Chloride Solution (염화동 폐액으로부터 양이온격막 전해 채취된 구리 분말을 이용한 황산동의 제조방법 연구)

  • Kang, Yong-Ho;Hyun, Soong-Keun
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.62-72
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    • 2019
  • Generally, $H_2SO_4$ and Cu metal are used as raw materials for producing copper sulfate. The study relates to a method for producing copper sulfate using electrowinning from a waste solution of copper chloride. Uses are used for copper plating for industry, plating, feed, agriculture, electronic grade PCB. Conventional methods for producing copper sulfate have a problem of a large amount of waste water and a high energy cost. A study on the production method of copper sulfate ($CuSO_4$), which is the most used among copper (Cu) compounds, has a low process operation ratio, a small amount of waste water, and a simple manufacturing process. It is easy to remove Na, Ca, Mg, and Al as impurities by using a cationic membrane. At the same time, high purity copper powder could be recovered by an electrowinninng method. Using the recovered copper powder, high purity copper sulfate could be produced.

A Study on Abnormal Expansion of Fe-Cu Sintered Alloy (Fe-Cu계 소결합금의 이상팽창에 관한 연구 (I))

  • Song Young-Jun;Kim Youn-Che
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.383-390
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    • 2004
  • In order to investigate behavior of abnormal expansion of the iron-copper compacts, we compared the dilatometric curves of the compacts which mixed the copper powder to the iron powder with those of compacts which mixed the copper powder to the iron-copper alloy powder. The dilatometric curves were obtained below the sintering conditions, which heated up to 115$0^{\circ}C$ by a heating rate of 1$0^{\circ}C$/min, held for 60min at 115$0^{\circ}C$ and cooled down at a rate of 2$0^{\circ}C$/min to room temperature. The dilatometric curves of the compacts showed the different expansion behavior at temperatures above the copper melting point in spite of same chemical composition. All of the compacts of former case showed large expansion, but all of the compacts in latter case showed large contraction. The microstructures of sintered compacts also showed the different progress in alloying of the copper into the iron powder. Namely we could observe the segregation at alloy part of copper into iron powder in case of the sintered compacts, which mixed the copper powder to the iron powder, but could not observe the segregation in compacts which mixed the copper powder to the iron-copper alloy powder. But the penetration of liquid copper into the interstices between solid particles was occurred at both cases. Therefore, the showing of the different dimensional changes in the compacts in spite of same chemical composition is due to more the alloying of copper into iron powder than the penetration of liquid copper into the interstices between solid particles.