• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cook loss

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Quality characteristics of outer leaves of Kimchi cabbage according to various blanching treatment conditions (국내산 배추 우거지의 blanching 처리에 따른 품질 특성)

  • Hong, Joo-Heon;Hwang, Tae-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.939-944
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to establish an optimum blanching condition for outer cabbage leaves to increase utilization of the byproduct. Outer leaves of Kimchi cabbages were cut to size ($4{\times}4cm$) and blanched at 80, 90, $100^{\circ}C$ for 1, 3, and 5 min. Subsequently, weight loss, pH, total bacteria, coliform and texture properties were investigated. Sensory evaluation of a ready-to-cook soup prepared from blanched outer leaves was investigated to determine whether the quality of the blanched outer leaves was acceptable. Both weight loss and pH of outer leaves of Kimchi cabbage were increased by blanching. Compared to raw samples, total bacterial counts decreased and coliform bacteria were not detected. The hardness of raw leaf samples was $1.5kg{\cdot}force$ (N). Sample hardness was 18.7~21.7% lower after blanching for 3 min and 34.8~36.7% after blanching for 5 min. Sensory evaluation of outer leaves blanched at $100^{\circ}C$ for 5 min revealed significant differences from the other treatments (p<0.05). In addition, sensory evaluation scores for texture and appearance of outer leaves blanched at $100^{\circ}C$ for 3 min were higher than those for commercially available products. The results of this study indicate that blanching can be effective for developing a food product from the outer leaves of Kimchi cabbage.

Changes in Physicochemical and Cook Properties of Kidney Beans During Storage (강남콩의 저장에 따른 이화학적 성질 및 조리특성 변화)

  • 조은자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 1991
  • Changes in cooking properties of kidney beans A (reddish purple), B (mosaic), and C (pale yellow) during storage at $4^{\circ}$, $20^{\circ}$ and $30^{\circ}C$ for 5 months were examined. The weight and volume gains of raw beans during soaking at $30^{\circ}C$ were the greatest in kidney bean A followed by B and C, which were decreased from 3 months storage at $30^{\circ}C$. The weight gain, solid loss and hardness of cooked beans at $100^{\circ}C$ for 40 min decreased from 3 months of storage at $30^{\circ}C$ in all samples. The amylograms of whole kidney bean flours showed no peak and continuous increase of viscosity during heating. The kidney bean A showed the higher values in all reference points than kidney beans B and C which had similar amylogram patterns.

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Development of Standardized Model of Staffing Demand through Comparative Analysis of Labor Productivity by Foodservice's Meal Scale in Contract Foodservice Management Company (위탁급식전문업체의 급식소 식수 규모별 노동생산성 비교 분석에 따른 인력산정 모델 개발)

  • Park Moon-Kyung;Cho Sun-Kyung;Cha Jin-A;Yang Il-Sun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.417-425
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study were to a) investigate operation of human resource in contract foodservice management company (CFMC), b) identify the staffing indices for the establishment an labor productivity for CFMC, and c) develop standardized model of staffing demand as foodservice's scale in CFMC. The data was collected using FS intra-net system from 138 contract-managed foodservice operations in A CFMC and statistical analysis was completed using the SAS/win package (ver. 8.0) for description analysis, ANOVA, Duncan multiple comparison, pearson correlation analysis, and regression analysis. The types of operation were included factory (45%), small scale operation (26%), office (11%), department store (10%), training institute (4%), and hospital (3%). The distribution of foodservice scale was classified by meal served was as follows; 'less than 500 meals (47%)', 'from 500 to 1500 meals (25%)', 'from 1500 to 2500 meals (17%)', and 'more than 2500 meals (12%)'. There was two types of contract method, fee-contract (53%) and profit-and-loss contract (46%) Some variables were significantly high operation indices such as selling price, food cost, monthly sales, net profit and others were significantly low operation indices such as labor, meal time a day in the small foodservice on meal scale (p<.001). The more foodservice was large, the more human resource was disposed on dietitian, cook, cooking employee altogether (p<.001). Foodservice in A CFMC was divided into 2 groups by 500 meals a day, according to comparative analysis of labor productivity as meal scale per working hour, meal scale a day and operation indices as meal per foodservice employee, meal per cooking employee (p<.001). The regression equation model was developed as 'the number of employees=1.82+0.014 ${\times}$ meal served' in the operation of less than 500 meals, 'the number of employees=9.42+0.013 ${\times}$ meal scale a day -0.94 ${\times}$ meal scale per working hour' in the operation over 500 meal scale using labor productivity indices and operation indices. Therefore, CFMC could be enhanced efficiency of human resource arrangement using the standardized model of staffing demand and would be increased effectiveness of profit.

Effect of Nitrite and Ascorbic Acid-derived Gas on Color Development and Physical Characteristics in Emulsified Sausage (아질산염과 아스코르브산 유래 가스가 유화형 소시지의 발색 및 물리적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Nam-Kuk;Jung, Han-Hyuck;Lee, Chang-Soo;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Oun-Hyun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.112-117
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    • 2012
  • In order to improve or replace the direct addition method of nitrite and ascorbic acid, the effect of nitrite and ascorbic acid-derived gas addition on color development and physical characteristics in emulsified sausage was investigated. Nitrite (150 ppm) and ascorbic acid (450 ppm) were added directly to emulsion in the control group, but in the treatment group nitrite and ascorbic acid-derived gas was used for emulsion. In the control and treatment groups, pH values were higher than raw meat, but these values did not show significant change during the storage in both groups. In the meat color, lightness (CIE $L^*$) and redness ($a^*$) values of control and treatment groups were higher compared to raw meat. The treatment group has lower redness and higher yellowness ($b^*$) values than control group during the storage (p<0.05). However, lightness was not significantly different between control and treatment groups. The cook and storage loss values were significantly different between control and treatment groups (p<0.05), but the water holding capacity and shear force values were not significantly different between groups. These results showed that treatment of nitrite and ascorbic acid-derived gas has a similar effect to direct addition of nitrite and ascorbic acid on color development and physical characteristics in emulsified sausage. Also, these results showed that nitrite and ascorbic acid-derived gas addition may be a good possible alternative of nitrite and ascorbic acid using in emulsified sausage.

Studies on Meat Productivity and Functional Properties of Spent Hens (노폐계육의 생산성 및 가공특성에 관한 연구)

  • 송계원
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 1985
  • To learn more about the productivity of edible meat and its functional properties of spent hen, 60 White Leghorn fowls at 20 month of age were randomly divided into 6 groups, 10 hen for each group, and processed. As the productivity of edible meat, the yield of dressed carcass, giblets, cut-up meat, and breast and leg (thigh and drustick) muscles were determined. The approximate chemical composition, the content of salt-soluble protein, the emulsifying capacity and W.H.C. of breast and leg muscle were measured as the functional properties. The results were summarized as follows. 1. The average live weight of spent hen was 1,576.7g from which the yield of dressed carcass and giblets were 998.9g(63.4%) and 75.3g(4.8%) respectively. It means the yield of ready-to-cook form was 1,074.2g(68.2%) and the inedible byproducts was 502.5g (31.8%). 2. The average, weight of each part of cut-up chicken were: neck 41.0g(4.1%), wings 135.9g (13.6%), breast 276.7g (27.7%), legs 323.6g (42.4%). back 176.1g(17.6%) and the cutting-loss was 45.6g(4.6%). 3. The average weight of total edible muscle from breast and leg was 51.5g(85.86% of breast and leg cut weight) and the percentages based on the carcass and live weights were 51.6% and 32.7%, respectively. 4. The contents of H$_2$O, protein, fat and water-protein ratio of breast muscle were 72.95%, 20.54%, 1.59% and 3.55, respectively and those of leg muscle were 71.9%, 19.12%, 3.96% and 3.76%, respectively. 5. The salt-soluble protein contents of breast and leg muscle were 7.97% and 6.26% and their concentrations based on the total protein content were 38.8% and 32.74%, respectively. 6. The emulsifying capacity of breast and leg muscle was 43.23$m\ell$and 43.23$m\ell$, respectively. 7. The W. H. C- of breast and leg muscle was 54.23% and 52.61%, respectively.

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