• Title, Summary, Keyword: Conversion coefficient

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The Estimation of Soil Conversion Factor using Digital Imagery (수치영상을 이용한 토량환산계수 산정)

  • 이종출;차성렬;장호식;김진수
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry, and Cartography Conference
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2003
  • Design of a rational earth volume conversion coefficient is required as the earth volume conversion coefficient may give great influence on construction work volume and construction costs in the civil engineering works where large-scaled earth volume is excavated. However, there are a great deal of difficulties in the calculation of the exact spoil surface earth and Insufficient earth volume by adopting the figures presented on the generally used design specifications which are not the results obtained from the selection tests in calculating the earth volume conversion coefficient. In this connection, it would be desirable to calculate the earth volume conversion coefficient by carrying out large-scaled site test adequate for the relevant environment. In consequence, this study aims at calculating the exact earth volume conversion coefficient of cutting and banking areas of weathering rocks in large-scaled construction sites where land is being developed into home lots. For this, we have excavated the respective 20 sites of the cutting and banking areas in the said site and then calculated the volume after the excavation. As a result, the relative exactness degree of the crossing was calculated at 0.5% in average. The relative exactness degree of 0.5% in the volume may be judged as an exact measurement as it corresponds to 0.17% of the relative exactness degree in the length measurement. We have calculated the exact earth volume conversion coefficient by the use of function ratio as per the wet unit weight and the indoor soil quality test as per volume calculated. And then we have found out minor differences as a result of the comparison and analysis with the earth volume conversion coefficient determined by the dry unit weight test as per sand replacement method. This may be judged as a rational design method for the calculation of earth volume conversion coefficient, as well as high reliability of site test as a precision photogrammetry is adopted for volume measurement of the irregular excavating areas.

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A New Approach for the Calculation of Neutron Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients for PMMA Slab Phantom (PMMA 평판형 팬텀에서의 중성자 선량당량 환산계수의 새로운 계산법)

  • Kim, Jong-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Oh
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.297-311
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    • 1996
  • ANSI decided PMMA slab phantom as a calibration phantom and introduced a conversion coefficient calculation method for it. For photon, the conversion coefficient can be obtained by using backscatter factor and conversion coefficient of the ICRU tissue cube and backscatter factor of the PMMA slab. For neutron, however, the ANSI has not introduced any conversion coefficient calculation method for the PMMA slab. In this work, the ANSI method for the photon conversion coefficient calculation was applied to the neutron conversion coefficient calculation of the PMMA slab. Quality weighted tissue kerma of neutron was applied to calculate the backscatter factors on the ICRU cube and the PMMA slab. The dose conversion coefficient of the ICRU cube was also calculated by using MCNP code. Then, the dose conversion coefficient of the PMMA slab was calculated from two backscatter factors and the dose conversion coefficient of the ICRU cube. The discrepancies of the dose conversion coefficients of the PMMA slab and the ICRU cube were less than 10% except 1eV(20%), 1keV(17%), and 4 MeV(16%).

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ABSORBED INTERNAL DOSE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FOR DOMESTIC REFERENCE ANIMALS AND PLANT

  • Keum, Dong-Kwon;Jun, In;Lim, Kwang-Muk;Choi, Yong-Ho
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2010
  • This paper describes the methodology of calculating the internal dose conversion coefficient in order to assess the radiological impact on non-human species. This paper also presents the internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides ($^3H,\;^7Be,\;^{14}C,\;^{40}K,\;^{51}Cr,\;^{54}Mn,\;^{59}Fe,\;^{58}Co,\;^{60}Co,\;^{65}Zn,\;^{90}Sr,\;^{95}Nb,\;^{99}Tc,\;^{106}Ru,\;^{129}I,\;^{131}I,\;^{136}Cs,\;^{137}Cs,\;^{140}Ba,\;^{140}La,\;^{144}Ce,\;^{238}U,\;^{239}Pu,\;^{240}Pu$) for domestic seven reference animals (roe deer, rat, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, and earthworm) and one reference plant (pine tree). The uniform isotropic model was applied in order to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficients. The calculated internal dose conversion coefficient (${\mu}Gyd^{-1}$ per $Bqkg^{-1}$) ranged from $10^{-6}$ to $10^{-2}$ according to the type of radionuclides and organisms studied. It turns out that the internal does conversion coefficient was higher for alpha radionuclides, such as $^{238}U,\;^{239}Pu$, and $^{240}Pu$, and for large organisms, such as roe deer and pine tree. The internal dose conversion coefficients of $^{239}U,\;^{240}Pu,\;^{238}U,\;^{14}C,\;^3H$, and $^{99}Tc$ were independent of the organism.

Assessment of the Measurement Method of the Bone Mineral Density on Cu-Equivalent Image (구리당량 영상작성에 의한 골밀도계측방법의 평가)

  • Kim Jae-Duk
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : The effects of step numbers of copper wedge and exposure on the coefficient of determination (r²) of the conversion equation to Cu-equivalent image and on the Cu-equivalent value (mmCu) and it's coefficient of variation measured at each copper step and the mandibular premolar area were evaluated. Method: Digital image analyzing system consisted of scanner, personal computer, and a stepwedge with 10 steps of 0.03 mm copper in thickness as reference material was prepared for quantitative assessment of the bone mineral density. NIH image program was used for analyzing images. Results : The film having moderately high film density showed the discrepancy between the real thickness and the measured Cu-equivalent value of each copper step. The Cu-equivalent image was dependent on the determinational coefficient of the conversion equation than the coefficient of variance of the measured value. Conclusion : Obtaining conversion equation with high coefficient of determination and proper film exposure are supposed to be neccessary for quantitative assessment of bone density. Multiple steps in the range of the corresponding copper thickness to the bone density of the area to be measured should be prepared.

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The Velocity Conversion Coefficient and Consistency for the Optimal Phase Ratio on the Performance of the Women's Triple Jump (여자 세단뛰기 운동수행의 일관성과 속도전환계수에 의한 최적의 국면비)

  • Ryu, Jae-Kyun;Chang, Jae-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2015
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the velocity conversion coefficient and invariance for the optimal phase ratio on the performance of the women's triple jump. Methods : Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained from the three finalists of the women's triple jumper competition at the 2011 Daegu IAAF World Championships. Computer simulations were performed using the biomechanical model of the triple jump to optimize the phase ratio for the longest actual distance for all athletes with altered velocity conversion coefficients. Results : Top elite triple jumpers showed better technical consistency at the phase ratio. Also, no consistent relationship was observed between the loss in horizontal velocity and the gain in vertical velocity across supporting the three phase. In addition, regardless of the magnitude A1, all athletes were optimized with jump-dominated technique. Finally, as the magnitude of A1 increased, the athletes showed better performance. The obtained overall distance jumped showed the longest actual distance when the optimal phase ratio was transferred from hop-dominated to jump-dominated(the step ratio was 30%~31%), and when the optimal phase ratio was transferred from balanced to jump-dominated(the step ratio was 27%~29%). Conclusion : Future studies need to be conducted in order to explore the active landing motion and the inclination angle of the body with the velocity conversion coefficient simultaneously at each supporting phase.

Empirical Prediction Models of 1-min Rain Rate Distribution for Various Integration Time

  • Jung, Myoung-Won;Han, Il-Tak;Choi, Moon-Young;Lee, Joo-Hwan;Pack, Jeong-Ki
    • Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.84-89
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    • 2008
  • In a wireless channel above microwave frequency, rain attenuation is very important. In order to predict rain attenuation, 1-min. rain rate distribution is required. This paper discusses appropriate conversion methods to estimate 1-minute rain rate from that of other integration time. Based on the measurement data filed in ITU-R WP3J including ETRI data for 6 consecutive years, distributions of rain rate with 1-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-minute integration time were analyzed, both on the global and regional basis, and the parametric relationship between the statistical characteristics of 1-minute and other measurement data were investigated to deduce the conversion methods. It is shown that the global model works good with good accuracy for 5-, 10-, 20-min integration time, and the global model is also applicable globally with good accuracy for 5-, 10-, 20-min integration time. The global conversion model was adopted last year as an ITU-R document for new recommendation. The regional conversion model would also be very useful for locations of similar climatic zone.

Thermoelectric Conversion Characteristics of SiC Ceramics Fabricated from 6H-SiC Powder (6H-SiC로부터 제작한 SiC 세라믹스의 열전변환 특성)

  • ;Kunihito Koumoto;Hiroaki Yanagida
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.412-422
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    • 1990
  • Porous SiC ceramics were proposed to be promising materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. Throughthe thermoelectric property measurements and microstructure observations on the porous alpha SiC and the mixture of $\alpha$-and $\beta$-SiC, it was experimentally clarified that elimination of stacking faults and twin boundaries by grain growth is effective to increase the seebeck coefficient and increasing content of $\alpha$-SiC gives rise to lower electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the effects of additives on the thermoelectric properties of 6H-SiC ceramics were also studied. The electrical conductivity and the seebeck coefficient were measured at 35$0^{\circ}C$ to 105$0^{\circ}C$ in argon atmospehre. The thermoelectric conversion efficiency of $\alpha$-SiC ceramics was lower than that of $\beta$-SiC ceramics. The phase homogeneity would be needed to improve the seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity decreased with increasing the content of $\alpha$-phase. In the case of B addition, XRD analysis showed that the phase transformation did not occur during sintering. On the other hand, AlN addiiton enhanced the reverse phase transformation from 6H-SiC to 4H-SiC, and this phenomenon had a great effect upon the electrical conductivity.

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Aerodynamic Characteristics of Impulse Turbine with an End Plate for Wave Energy Conversion

  • HYUN BEOM SOO;MOON JAE SEUNG;HONG SEOK WON;KIM KI SUP
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2005
  • This paper deals with the design and aerodynamic analysis of a special-type impulse turbine, with an end plate for wave energy conversion. Numerical analysis was performed using a CFD code, FLUENT. The main idea of the proposed end plate was to minimize the adverse effect of tip clearance of turbine blade, and was borrowed from ducted propeller, with so-called penetrating end plate for special purpose marine vehicles. Results show that efficiency increases up to $5\%$, depending on the flow coefficient; a higher flow coefficient yields increased efficiency. Decrease of input coefficient CAwith an end plate is the main reason for higher efficiency. Performance of end plate at various design parameters, as well as flow conditions, was investigated; the advantages and disadvantages of the presentimpulse turbine were also discussed.

Determination of the exposure conversion coefficient for 3" X 3" NaI spectrum (3" X 3" NaI 스펙트럼의 조사선량 변환계수 결정)

  • Lee, M.S.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2001
  • In order to find the exposure conversion coefficients for 3"X3" NaI spectrum, we measured the exposure rates with the pressurized ion chamber at 29 different areas in the range of $4{\sim}23{\mu}R\;h^{-1}$, and also measured the gamma spectra with 3"X3" and 4"X4" NaI detectors, simultaneously. The exposure conversion coefficient of the total energy method was determined using the linear relation between the measured exposure rate and the gamma spectrum energy. In order to find the exposure conversion coefficients of the energy band method, we applied the exposure conversion coefficients recommended by NCRP to the 4"X4" NaI spectra, and calculated the exposure rates due to $^{40}K,\;^{238}U$, and $^{232}Th$ series respectively. Using the linearly proportional relation between the obtained $^{232}Th$ series exposure rate and peak area of 2614 keV that represents the $^{232}Th$ series, we obtained the exposure conversion coefficients for $^{232}Th$ series. We also determined the conversion coefficients for $^{238}U$ series and $^{40}K$ using a similar method.

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Gradation Curve of Aggregate using Digital Image Process (디지털 이미지 처리 기법을 이용한 골재의 입도분포곡선)

  • Hwang, Tak-Jin;Cho, Jae-Yoon;Lee, Kwan-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2010
  • Shape conversion coefficient and equivalent diameter for changing 2D image to 3D image by the Digital Image Process(DIP) have been suggested and modified particle size distribution curve has been showed. Couple of aggregates, like two different marine aggregates and two different crushed stones, have been employed. The measured flatness ratios of each aggregate were 0.30, 0.36, 0.47 and 0.83, respectively. Also, the conversion shape coefficients of each aggregate were determinded as 0.77, 0.78, 0.84 and 0.92. The size of aggregate has been modified by multiplying the shape conversion coefficient and the aggregate size from DIP. The modified gradation curve with modified volume and weight of aggregate has been suggested. Within the limited test results, DIP is one of useful to get the particle shape of aggregate with limitation of measuring errors and to apply the particle distribution curve.