• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cook loss

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Studies on the Processing Characteristics of Poultry Meat -1. Water Holding Capacity of Chicken Muscle- (가금육(家禽肉)의 가공적성(加工適性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -1. 계육(鷄肉)의 보수력(保水力)-)

  • Sung, S.K.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.55-59
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    • 1973
  • This experiment was carried out to improve on the simple and conventional processing method by studying the characteristics of poultry meat. For the experiment, 20 hens culled and 20 broilers were slaughtered and divided into the following five groups; whole carcass, skinned carcass, debonned carcass, thigh muscle and breast muscle. Each group was ground by the super grinding machine. The results tobtained are summarized as follows; (1) The percentage of the ready-to-cook of cull hens and broilers was $64.32{\pm}2.11,\;67.96{\pm}1.16$, and of the water uptake, $105.43{\pm}1.9,\;104.13{\pm}0.2$, respectively. (2) In the chemical composition, broiler meat showed high moisture content and a little low fat content, as compared with cull hen meat. By groups, whole carcass ground meat contained lower maisture content, and higher fat and ash content than thigh muscle and breast muscle. (3) Thigh muscle and breast muscle group was higher than the other and whole carcass group was lower for the relative WHC and water retention.(4) The higher temperature the higher cooking loss percentage in all groups, and whole carcass group was the highest cooking loss percentage among the all groups.(5) The significant difference was little observed for the relative WHC, water retention and cooking loss percentage by groups between cull hen and Broiler.

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The Effects of Stretching and Temperature of Pre-rigor M. Longissimus on Sarcomere Length and Tenderness of Beef (강직 전 쇠고기 등심근의 신장(伸張)과 온도처리가 근절길이 및 연도에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon Sung-Sil;Yang Han-Sul;Park Gu-Boo;Joo Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 2006
  • To investigate the effects of stretching and temperature of pre-rigor muscle on sarcomere length and tenderness of beef, hot boned M. Iongissimus dorsi thoracis were stretched or non-stretched, and stored at $0^{\circ}C$ for 48 hrs ($0^{\circ}C$ stretched and $0^{\circ}C$ non-stretched) or at $10^{\circ}C$ for 7 hrs followed by $0^{\circ}C$ for 41 hrs ($10^{\circ}C$ stretched and $10^{\circ}C$ non-stretched). There was no significant difference in muscle pH and drip loss between $10^{\circ}C$ stretched and $10^{\circ}C$ non-stretched samples, but they were significantly (p<0.05) lower in pH and drip loss than $0^{\circ}C$ stretched and $0^{\circ}C$ non-stretched samples. Stretched muscles at $0^{\circ}C$ showed significantly (p<0.05) higher cook loss than control muscles. Sarcomere length of $10^{\circ}C$ stretched muscle was significantly (p<0.05) longer than that of control. However, control muscle showed significantly (p<0.05) higher value of shear force at 2 and 14 days postmortem compared to that of $10^{\circ}C$ stretched muscle. Panels rated $10^{\circ}C$ stretched muscle as having a significantly (p<0.05) better tenderness, flavor and overall acceptability compared to those of control muscle. Results suggest that longer sarcomere length and tender beef could be obtained by stretching of pre-rigor muscle and storing it at $10^{\circ}C$ for 7 hrs followed by $0^{\circ}C$ for 41 hrs.

A Survey of Food Habits of the Elderly Over Sixty Years of Age in Seoul (60세 이후 노년층의 식습관조사)

  • Kim, Sun-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 1977
  • This study was carried out to know the food habits of 200 persons, 89 males and 111 females, aged 60 years and over from June 13 to July 2, 1977 in Seoul. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Changes of the food preferences The preferences about foods after 60 years of age showed in lower scores of dislikes than those before and, however, were not significantly changed. Beef was the item which 75% of the subjects liked and was the highest in desire to eat, Likes for hot, salty, and sour taste except sweet were diminished but they generally liked hot or sweet food rather than sour or salty one and also warm dish rather than cold one. A majority of them wanted to have their meals cook more soft and tender. 2. Intakes of foods The average consumptions of the basic food groups per capita per day were 475.5g of males .and 431.8g of females for cereals and grains, 119.6g and 103.6g for meats add legumes, 221.7g and 216. lg for fruits and vegetables, 52.6g and 39.4g for milk and small fishes, and 5.0g and 4.7g for fats and oils. 3. Intakes of calorie and nutrients The percentage contributions of three nutrients, carbohydrate, protein, and fats to the total amounts of calories were 75.9, 12.4, and 11.7% of mates and 75.6, 12.4, and 12.0% of females. Women had a slightly higher percentage of caloric intake to RDA than men who didn't satisfy RDA. The subjects revealed an insufficient protein intake as well as calcium. Therefore, many older people have to be convinced of the importance of milk for both nutrients. The mean ratios for iron, niacin, and thiamin intake were higher than RDA and on the contrary. those for riboflavin, vitamin A, and ascorbic acid intake were below RDA. It seems necessary, for the aged to maintain good state of health, to promote their appetite, and to take regular mealtime because difficulty of teeth, illness, irregular mealtime, and loss of appetite had influence on less intakes of calorie and nutrients.

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Effect of Starches on Texture and Sensory Properties of Frozen Noodle (전분 첨가 냉동면의 조직감과 관능적 특성)

  • 홍희도;김경탁;김정상;김성수;석호문
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.424-429
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    • 1996
  • In an attempt to evaluate the effect of six starch sources-potato starch acetate, corn starch acetate, waxy corn starch, corn starch, potato starch, and wheat starch on properties of frozen noodle, amylograph characteristics of starch-wheat flour composites, cooking quality, maximum cutting force and sensory properties of cooked frozen noodles were examined. Compared with 100% wheat flour as control, potato starch acetate and potato starch-wheat flour composites had slightly lower initial pasting temperature and wheat flour composites with acetylated starches, waxy corn starch and potato starch had slightly higher maximum peak viscosity. At cooking quality examination of noodles made from wheat flour-starch composites, volume and weight of cooked noodles were increased and cook loss was decreased with the addition of acetylated starches and waxy corn starch. Maximum cutting forces of cooked frozen noodles containing more than 15% of potato starch acetate and only 15% of corn starch acetate were higher than that of control. Other starches except potato starch improved sensory properties of cooked frozen noodles and the greatest positive effect was acetated potato starch.

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Is It Useful and Safe to Maintain the Sitting Position During Only One Minute before Position Change to the Jack-knife Position?

  • Park, Soo-Young;Park, Jong-Cook;Park, Sang-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 2010
  • Background: Conventional spinal saddle block is performed with the patient in a sitting position, keeping the patient sitting for between 3 to 10 min after injection of a drug. This amount of time, however, is long enough to cause prolonged postoperative urinary retention. The trend in this block is to lower the dose of local anesthetics, providing a selective segmental block; however, an optimal dose and method are needed for adequate anesthesia in variable situations. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the question of whether only 1 min of sitting after drug injection would be sufficient and safe for minor anorectal surgery. Methods: Two hundred and sixteen patients undergoing minor anorectal surgery under spinal anesthesia remained sitting for 1 min after completion of subarachnoid administration of 1 ml of a 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine solution (5 mg). They were then placed in the jack-knife position. After surgery, analgesia levels were assessed using loss of cold sensation in the supine position. The next day, urination and 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) for postoperative pain were assessed. Results: None of the patients required additional analgesics during surgical manipulation. Postoperative sensory levels were T10 [T8-T12] in patients, and no significant differences were observed between sex (P = 0.857), height (P = 0.065), obesity (P = 0.873), or age (P = 0.138). Urinary retention developed in only 7 patients (3.2%). In this group, NRS was $5.0{\pm}2.4$ (P = 0.014). Conclusions: The one-minute sitting position for spinal saddle block before the jack-knife position is a safe method for use with minor anorectal surgery and can reduce development of postoperative urinary retention.

A Study on the Physical Properties of Reinforcing Fillers with Dual Phase Structure (이중상 구조를 가진 보강성 충전제의 물리적 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Seag;Park, Nam Cook
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.608-613
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this experiment was the physical properties of rubber compounds with DPCB and pure carbon black. Si-O peak in the silcia surface was observed at the range of wavenumber from 1,100 to 1,200 in the DPCB by FT-IR analysis. Cure rate of rubber compounds containing DPCB and organic silane coupling agent were (Si69) delayed compared with those containing pure carbon black. 300% modulus and interaction coefficient of DPCB with silane coupling agent were higher than those of pure carbon black and PICO weight loss amount showed constant value. It was found that $0^{\circ}C$ tan$\delta$ of rubber compounds with DPCB was larger than those of pure carbon black at 2.0% silane coupling agent based on 50 phr DPCB and $60^{\circ}C$ tan$\delta$ of rubber compounds with DPCB decreased as increasing the usage coupling agent. Consequently, it is postulated that DPCB is strong candidate material for lowering rolling resistance under constant abrasion resistance.

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Epidemiologic Analysis of Burns in Military Hospital

  • Choi, Jangkyu;Park, Sejin;Kim, Hyun Chul
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.145-157
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: We accessed epidemioloy of 908 acute burns (7 years) in the military, of injuries and propose proper educational programs to suit community. Methods: We surveyed burn demographics, circumstances of injuries, size, result of treatment. Results: The mean age was 20.6 years. The flame burns (FB) (325, 35.8%) were most common, followed scald (SB) (305, 33.6%), contact (CB) (219, 24.1%), electric (EB) (45, 5.0%) and chemical burns (ChB) (14, 1.5%). The more occurred during winter (29.7%). SB had mean 3.9% total body surface area (TBSA). The 251 (82.3%) had superficial burns by spillage of hot water/food on lower limbs (45.6%), feet (33.8%) in summer (34.8%), treated with simple dressing (92.8%). Morbidity rate was 5.6%; post traumatic stress disease (PTSD) (0.7%). FB had large wound (9.3% TBSA). The 209 (64.3%) had superficial burns by ignition to flammable oils (31.7%) and bomb powders (29.2%) on head/neck (60.3%), hands (58.6%) in summer (31.7%), autumn (30.2%). They underwent simple dressing (83.4%) and skin graft (16.0%). Morbidity rate was 18.8%; PTSD (10.5%), inhalation injuries (4.0%), corneal injury (3.7%), amputations (0.9%), and mortality rate (1.2%). CB had small (1.1% TBSA), deep burns (78.5%) by hotpack (80.4%) on lower limbs (80.4%). The more (59.8%) underwent skin graft. EB had 6.8% TBSA. The 29 (64.4%) had superficial burns by touching to high tension cable (71.1%) on hand (71.1%), upper limbs (24.4%) in autumn (46.8%). They underwent simple dressing (71.1%) and skin graft (24.4%). They showed high morbidity rate (40.0%); loss of consciousness (13.3%), nerve injuries (11.1%), neuropathy (8.9%), amputations (2.2%), and mortality rate (2.2%). Conclusions: The cook should wear apron over the boots during work. The lighter or smoking should be strictly prohibited during work with flammable liquids or bomb powders. Don't directly apply hotpack to skin for a long time. Use insulating glove during electric work. Keep to the basic can prevent severe injury and proper education is important.

Monitoring of white striping and wooden breast cases and impacts on quality of breast meat collected from commercial broilers (Gallus gallus)

  • Malila, Yuwares;U-chupaj, Juthawut;Srimarut, Yanee;Chaiwiwattrakul, Premsak;Uengwetwanit, Tanaporn;Arayamethakorn, Sopacha;Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak;Sansamur, Chalutwan;Kirschke, Catherine P.;Huang, Liping;Tepaamorndech, Surapun;Petracci, Massimiliano;Rungrassamee, Wanilada;Visessanguan, Wonnop
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1807-1817
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study aimed at investigating white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB) cases in breast meat collected from commercial broilers. Methods: A total of 183 breast samples were collected from male Ross 308 broilers slaughtered at the age of 6 weeks (n = 100) and 7 weeks (n = 83). The breasts were subjected to meat defect inspection, meat quality determination and histology evaluation. Results: Of 183, 4 breasts from 6-week-old broilers were classified as non-defective while the others exhibited the WS lesion. Among the 6-week-old birds, the defective samples from the medium size birds (carcass weight ${\leq}2.5kg$) showed mild to moderate WS degree with no altered meat quality. Some of the breasts from the 6-week-old birds with carcass weight above 2.5 kg exhibited WB in accompanied with the WS condition. Besides of a reduction of protein content, increases in collagen matter and pH values in the defective samples (p<0.05), no other impaired quality indices were detected within this group. All 7-week-old broilers yielded carcasses weighing above 2.5 kg and showed abnormal characteristics with progressive severity. The breasts affected with severe WS and WB showed the greatest cook loss, hardness, springiness and chewiness (p<0.05). Development of WB induced significantly increased drip loss in the samples (p<0.05). Histology indicated necrotic events in the defective myofibers. Based on logistic regression, increasing percent breast weight by one unit enhanced the chance of WS and WB development with advanced severity by 50.9% and 61.0%, respectively. Delayed slaughter age from 6 to 7 weeks increased the likelihood of obtaining increased WS severity by 56.3%. Conclusion: Cases of WS and WB defects in Southeast Asia have been revealed. Despite few cases of the severe WS and WB, such abnormal conditions significantly impaired technological properties and nutritional quality of broiler breasts.

Effects of Water-misting Sprays with Forced Ventilation after Transport during Summer on Meat Quality, Stress Parameters, Glycolytic Potential and Microstructures of Muscle in Broilers

  • Jiang, N.N.;Xing, T.;Wang, P.;Xie, C.;Xu, X.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.1767-1773
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    • 2015
  • Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport during summer on meat quality, stress parameters, glycolytic potential and microstructures of muscle in broilers were investigated. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: i) 45-min transport without rest (T group), ii) 45-min transport with 1-h rest (TR group), iii) 45-min transport with 15-min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45-min rest (TWFR group). The results showed the TWFR group significantly increased (p<0.05) initial muscle pH ($pH_i$) and ultimate pH ($pH_u$) and significantly reduced $L^*$ (p<0.05), drip loss, cook loss, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase activity, plasma glucose content, lactate and glycolytic potential when compared with other groups. Microstructure of the muscle from TWFR group broilers under light microscopy showed smaller intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with T group. In conclusion this study indicated water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport could relieve the stress caused by transport under high temperature, which was favorable for the broilers' welfare. Furthermore, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport slowed down the postmortem glycolysis rate and inhibited the occurrence of PSE-like meat in broilers. Although rest after transport could also improve the meat quality, the effect was not as significant as water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport.

Easy Red Ginseng Production Using Household Microwave Ovens (가정용 전자레인지를 이용한 간편 홍삼 제조)

  • Kim, Mi Hyun;Kim, Kyung Tack;Cho, Chang-Won;Rho, Jeonghae
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.623-628
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    • 2012
  • The study was about to produce red ginsengs easily, using a household microwave oven to promote the consumption of fresh ginsengs in the home. Producing red ginsengs with a household microwave oven 'defrost function' takes 13 minutes (A), 'cook function' 6 minutes (B), and finally, 'defrost function' 44 minutes (C). For characteristics of microwave-produced red ginsengs, total saponin loss, color of powder, polyphenol content and saponin composition were compared with common red ginsengs. The color test for red ginseng powder showed that the color of household microwave-produced 6-minute cooked red ginseng (B) or 44-minute defrosted red ginseng (C) was closer to that of the common red ginsengs (E). The total saponin content in water eluted during red ginseng production showed that the saponin loss in microwave red ginseng was negligible compared to the common red ginsengs. Microwave red ginsengs showed no difference in phenol content that of the and higher total ginsenoside content than common red ginsengs. The ginsenoside $Rg_1$, Re, Rf, $Rg_2+Rh_1$, $Rb_1$, Rc, $Rb_2$, $Rb_3$, Rd and $Rg_3$ contents of microwave red ginsengs (A, B) were higher compared to that of the common red ginsengs; the ginsenoside Re, Rc, $Rb_2$, $Rb_3$, Rd and $Rg_3$ contents of 44-minute defrosted red ginseng (C) were higher compared to the common red ginsengs. It is considered that red ginseng production, using microwave oven at home, can be a fast and convenient way to produce highly functional red ginsengs with high ginsenoside content.