• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cook loss

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Sensory Characteristics and Tenderness of Boiled Beef by Addition of the Barks(Morus alba Linne) (상백피 첨가에 따른 숙육의 연화와 관능적 특성)

  • 박상욱;권순경
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.580-584
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    • 1998
  • Tenderization of beef by the addition of barks(Morus alba Linne) and its sensory properties were observed by shearing test, cooking loss, pH, protein content and sensory evaluation. Shear force was decreased as the addition level of barks (Morus alba Linne) increased. Tenderization effect of beef was increased 8,8% at the addition level of 2.5%, 25% at 5.0%, 4.7% at 7.5%, 58% at 10% barks(Morus alba Linne). Cooking loss was observed 44.50% at the no addition, 45.3% at 2.5%, 45.8% at 5.0%, 47.5% at 7.5%, 50.0% at 10% addition level of barks (Morus alba Linne). As the addition level of barks(Morus alba Linne) increased pH of cooked beef decreased to the range of 5.6 to 5.46. As the addition level of barks (Morus alba Linne) increaed protein content of beef decreased whereas protein content of cooled liquor increased. The addition of barks(Morus alba Linne) improved the sensory quality of cooked beef. Especially, tenderness scored the highest value in 10% added beef and other quality factors color, flavor, juiciness and overall quality were evaluated significantly high in 5% added beef. Therefore 5% addition level of barks(Morus alba Linne) for cooking beef was suggested as the desirable level of addition.

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Quality Characteristics of PSE-Like Turkey Pectoralis major Muscles Generated by High Post-Mortem Temperature in a Local Turkish Slaughterhouse

  • Öztürk, Burcu;Serdaroglu, Meltem
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.524-532
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high post-mortem temperature application on development of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) turkey meat characteristics in terms of local slaughter conditions. Within this scope, it was targeted to obtain PSE-like muscles benefiting from different post-mortem temperature applications. Immediately after slaughter, turkey Pectoralis major (n=15) muscles were kept at various post-mortem temperatures (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40℃) for 5 h. pH values of 40°C treatment were lower than four other treatments (p<0.05). L* values, drip loss, cook loss, and thawing loss of 40℃ group were higher than the other groups (p< 0.05). Napole yield of 40℃ treatment indicated that high post-mortem temperature decreases brine uptake. Protein solubility of 40℃ group was lower than 0℃ group (p<0.05). Expressible moisture did not differ between 0 and 40℃ treatments. Hardness, gumminess and chewiness of 40℃ treatment were higher than 0℃ treatment. The results of this research showed that high post-mortem temperature treatment induced development of PSE-like turkey meat, with lower pH, paler color, higher technological and storage losses, and reduced protein solubility and texture.

Correlation between Tenderness and Other Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean Native) Steers

  • Baik, D.H.;Hoque, M.A.;Park, H.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1677-1679
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate the tenderness of meat and it''s correlation with other carcass traits of Hanwoo steers. The significantly (p<0.01) higher mastication and shearing were observed in boiled meat than in the raw meat but the coefficient of variations were greater in raw meat than in boiled meat. The correlation between raw and boiled meat for shearing and penetration were positive and significant (p<0.01). Negative and significant correlations were observed between mastication and eye muscle area (p<0.05) and also between shearing and cooking loss (p<0.01) in raw meat whereas, penetration in raw meat was positively and significantly (p<0.05) correlated with age of the steers. Shearing in boiled meat negatively and significantly correlated with age (p<0.05), carcass weight (p<0.01), back fat thickness (p<0.01) as well as muscle score (p<0.01). The pH was not significantly correlated with tenderness in both raw and boiled meat. There were possibilities that the tenderness of boiled meat could be predicted from the raw meat.

The Study on Physical Properties of Rubber Compounds with Silica Doped Carbon Black (실리카가 도핑된 카본블랙을 함유한 고무조성물의 물성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Seag;Park, Nam-Cook
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this experiments were investigated on the physical properties of rubber com-pounds containing two types carbon black. Bound rubber and interaction coefficient for com-pounds with pure carbon black were higher than those for the compounds with dual phase carbon black. Slightly higher values in 300% modulus and tensile strength indicated that the ratio of rubber-filler bound to rubber-rubber bound of pure carbon black were higher than those of com-pounds with dual phase carbon black. It was founded that dynamic properties, that is rebound, heat build-up, 0 & $60^{\circ}C$ tan $\delta$, and cut and chip loss of compounds with dual phase carbon black were better than those of compounds with pure carbon black, but abrasion property of dual phase carbon black was lower than those of pure carbon black because of low reinforcing ability.

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Statistical Analysis of Main Factors With Affecting the Physical Properties of Rubber Compounds (고무조성물의 물리적 성질에 영향을 미치는 주요인자에 대한 통계학적 해석)

  • Lee, Seag;Park, Nam-Cook
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.20-28
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    • 1997
  • This study have Investigated the effect of various factors related to the physical properties of vulcanizated rubber compounds. rubber type, carbon black type and carbon black loading were selected as main factors and evaluation were tested by tables of orthogonal arrays with 3 factors and 3 levels. rubber types have affected cure time, tensile strength, and $T_g$ as main factor and carbon black loading have affected viscosity, scorch time, maximum torque, hardness, 300% modulus, rebound, heat build-up, $0\;&\;60^{\circ}C$ tangent delta, PICO and CUT/CHIP loss as main factor but the effects of carbon black type have affected only bound rubber content.

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Retort Processing of Packaged Foods (포장식품의 레토르트 공정)

  • Chung, Dong-Hwa
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2007
  • Packaged food products often undergo retort processing, a thermal processing in a pressurized vessel called a retort, to ensure their microbiological safety or shelf-stability under normal non-refrigerated conditions of storage and distribution. Retort processing is generally aimed to accomplish commercial sterility of packaged foods with acceptable nutritional and sensorial qualities. Fundamental principles on retort processing, such as thermal resistance kinetics of target microorganism, heat penetration theory, and methods for evaluating process sterility and food quality loss, were reviewed. Factors affecting process severity, heat transfer mechanism, and heat penetration efficiency were summarized. General features of retortable packaging formats including metal cans, glass jars, and plastic packages were also briefly reviewed.

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The Effect of Cure System for the Viscoelastic Properties of Vulcanized Rubber (가황시스템 변화가 가황고무의 점탄성적 특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Nam-Cook;Lee, Seog
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 1999
  • Rebound, storage and loss modulus, and tan ${\delta}$ were investigated on cured rubbers with various ratios of sulfur to accelerator and the volume fraction of carbon black in the cured rubbers. The rebound was increased as the sulfur to accelerator ratio and the volume fraction of carbon black decreased. The storage modulus decreased as the loading of carbon black and the strain increased regardless of the cure systems. The network structure formed by filler-filler interaction was destroyed above 6% strain regardless of the loading of carbon black, because constant storage modulus was shown at the higher strain than 3% for $40{\sim}50phr$ loading of carbon black and at the higher strain than 6% for 60 phr and above loading of carbon black. Little effect on loss modulus was found at the low loading of carbon black, but the peak of loss modulus was shown at 1% strain as the loading of carbon black was increased. Tan ${\delta}$ increased as the loading of carbon black and the strain were increased regardless of the cure system, and maximum tan ${\delta}$ was shown at 2% strain regardless of the loading of carbon black.

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A Study on Improving Filter Performance Using Coanda Effect (코안다효과를 이용한 필터에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Yong Sun;Seok, Jae Jun;Shin, Hee Jae;Ko, Sang Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 2020
  • Modern people spend a lot of time indoors. Oil mist has a very fatal effect on the cook's health. Range Hood's filter plays a very important role in removing oil mist from kitchen. In this study, we applied coanda effect to increase the collection efficiency of filter. Original, Bottom, Slide Three shapes were simulated, and the two shapes were measured and compared using a wind tunnel tester. Pressure loss is measured below 2.0mmAq for all three filters, making them easy to use indoors. The simulation results were 15% for the original filter, 22% for the bottom filter, and 30% for the slide filter. The wind tunnel tester obtained 26% of the original filter and 30% of the slide filter. Research is needed to increase the collection efficiency by 50%.

Effects of Strain on Performance, and Age at Slaughter and Duration of Post-chilling Aging on Meat Quality Traits of Broiler

  • Abdullah, Abdullah Y.;Muwalla, Marwan M.;Maharmeh, Haitham O.;Matarneh, Sulaiman K.;Ishmais, Majdi A. Abu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1645-1656
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of strain on broiler performance, and age at slaughter and postchilling (PC) aging time on meat quality traits. A total of 500 one-day-old chicks (250 Hubbard classic and 250 Lohman) were reared under commercial conditions. Half of the broiler birds from each strain were slaughtered at 32 days and the other half at 42 days old. At each processing day, 168 carcasses were randomly selected (84 Hubbard and 84 Lohman) and divided into groups of 28 carcasses within each strain, and aged for 0, 4 and 24 h after chilling. Average weekly body weight was comparable between strains. Feed conversion ratio was higher (p<0.05) for the Hubbard strain during the second and third week of age. Initial carcass pH was significantly (p<0.05) affected by age where younger birds (32-d-old) had lower pH values than older (41-d-old) birds. Breast temperature was higher (p<0.001) for Lohman than Hubbard at 0, 2 and 4 h of PC. Younger birds had a lower breast temperature (p<0.001) at all measured times of PC. Thaw loss, cook loss and water holding capacity were not significantly affected by strain, age or aging time. Lohman strain had more tender meat (p<0.05) than Hubbard strain, and tenderness was improved with the increase of broiler age and aging time. Meats from Hubbard were lighter and less red than those from Lohman strain where younger birds had darker color. In conclusion, strain, age at slaughter and PC aging duration are critical to breast meat quality characteristics, and 4 h of aging are required before deboning in order to obtain more tender fillets.

Food Functionality and Biological Activity of Processed Waters Produced during the Preparation of Fish Roe Concentrates by Cook-dried Process (Fish Roe Concentrates의 제조과정 중에 발생하는 Processed Waters의 식품기능성과 생리활성)

  • Yoon, In Seong;Lee, Gyoon-Woo;Kang, Sang In;Park, Sun Young;Kim, Jin-Soo;Heu, Min Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.506-519
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    • 2017
  • This study evaluated the protein recovery and functional properties and biological activity of boiled and steamed process water (BPW and SPW, respectively) generated from the preparation of concentrated roe of bastard halibut (BH; Paralichthys olivaceus), skipjack tuna (ST; Katsuwonus pelamis), and yellowfin tuna (YT; Thunnus albacares) using the cook-dry process. The protein loss from the water extracts (EXT) of 100 g of roe protein was 15.05-19.71% and was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of BPW (5.47-10.34%) and SPW (3.88-8.18%). The foam capacity of BPW (166-203%) and SPW (15-194%) was better than that of EXT. The emulsifying activity index of the original samples was lower than those ($15.40-107.86m^2/g$) of diluted protein samples. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the reducing power of BPW and SPW were stronger than those of EXT. The 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid ($ABTS^+$) radical scavenging activity of EXT (0.028-0.045mg/mL) was significantly higher those of BPW and SPW. The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of SPW was the highest for BH (1.04 mg/mL), followed by YT and ST. The predominant amino acids in SPW were Glu, Ala, Leu, and His. These results demonstrate that processing water containing diluted organic components, including protein, can be consumed directly by humans as a functional reinforcing material after appropriate concentration processes.