• Title, Summary, Keyword: Copper

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Spatial Pattern of Copper Phosphate Precipitation Involves in Copper Accumulation and Resistance of Unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 Biofilm

  • Chen, Guangcun;Lin, Huirong;Chen, Xincai
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.2116-2126
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    • 2016
  • Bacterial biofilms are spatially structured communities that contain bacterial cells with a wide range of physiological states. The spatial distribution and speciation of copper in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biofilms that accumulated 147.0 mg copper per g dry weight were determined by transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and micro-X-ray fluorescence microscopy coupled with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) analysis. It was found that copper was mainly precipitated in a $75{\mu}m$ thick layer as copper phosphate in the middle of the biofilm, while there were two living cell layers in the air-biofilm and biofilm-medium interfaces, respectively, distinguished from the copper precipitation layer by two interfaces. The X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of biofilm revealed that species resembling $Cu_3(PO_4)_2$ predominated in biofilm, followed by Cu-Citrate- and Cu-Glutathione-like species. Further analysis by micro-XANES revealed that 94.4% of copper were $Cu_3(PO_4)_2$-like species in the layer next to the air interface, whereas the copper species of the layer next to the medium interface were composed by 75.4% $Cu_3(PO_4)_2$, 10.9% Cu-Citrate-like species, and 11.2% Cu-Glutathione-like species. Thereby, it was suggested that copper was initially acquired by cells in the biofilm-air interface as a citrate complex, and then transported out and bound by out membranes of cells, released from the copper-bound membranes, and finally precipitated with phosphate in the extracellular matrix of the biofilm. These results revealed a clear spatial pattern of copper precipitation in unsaturated biofilm, which was responsible for the high copper tolerance and accumulation of the biofilm.

The Effects of Different Copper (Inorganic and Organic) and Energy (Tallow and Glycerol) Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Fecal Excretion Profiles in Growing Pigs

  • Huang, Y.;Yoo, J.S.;Kim, H.J.;Wang, Y.;Chen, Y.J.;Cho, J.H.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.573-579
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of different copper (inorganic and organic) and energy (tallow and glycerol) sources on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gas emission, diarrhea incidence, and fecal copper concentration in growing pigs by using a 2${\times}$2 factorial design. In this trial, 96 pigs (63 d of age) were employed, with an average initial weight of 28.36${\pm}$1.14 kg. The dietary treatments were i) basal diet with 134 ppm copper (Korea recommendation) as $CuSO_4$+tallow; ii) basal diet with 134 ppm Cu as $CuSO_4$+glycerol; iii) basal diet with 134 ppm copper as CuMet+tallow; and iv) basal diet with 134 ppm copper as CuMet+ glycerol. Throughout the entire experimental period, no differences were noted among treatment groups with regard to the magnitude of improvement in ADG (average daily gain), ADFI (average daily feed intake) and G/F (gain:feed) ratios. The nitrogen (N) digestibility of pigs fed on diets containing organic copper was improved as compared with that observed in pigs fed on diets containing inorganic copper (p<0.05). An interaction of copper${\times}$energy was observed in the context of both nitrogen (p<0.05) and energy (p<0.01) digestibility. Ammonia emissions were significantly lower in the organic copper-added treatment groups than in the inorganic copperadded treatment groups (p<0.05). Mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide emissions were reduced via the addition of glycerol (p<0.05). No significant effects of copper or energy source, or their interaction, were observed in reference to diarrhea appearance and incidence throughout the entirety of the experimental period. The copper concentration in the feces was significantly lower in the organic copper source treatment group than was observed in the inorganic copper source treatment group (p<0.05). The results of this experiment show that organic copper substituted for inorganic copper in the diet results in a decreased fecal copper excretion, but exerts no effect on performance. The different energy (tallow and glycerol) sources interact with different copper sources and thus influence nutrient digestibility. Glycerol supplementation may reduce the concentrations of odorous sulfuric compounds with different Cu sources.

Review of Copper Trihydroxychloride, a Green Pigment Composed of Copper and Chlorine (구리와 염소 주성분 녹색 안료 코퍼 트리하이드록시클로라이드(Copper Trihydroxychloride)에 대한 고찰)

  • Oh, Joonsuk;Lee, Saerom;Hwang, Minyoung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.64-87
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    • 2020
  • Copper trihydroxychloride (atacamite, botallackite, paratacamite, etc.), the first green pigment used in Mogao Grotto's mural paintings of China, has been known as "copper green", "green salt", and "salt green", etc. and has been used as an important green pigment with malachite. At first, the natural mineral atacamite was employed, but after the Five Dynasties (907~960 CE), synthetic copper trihydroxychloride was primarily used. In Chinese literature, copper green, green salt, and salt green are recorded as being made via reaction with copper powder, Gwangmyeongyeom (natural sodium chloride), and Yosa (natural ammonium chloride), and the prepared material was analyzed to be copper trihydroxychloride. Copper trihydroxychloride pigment was not found in paintings prior to the Joseon Dynasty (1392~1910 CE) in Korea. In analysis of the green pigments used in paintings and the architectural paintworks in the Joseon Dynasty, copper trihydroxychloride was also shown to have been used as an important green pigment with malachite (Seokrok). In particular, the proportion of copper trihydroxychloride use was high in Buddhist paintings, shamanic paintings, and dancheongs (decorative coloring on wooden buildings). Some of these turned out to be synthetic copper trihydroxychloride, but it is unclear whether the rest of them are synthetic or natural pigments due to a lack of analyzed data. From literature and painting analyses, the pigment name of copper trihydroxychloride in the Joseon Dynasty turns out to be Hayeob, a dark green pigment. It is believed to have first been prepared by learning from China in the early Joseon period (early 15th century) and its use continued until the late 19th century with imported Chinese pigment. Round or oval particles with a dark core of copper trihydroxychloride which were used in Chinese literature were similar to the synthetic copper trihydroxychloride pigments used in the Joseon Dynasty and Chinese paintings. Therefore, the synthetic copper trihydroxychloride pigments of Korea and China are believed to have been prepared in a similar way.

Hematological and serum biochemical studies in fresh water fish exposed to acute and chronic copper and mercury toxicity

  • H.A., Sawsan;H.M., Amira;M.B., Mostafa;AM.M., Nashaat
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 2017
  • A total number of 668 apparently healthy fish were obtained from farm to study the effect of two heavy metals in a form of (Copper sulfate and Mercuric chloride) on some hematological and biochemical parameters of blood. The $LC_{50}$ /96 hr. of Cu and Hg were estimated and fish exposed to $\text\tiny{^1/_2}$ $LC_{50}$ for 7 days and for $1/_{10}$ $LC_{50}$ for 8 weeks from each product separately. Results showed decrease in RBCs count, PCV% and Hb in acute and chronic mercury while a significant increase was shown in acute and chronic copper toxicity, total leucocytic count showed decrease in acute mercury toxicity and increase in the chronic case, while in copper toxicity non-significant decrease in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity was noticed. Elevated serum urea and creatinine in both acute and chronic mercury and copper toxicity was detected. No changes in total bilirubin in the acute mercury and chronic copper toxicity while significant increase in chronic mercury and acute copper. Elevation of serum AST and ALT in some days of acute toxicity of mercury and copper while in chronic mercury toxicity a significant elevation of both serums AST and ALT were detected .while in chronic copper toxicity serum AST was fluctuated and ALT showed no significant changes. CK study revealed significant decrease in acute mercury with fluctuation in the chronic toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed fluctuation in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity. Glucose value decreased in acute and chronic mercury toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed significant increase in the acute and increase followed by significant decrease in the chronic copper toxicity.

A Regional Study for Developments of Kyeongnam Copper Metallogenic Province (경남지구(慶南地區) 동광상(銅鑛床)의 종합개발(綜合開發)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究))

  • Kim, Sun Uk
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.133-170
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    • 1973
  • The metamorphosed belt on cherty and andesitic rocks of the Gyeongnam province area has been well known as the most important copper matallogenetic province in Korea and locally has been investigated by several geologists. This report is summarized about geology, occurrence of ore deposits, the study of the present status of mine developments and exploitations and the suggestions of future proposed of copper mine developments and harmoniously and reseonably planning of demands and supply of copper ore. For convenience of study the writer divided the survey region as 4 areas, according to the conditions of mine location. They are (1) Goseong copper area (2) Gunbuk-Haman copper area (3) Masan-Changwon copper area (4) Tongrae-Ilgwang copper area. The geology of the above 4 areas consits of Cretaceous Gyongsang System, which is divided into Silla series, Nakdong Series and Bulguksa Series. The former has intrusive and extrusive andesite and sedimentary formation, and the latter has dioritic and hornblende granite. Ore deposits which is mostly vein types are confined mostly in the andesite and cherty rocks of Silla and Nakdong Series. It is observed slight hydrothermal alteration, i. e. propylitization, chloritization, saussuritization and silicification. It seems that the ore was formed by hydrothermal solution and secondary enrichement. The ore minerals are mainly chalcopyrite and pyrite, with small amounts of malachite, azurite, chalcocite, cuprite, galena, and sphalerite, magnetite, tetrahedrite and etc.. The efficient plan of copper mine developments in surveyed region are as following; (a) Gyeongnam Copper districts are divided in 4 area as mentioned above. (b) Each area would be likely developed as group-working as one unit. For the sufficiently supplying a demand of electric copper, the importations of high grade copper ore in foreign country are invitable at present status of copper mine developments and exploitations.

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Biocides Effect on the Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Pure Copper by Desulfovibrio sp.

  • Onan, Mert;Ilhan-Sungur, Esra;Gungor, Nihal Dogruoz;Cansever, Nurhan
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2018
  • The aims of this study were to determine the corrosion behavior of pure copper in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and also to investigate the effects of glutaraldehyde (GD) and isothiazolinone (ISO) on the corrosion behavior of pure copper in the presence of this sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) strain by using electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical measurements of pure copper were carried out at specified time intervals (0, 8, 24, 48, and 96 hr) over a period of exposure. Corrosion rates of pure copper from anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes and corrosion potential ($E_{corr}$) were determined. Biofilm and corrosion products on the copper surfaces were observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses. The effects of solution types (PC (Postgate's C medium) and SRB (Desulfovibrio sp.)) and exposure times of copper and biocides (ISO or GD) on the corrosion rates of pure copper were evaluated by statistical analyses. As a result of the FESEM analysis, biofilm formation was observed on the surfaces of pure copper exposed to the Desulfovibrio sp. cultures both with and without the biocides. The results show that the pure copper was corroded by Desulfovibrio sp. However, the addition of GD or ISO to the Desulfovibrio sp. culture resulted in a decrease in the corrosion rate of the pure copper. It was also observed that both of the biocides showed a similar effect on pure copper's corrosion rate caused by Desulfovibrio sp.

Bone Regeneration Effects of Copper Oxide on Fibular Fracture in Rabbits (토끼의 비골 골절에서 산화구리(CuO, copper oxide)의 골재성 효과)

  • 정윤정;이창훈;배일주;남일;정성목;남치주;서강문
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.458-466
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    • 2003
  • The bone regeneration effects of copper oxide on experimentally induced fibular fracture were examined in 36 New Zealand white male rabbits. They were divided into two groups: non-treated group (control group) and copper oxide treated group (treatment group). A fibular fracture was created by an osteotomy in the middle of the fibula and 62.5 mg/kg of copper oxide was orally administrated during 7 days after operation in the treatment group. Radiological findings, histopathological examinations and hematoserological findings were observed to evaluate the bone regeneration effects of copper oxide on fibula fracture during 9 weeks. In radiological findings, the area of bone regeneration at the fracture site of the treatment group was significantly wider from 3 weeks to 6 weeks after administration of copper oxide than those of the control group (p < 0.05). In histopathological examinations, fracture healing in treatment group was faster than in control group. Also, histopathological responses of thick bony trabeculae and new bone marrow formation were shown in the treatment group, whereas many fibrous tissues and cartilages were mainly observed in the control group. No specific effects of copper oxide on the body was found in hematological and serological test during experimental period. These results showed that the copper oxide had a potential therapeutic application in the treatment of fracture and bone trauma.

Solid-Phase Speciation of Copper in Mine Wastes

  • Jeong, Jae-Bong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.209-218
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    • 2003
  • Ecosystems in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Lake Superior, USA, were disturbed by over 500 million tons of copper-rich mine tailings during the period 1850-1968. Metals leaching from these mine residues have had dramatic effects on the ecosystems. Vast acreages of exposed tailings that are over 100 years old remain unvegetated because of the combination of metal toxicity, absence of nutrients, and temperature and water stress. Therefore, it is important to characterize and fractionate solid copper phases for assessing labile forms of copper in soils and sediments contaminated by the mining wastes. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that calcite, quartz, hematite, orthoclase, and sanidine minerals are present as major minerals, whereas cuprite,tenorite, malachite, and chalcopyrite might be present as copper minerals in the mining wastes. Sequential extraction technique revealed that carbonate and oxide fractions were the largest pools of copper (ca. 50-80%) in lakeshore and wetland stamp sands whereas the organic matter fraction was the largest reservoir (ca. 32%) in the lake sediments. The concentrations of iron and copper were inversely correlated in the oxide fraction suggesting that copper may occur as a surface coating on iron oxides. As particle size and water contents decrease, the percent of the copper bound to the labile carbonate fraction increases.

Application of Copper Slag as Sand Substitute in SCP Pilot tests (SCP 현장시험시공을 통한 동슬래그의 모래대체재로서의 적용성 연구)

  • 천병식;정헌철;김경민
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.613-620
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    • 2002
  • Sand Compaction Pile(SCP) is a soil improvement method that a sand charge is introduced into the pipe, and the pipe is withdrawn part away while the sand pile is compacted and its diameter is enlarged. The sand used in this method should be of good quality. In Korea, crushed stone and washed sea sand are used frequently in SCP. However, use of these materials is restricted because of environmental problem and deficiency of supply. In the copper smelting process, about 0.7 million tons of copper slag are produced in Korea. The range of particle size distribution of copper slag is from 0.15mm to 5mm, so it can be a substitute for sand, and the relatively high specific gravity compared with the sand, is its characteristic. Copper slag is hyaline and so stable environmentally that in foreign country, such as Japan, Germany etc., it is widely used in harbor, revetment and offshore structure construction works. Therefore, in this study, the several laboratory tests were peformed to evaluate the applicability of copper slag as a substitute for sand of SCP. From the mechanical property test, the characteristics of sand and copper slag were compared and analyzed, and from laboratory model test, the strength of composite ground was compared and analyzed by monitoring the stress and ground settlement of clay, SCP and copper slag compaction pile. Specially, this study focused on the application of copper slag as sand substitute in SCP pilot tests based on laboratory tests results.

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A comparative study of the quantitative assessment on the panoramic and intraoral radiographs (파노라마 방사선사진과 구내 방사선사진에서 골조직 정량평가의 비교연구)

  • Kim Jae-Duk
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: To compare the copper equivalent values measured at premolar and molar areas in the copper equivalent images of panoramic and intraoral radiographs and to evaluate the possibility of the copper equivalent images of panorama for the assessment the bone density. Materials and Methods : Intraoral radiograms at mandibular premolar and molar area and panoramas of 6 human dry skulls were taken with copper-step wedge by Heliodent MD (Siemens Co., Germany) and by Planmeca (PM 2002 CC, Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) were used for experiment. The copper equivalent values measured at premolar and molar areas in the copper equivalent im ages of panorama and intraoral film were compared. Results: The copper equivalent values were ranged 0.20 mmCu-0.44 mmCu at the molar areas, 0.05 mmCu-0.31 mmCu at the premolar areas on panoramic images. There were no significant differences (p>0.5) between the copper equivalent values on intraoral images and those on panoramic images measured at premolar areas and molar areas respectively. The correlation coefficient between the copper equivalent values on intraoral images and those on panoramic images was respectively 0.8495 at molar areas and 0.6184 at premolar areas. Conclusions : The copper equivalent images of panorama for the assessment the bone density appeared to be significant at molar area compared with the one of intraoral radiograph.

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