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The State of Marine Pollution in the Waters adjacent to Shipyards in Korea - 2. Assessment of the Pollution of Heavy Metals in Seawater around Major Shipyards in Summer 2010 (국내 조선소 주변해역의 해양오염 현황 - 2. 2010년 하계 대형조선소 주변 해수의 중금속오염 평가)

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2015
  • In order to elucidate the current state of marine pollution of heavy metals around major shipyards in Korea, seawater samples were collected at eleven sampling stations and four control stations around 4 major shipyards located in the southeastern coast of Korea in summer 2010, and 6 kinds of metals such as copper(Cu), zinc(Zn), iron(Fe), cadmium(Cd), lead(Pb) and mercury(Hg) in seawater samples were analyzed. The analyses of heavy metals in seawater showed that the mean Cu concentrations in seawater around 4 major shipyards were in the range of $0.817{\sim}1.638{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $20{\mu}g/L$ for the protection of human health(PHH) and of $3{\mu}g/L$ for short-term protection of marine ecosystem(SPME) but higher than Cu concentration at control station by a factor of up to 2.75. The mean Zn concentrations were in the range of $0.228{\sim}0.567{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $100{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $34{\mu}g/L$ for SPME but higher than Zn concentration at control station by a factor of up to 5.91. The mean Fe concentrations were in the range of $3.332{\sim}7.410{\mu}g/L$ which were higher than Fe concentration at control station by a factor of up to 6.75. The mean Cd concentrations were in the range of $0.013{\sim}0.028{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $10{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $19{\mu}g/L$ for SPME but higher than Cd concentration at control station by a factor of up to 2.33. The mean Pb concentrations were in the range of $0.007{\sim}0.126{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $50{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $7.6{\mu}g/L$ for SPME. The mean Hg concentrations were in the range of $0.002{\sim}0.004{\mu}g/L$ which were lower than Korean environmental standards of $0.5{\mu}g/L$ for PHH and $1.8{\mu}g/L$ for SPME. Although the concentrations of metals such as Cu, Zn and Fe which were used in shipbuilding works were lower than Korean environmental standards for PHH and SPME, the fact that the concentrations of Cu, Zn and Fe at sampling stations around major shipyards were higher than those at control stations implies that the works in shipyards had some effects on marine water quality around shipyards. Therefore, marine environment management such as the prevention and control of the discharge of various pollutants from shipyards is required on national level.

Control of Pepper Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum using Alternate Application of Agricultural Organic Materials and Iminoctadine tris + thiram (유기농업자재와 유기합성 살균제(Iminoctadine tris + thiram) 교호살포에 따른 고추 탄저병 방제 효과)

  • Hong, Sung-Jun;Kim, Yong-Ki;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.428-439
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    • 2015
  • Pepper anthracnose caused by Collectotrichum acutaum has been known as one of the most damaging diseases of pepper, which has reduced not only yield but also quality of pepper produce almost every year. This study was conducted to develop control strategy against pepper anthracnose by alternate application of agricultural organic materials and chemical fungicides. The alternate application effect of agricultural organic materials and chemical fungicides for controlling pepper anthracnose were examined in vitro and in the field. First, thirteen microbial agents and twenty two agricultural organic materials were screened for antifungal activity against C. acutatum through the dual culture method and bioassay. As a result, one microbial agent (Bacillus subtilis QST-713) and three agricultural organic materials (sulfur, bordeaux mixture, marine algae extracts) were found to show high inhibition effect against C. acutatum. In the field test, when Iminoctadine tris+thiram, a chemical fungicide for controlling pepper anthracnose, was sprayed, it reduced disease incidence by 89.5%. Meanwhile Sulfur, bordeaux mixture, copper, marine algae extracts and Bacillus subtilis QST-713 showed low disease incidence at the range of 33.1~81.0%. However, when Iminoctadine tris+thiram and agricultural organic materials(bordeaux mixture, marine algae extracts) were applied to pepper fruits alternately two times at 7 days interval, there was a 81.7 and 87.1% reduction in disease, respectively. Consequently, the alternate spray of chemical fungicide (Iminoctadine tris+thiram) and agricultural organic materials (bordeaux mixture, marine algae extracts) could be recommended as a control method to reduce the using amount of chemical fungicide.

Antioxidant Effect of Hot water and Ethanol extracts from Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes (3T3-L1 지방세포내 ROS 생성에 대한 천년초 열수 및 에탄올 추출물의 항산화 효과)

  • Yoon, Bo-Ra;Lee, Young-Jun;Kim, Sun-Gu;Jang, Jung-Young;Lee, Hyo-Ku;Rhee, Seong-Kap;Hong, Hee-Do;Choi, Hyeon-Son;Lee, Boo-Yong;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.443-450
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    • 2012
  • Recently, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-mediated generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was proposed to accelerate adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cell. We have previously shown that Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) extract significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation via downregulation of $PPAR{\gamma}$ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) gene expression. In this study, we focused on the molecular mechanism(s) of NOX4, G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and antioxidant enzymes in anti-oxidative activities of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results indicate that Cheonnyuncho extracts markedly inhibits ROS production during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Cheonnyuncho extracts suppressed the mRNA expression of the pro-oxidant enzyme such as NOX4 and the NADPH-producing G6PDH enzyme. In addition, treatment with Cheonnyuncho extract was found to upregulate mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes such as Mn-SOD (manganese-superoxide dismutase), Cu/Zn-SOD (copper/zinc-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathion reductase (GR), and catalase, all of which are important for endogenous antioxidant responses. These data suggest that Cheonnyuncho extract may be effective in preventing the rise of oxidative stress during adipocyte differentiation through mechanism(s) that involves direct down regulation of NOX4 and G6PDH gene expression or via upregulation of endogenous antioxidant responses.

Investigation of the Rice Plant Transfer and the Leaching Characteristics of Copper and Lead for the Stabilization Process with a Pilot Scale Test (논토양 안정화 현장 실증 시험을 통한 납, 구리의 용출 저감 및 벼로의 식물전이 특성 규명)

  • Lee, Ha-Jung;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.255-264
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    • 2012
  • The stabilization using limestone ($CaCO_3$) and steel making slag as the immobilization amendments for Cu and Pb contaminated farmland soils was investigated by batch tests, continuous column experiments and the pilot scale feasibility study with 4 testing grounds at the contaminated site. From the results of batch experiment, the amendment with the mixture of 3% of limestone and 2% of steel making slag reduced more than 85% of Cu and Pb compared with the soil without amendment. The acryl column (1 m in length and 15 cm in diameter) equipped with valves, tubes and a sprinkler was used for the continuous column experiments. Without the amendment, the Pb concentration of the leachate from the column maintained higher than 0.1 mg/L (groundwater tolerance limit). However, the amendment with 3% limestone and 2% steel making slag reduced more than 60% of Pb leaching concentration within 1 year and the Pb concentration of leachate maintained below 0.04 mg/L. For the testing ground without the amendment, the Pb and Cu concentrations of soil water after 60 days incubation were 0.38 mg/L and 0.69 mg/l, respectively, suggesting that the continuous leaching of Cu and Pb may occur from the site. For the testing ground amended with mixture of 3% of limestone + 2% of steel making slag, no water soluble Pb and Cu were detected after 20 days incubation. For all testing grounds, the ratio of Pb and Cu transfer to plant showed as following: root > leaves(including stem) > rice grain. The amendment with limestone and steel making slag reduced more than 75% Pb and Cu transfer to plant comparing with no amendment. The results of this study showed that the amendment with mixture of limestone and steel making slag decreases not only the leaching of heavy metals but also the plant transfer from the soil.

Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contents in Mudflat Solar Salt, Salt Water, and Sea Water in the Nationwide Salt Pan (전국 염전에서 생산된 갯벌천일염, 함수 및 해수의 중금속 함량 평가)

  • Kim, Hag-Lyeol;Yoo, Young-Joo;Lee, In-Sun;Ko, Gang-Hee;Kim, In-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.7
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    • pp.1014-1019
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contents of mudflat solar salt, salt water, and sea water produced in the nationwide salt pan. In mudflat solar salt, moisture contents were significantly different (p<0.001) between regions, ranging from 7.357% to 14.862%. Arsenic (As) content ranged from 0.007 ppm to 0.497 ppm, cadmium (Cd) from 0.000 ppm to 0.101 ppm, plumbum (Pb) from 0.000 ppm to 0.191 ppm, hydrargyrum (Hg) from 0.006 ppb to 0.180 ppb, and copper (Cu) from 0.039 ppm to 4.794 ppm between regions, which were significantly different (p<0.001). Further, As, Cd, Pb, and Hg contents of sea and salt water were not in excess of their criterion points. Our results suggest that heavy metal contents of mudflat solar salt, salt water, and sea water produced in the nationwide salt pan were at safe levels. However, continuous management of heavy metal contamination, such as PVC met, is still necessary.

Differences in Rice Quality and Physiochemical Component between Protox Inhibitor-Herbicide Resistant Transgenic Rice and Its Non-transgenic Counterpart (Protox 저해형 제초제 저항성 형질환벼와 비형질전환벼의 미질 및 이화학적 성분 차이)

  • Jung, Ha-Il;Yun, Young-Beom;Kwon, Oh-Do;Lee, Do-Jin;Back, Kyoung-Whan;Kuk, Yong-In
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2012
  • Characteristics related to grain quality and physiochemical components such as mineral, total amino acid, free amino acid, and free sugar composition were investigated in Protox inhibitor resistanttransgenic rice (MX, PX, and AP37) and its nontransgenic counterpart (WT). Head rice, palatability, protein, and whiteness (except for MX and AP37) of milled transgenic rice were high or similar to those of the non-transgenic counterpart. Immature rice, unfilled grain, and cracked kernels (PX and AP37) of milled transgenic rice were lower than those of its non-transgenic counterpart. However, there were no significant differences in damaged grain between the transgenic rice lines and its counterpart. Potassium content in PX and copper contents in PX and AP37 were only low compared with their non-transgenic counterparts, but other mineral contents in transgenic rice lines were high or showed no significant differences compared with non-transgenic counterparts. Contents of most total amino acid composition in transgenic rice lines were high or similar to those in non-transgenic counterparts, but the content of isoleucine in AP37 was only low compared with its non-transgenic counterpart. On the other hand, free amino acid, leucine and tyrosine in PX and AP37, and total free amino acid in PX were low compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. However, the content of free amino acid in other kinds in transgenic rice lines were similar to those in their non-transgenic counterparts. Contents of sucrose in MX and PX were low compared with non-transgenic counterpars, but contents of fructose, glucose, and maltose in transgenic rice lines were high or similar compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. This results indicated that Protox genes had no negative affect on the nutritional composition of rice.

Effect of Organic Materials and the Removal of Apical Shoot on Controlling Cucumber Downy Mildew (유기농업자재와 순지르기를 이용한 오이 노균병 방제)

  • Park, Jong-Won;Kim, Yong-Ki;Park, So-Hyang;Hong, Sung-Jun;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;So, Hyun-Gyu;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.919-929
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the effect of organic materials (Bordeaux, Loess-sulfur) and the removal of apical shoot against downy mildew disease on cucumber cultivated in greenhouse. Five kinds of Bordeaux were made by adjusting mixing ratio of lime and copper sulfate in order to elucidate the optimal combination. The 4-6type Bordeaux was selected as the most effective combination for controlling cucumber downy mildew. Loess-sulfur showed inhibitory activity against cucumber downey mildew, but it was less effective than Bordeaux. It was confirmed that apical shoot cutting could reduce the incidence of cucumber downy mildew disease by 56.3%. When apical shoots of susceptible cucumber variety were cut at different leaf stages, disease incidence by early apical shoot cutting treatment was lower than that of late apical shoot cutting treatment. However in a resistant variety, 'Heukryungsamcheok', disease incidences of all cucumber apical shoot cutting treatments were lower than that of non-cutting treatment, but there was no differences between apical shoot cutting treatments due to low disease incidences. In addition, when organic materials and apical shoot cutting treatment were carried out in parallel, the combined treatments of organic materials and apical shoot cutting showed low disease incidence of cucumber downy mildew compared to untreated control. The lowest disease incidence of cucumber downy mildew was recorded in the combined treatment of 4-6type Bordeaux and apical shoot cutting. This study confirmed that apical shoot cutting can reduce the disease incidence of cucumber downy mildew and the combined treatment of apical shoot cutting and organic materials showed higher suppressive effect against cucumber downy mildew.

Skarn Evolution and Fe-(Cu) Mineralization at the Pocheon Deposit, Korea (한국 포천 광상의 스카른 진화과정 및 철(-동)광화작용)

  • Go, Ji-Su;Choi, Seon-Gyu;Kim, Chang Seong;Kim, Jong Wook;Seo, Jieun
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.335-349
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    • 2014
  • The Pocheon skarn deposit, located at the northwestern part of the Precambrian Gyeonggi massif in South Korea, occurs at the contact between the Cretaceous Myeongseongsan granite and the Precambrian carbonate rocks, and is also controlled by N-S-trending shear zone. The skarn distribution and mineralogy reflects both structural and lithological controls. Three types of skarn formations based on mineral assemblages in the Pocheon skarn exist; a sodiccalcic skarn and a magnesian skarn mainly developed in the dolostone, and a calcic skarn developed in the limestone. Iron mineralization occurs in the sodic-calcic and magnesian skarn zone, locally superimposed by copper mineralization during retrograde skarn stage. The sodic-calcic skarn is composed of acmite, diopside, albite, garnet, magnetite, maghemite, anhydrite, apatite, and sphene. Retrograde alteration consists of tremolite, phlogopite, epidote, sericite, gypum, chlorite, quartz, calcite, and sulfides. Magnesian skarn mainly consists of diopside and forsterite. Pyroxene and olivine are mainly altered to tremolite, with minor phlogopite, talc, and serpentine. The calcic skarn during prograde stage mainly consists of garnet, pyroxene and wollastonite. Retrograde alteration consists of epidote, vesuvianite, amphibole, biotite, magnetite, chlorite, quartz, calcite, and sulfides. Microprobe analyses indicate that the majority of the Pocheon skarn minerals are enriched by Na-Mg composition and have high $Fe^{3+}/Fe^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}/Fe^{2+}$, and $Al^{3+}/Fe^{2+}$ ratios. Clinopyroxene is acmitic and diopsidic composition, whereas garnet is relatively grossular-rich. Amphiboles are largely of tremolite, pargasite, and magnesian hastingsite composition. The prograde anhydrous skarn assemblages formed at about $400^{\circ}{\sim}500^{\circ}C$ in a highly oxidized environment ($fO_2=10^{-23}{\sim}10^{-26}$) under a condition of about 0.5 kbar pressure and $X(CO_2)=0.10$. With increasing fluid/rock interaction during retrograde skarn, epidote, amphibole, sulfides and calcite formed as temperature decreased to approximately $250^{\circ}{\sim}400^{\circ}C$ at $X(CO_2)=0.10$.

Effects of Co-digestate application on the Soil Properties, Leachate and Growth Responses of Paddy Rice (통합혐기소화액의 시용이 벼 생육 및 논토양 환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Seung-Gil;Shin, Joung-Du;Kwon, Soon-Ik;Park, Woo-Kyun;Lee, Deog-Bae;Kim, Jeong-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2010
  • Livestock manures have a potential to be a valuable resource with an efficient treatment. In Korea, 42 million tons of livestock manure were generated in 2008, and 84 % of them were used for compost and liquid fertilizer production. Recently recycling of livestock manure for biogas production through anaerobic digestion is increasing, but its utilization in agriculture is still uncertified. In this study, there was applied co-digestate to the paddy for rice cultivation based on N supplement. Co-digestate was fertilizer fermented with pig slurry and food waste combined with the ratio of 70:30(v:v) in its volumetric basis. For assessing the safety of co-digestate, it was monitored the contents of co-digestate for seasonal variation, resulted in no potential harm to the soil and plant by heavy metals. The results showed that soil applied with co-digestate was increased in exchangeable potassium, copper and zinc mainly due to the high rate of pig slurry in co-digestate applied. Considering high salt content due to the combination with food waste, strict quality assurances are needed for safe application to arable land though it has valuable fertilizer nutrient. Leachate after treatment showed that the concentration of nitrate nitrogen washed out within two weeks. Considering the salt accumulation results in soil, it is highly recommended that the application rate of co-digestate should not exceed the crop fertilization rate based on N supplement. With these results, it was concluded that co-digestate could be used as an alternative fertilizer for chemical fertilizer. More study is needed for the long-term effects of co-digestate application on the soil and water environment.

A Study on the Applicability of Soilremediation Technology for Contaminated Sediment in Agro-livestock Reservoir (농축산저수지 오염퇴적토의 토양정화기술에 대한 적용성 연구)

  • Jung, Jaeyun;Chang, Yoonyoung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.157-181
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    • 2020
  • Sediments from rivers, lakes and marine ports serve as end points for pollutants discharged into the water, and at the same time serve as sources of pollutants that are continuously released into the water. Until now, the contaminated sediments have been landfilled or dumped at sea. Landfilling, however, was expensive and dumping at sea was completely banned due to the London Convention. Therefore, this study applied contaminated sedimentation soil of 'Royal Palace Livestock Complex' as soil purification method. Soil remediation methods were applied to pretreatment, composting, soil washing, electrokinetics, and thermal desorption by selecting overseas application cases and domestically applicable application technologies. As a result of surveying the site for pollutant characteristics, Disolved Oxigen (DO), Suspended Solid (SS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP) exceeded the discharged water quality standard, and especially SS, COD, TN, and TP exceeded the standard several tens to several hundred times. Soil showed high concentrations of copper and zinc, which promote the growth of pig feed, and cadmium exceeded 1 standard of Soil Environment Conservation Act. In the pretreatment technology, hydrocyclone was used for particle size separation, and the fine soil was separated by more than 80%. Composting was performed on organic and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils. TPH was treated within the standard of concern, and E. coli was analyzed to be high in organic matter, and the fertilizer specification was satisfied by applying the optimum composting conditions at 70℃, but the organic matter content was lower than the fertilizer specification. As a result of continuous washing test, Cd has 5 levels of residual material in fine soil. Cu and Zn were mostly composed of ion exchange properties (stage 1), carbonates (stage 2), and iron / manganese oxides (stage 3), which facilitate easy separation of contamination. As a result of applying acid dissolution and multi-stage washing step by step, hydrochloric acid, 1.0M, 1: 3, 200rpm, 60min was analyzed as the optimal washing factor. Most of the contaminated sediments were found to satisfy the Soil Environmental Conservation Act's standards. Therefore, as a result of the applicability test of this study, soil with high heavy metal contamination was used as aggregate by applying soil cleaning after pre-treatment. It was possible to verify that it was efficient to use organic and oil-contaminated soil as compost Maturity after exterminating contaminants and E. coli by applying composting.