• Title, Summary, Keyword: Conversion Coefficients

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Efficient Conversion of DCT Coefficients to H.264 Transform Coefficients Using Lapped Transforms

  • Lee, Chang-Woo
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.32 no.7C
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    • pp.601-607
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    • 2007
  • In order to convert MPEG-2 into H.264 format in ubiquitous communication environments, the efficient conversion of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients to H.264 transform coefficients is essential. In this paper, two efficient conversion systems are proposed. The proposed systems are composed of two parts. In the first part, the DCT coefficients are denoised using the lapped transform (LT) to reduce the quantization noises and blocking effects. In the second part, the denoised DCT coefficients are converted into the integer transform (IT) coefficients of H.264. Simulation results show that the proposed methods provide visually fine images. Moreover, the computational complexity of the proposed method is reduced compared with the conventional method, since the number of the DCT coefficients, which should be converted, is reduced in the first part.

ABSORBED INTERNAL DOSE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FOR DOMESTIC REFERENCE ANIMALS AND PLANT

  • Keum, Dong-Kwon;Jun, In;Lim, Kwang-Muk;Choi, Yong-Ho
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2010
  • This paper describes the methodology of calculating the internal dose conversion coefficient in order to assess the radiological impact on non-human species. This paper also presents the internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides ($^3H,\;^7Be,\;^{14}C,\;^{40}K,\;^{51}Cr,\;^{54}Mn,\;^{59}Fe,\;^{58}Co,\;^{60}Co,\;^{65}Zn,\;^{90}Sr,\;^{95}Nb,\;^{99}Tc,\;^{106}Ru,\;^{129}I,\;^{131}I,\;^{136}Cs,\;^{137}Cs,\;^{140}Ba,\;^{140}La,\;^{144}Ce,\;^{238}U,\;^{239}Pu,\;^{240}Pu$) for domestic seven reference animals (roe deer, rat, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, and earthworm) and one reference plant (pine tree). The uniform isotropic model was applied in order to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficients. The calculated internal dose conversion coefficient (${\mu}Gyd^{-1}$ per $Bqkg^{-1}$) ranged from $10^{-6}$ to $10^{-2}$ according to the type of radionuclides and organisms studied. It turns out that the internal does conversion coefficient was higher for alpha radionuclides, such as $^{238}U,\;^{239}Pu$, and $^{240}Pu$, and for large organisms, such as roe deer and pine tree. The internal dose conversion coefficients of $^{239}U,\;^{240}Pu,\;^{238}U,\;^{14}C,\;^3H$, and $^{99}Tc$ were independent of the organism.

The System of Radiation Dose Assessment and Dose Conversion Coefficients in the ICRP and FGR

  • Kim, Sora;Min, Byung-Il;Park, Kihyun;Yang, Byung-Mo;Suh, Kyung-Suk
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.424-435
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    • 2016
  • Background: The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations and the Federal Guidance Report (FGR) published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been widely applied worldwide in the fields of radiation protection and dose assessment. The dose conversion coefficients of the ICRP and FGR are widely used for assessing exposure doses. However, before the coefficients are used, the user must thoroughly understand the derivation process of the coefficients to ensure that they are used appropriately in the evaluation. Materials and Methods: The ICRP provides recommendations to regulatory and advisory agencies, mainly in the form of guidance on the fundamental principles on which appropriate radiological protection can be based. The FGR provides federal and state agencies with technical information to assist their implementation of radiation protection programs for the U.S. population. The system of radiation dose assessment and dose conversion coefficients in the ICRP and FGR is reviewed in this study. Results and Discussion: A thorough understanding of their background is essential for the proper use of dose conversion coefficients. The FGR dose assessment system was strongly influenced by the ICRP and the U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), and is hence consistent with those recommendations. Moreover, the ICRP and FGR both used the scientific data reported by Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) as their primary source of information. The difference between the ICRP and FGR lies in the fact that the ICRP utilized information regarding a population of diverse races, whereas the FGR utilized data on the American population, as its goal was to provide guidelines for radiological protection in the US. Conclusion: The contents of this study are expected to be utilized as basic research material in the areas of radiation protection and dose assessment.

Determination of the exposure conversion coefficient for 3" X 3" NaI spectrum (3" X 3" NaI 스펙트럼의 조사선량 변환계수 결정)

  • Lee, M.S.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2001
  • In order to find the exposure conversion coefficients for 3"X3" NaI spectrum, we measured the exposure rates with the pressurized ion chamber at 29 different areas in the range of $4{\sim}23{\mu}R\;h^{-1}$, and also measured the gamma spectra with 3"X3" and 4"X4" NaI detectors, simultaneously. The exposure conversion coefficient of the total energy method was determined using the linear relation between the measured exposure rate and the gamma spectrum energy. In order to find the exposure conversion coefficients of the energy band method, we applied the exposure conversion coefficients recommended by NCRP to the 4"X4" NaI spectra, and calculated the exposure rates due to $^{40}K,\;^{238}U$, and $^{232}Th$ series respectively. Using the linearly proportional relation between the obtained $^{232}Th$ series exposure rate and peak area of 2614 keV that represents the $^{232}Th$ series, we obtained the exposure conversion coefficients for $^{232}Th$ series. We also determined the conversion coefficients for $^{238}U$ series and $^{40}K$ using a similar method.

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An Efficient Algorithm for the Conversion of DCT Coefficients to H.264 Transform Coefficients in MPEG-2 to H.264 Transcoding (MPEG-2에서 H.264로의 Transcoding 과정에서 DCT 계수를 H.264 변환 계수로 변환하는 효율적인 알고리듬)

  • Kim, Yong-Jae;Lee, Chang-Woo
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8C
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    • pp.729-737
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    • 2007
  • The H.264/AVC video coding standard provides higher coding efficiency compared to the conventional MPEG-2 standard. Since a lot of videos have been encoded using MPEG-2, the format conversion from MPEG-2 to H.264 is essential. In this paper, we propose an efficient method for the conversion of DCT coefficients to H.264/AVC transform coefficients. This conversion is essential, since $8{\times}8$ DCT and $4{\times}4$ integer transform are used in MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC, respectively. The mathematical analysis and computer simulation show that the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is reduced compared to the conventional algorithm, while the loss caused by the conversion is negligible.

Organ Dose Conversion Coefficients Calculated for Korean Pediatric and Adult Voxel Phantoms Exposed to External Photon Fields

  • Lee, Choonsik;Yeom, Yeon Soo;Griffin, Keith;Lee, Choonik;Lee, Ae-Kyoung;Choi, Hyung-do
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2020
  • Background: Dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) have been commonly used to estimate radiation-dose absorption by human organs based on physical measurements of fluence or kerma. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reported a library of DCCs, but few studies have been conducted on their applicability to non-Caucasian populations. In the present study, we collected a total of 8 Korean pediatric and adult voxel phantoms to calculate the organ DCCs for idealized external photon-irradiation geometries. Materials and Methods: We adopted one pediatric female phantom (ETRI Child), two adult female phantoms (KORWOMAN and HDRK Female), and five adult male phantoms (KORMAN, ETRI Man, KTMAN1, KTMAN2, and HDRK Man). A general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX2.7 (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport extended version 2.7), was employed to calculate the DCCs for 13 major radiosensitive organs in six irradiation geometries (anteroposterior, posteroanterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational, and isotropic) and 33 photon energy bins (0.01-20 MeV). Results and Discussion: The DCCs for major radiosensitive organs (e.g., lungs and colon) in anteroposterior geometry agreed reasonably well across the 8 Korean phantoms, whereas those for deep-seated organs (e.g., gonads) varied significantly. The DCCs of the child phantom were greater than those of the adult phantoms. A comparison with the ICRP Publication 116 data showed reasonable agreements with the Korean phantom-based data. The variations in organ DCCs were well explained using the distribution of organ depths from the phantom surface. Conclusion: A library of dose conversion coefficients for major radiosensitive organs in a series of pediatric and adult Korean voxel phantoms was established and compared with the reference data from the ICRP. This comparison showed that our Korean phantom-based data agrees reasonably with the ICRP reference data.

Design of Audio Sampling Rate Conversion Block (Audio Sampling Rate Conversion Block의 설계)

  • 정혜진;심윤정;이승준
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.827-830
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    • 2003
  • This paper proposes an area-efficient FIR filter architecture for sampling rate conversion of hi-fi audio data. Sampling rate conversion(SRC) block converts audio data sampled at 96KHz down to 48KHz sampled data and vice versa. 63-tap FIR filter coefficients have been synthesized that gives 100dB stop band attenuation and 5.2KHz transition bandwidth. Time-shared filter architecture requires only one multiplier and accumulator for 63-tap filter operation. This results in huge hardware saving of up to 10~19 times smaller compared with traditional FIR structure.

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Efficient Intra Prediction Mode Decision Using DCT Coefficients for the Conversion of MPEG-2 to H.264 Standard in Ubiquitous Communication Environment (유비쿼터스 통신 환경에서 MPEG-2의 H.264로의 Transcoding 과점에서 DCT 계수를 이용한 효율적인 인트라 예측 모드 결정 기법)

  • Kim, Yong-Jae;Lee, Chang-Woo
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.33 no.9C
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    • pp.697-703
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    • 2008
  • The H.264/AVC video coding standard provides higher coding efnciency compared to the conventional MPEG-2 standard. Since a lot of videos have been encoded using MPEG-2, the format conversion from MPEG-2 to H.264 is essential. In this paper, we propose an efficient method for the conversion of DCT coefficients to H.264/AVC transform coefficients. This conversion is essential, since $8{\times}8$ DCT and $4{\times}4$ integer transform are used in MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC, respectively. The mathematical analysis and computer simulation show that the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is reduced compared to the conventional algorithm, while the loss caused by the conversion is negligible.

Stability and Accuracy of the Conversion Model of Open-Ended Coaxial Probe (개방 단말 동축선 프로브의 환산모델에 대한 안정성과 정확성)

  • Kim Yee-Jung;Jo Yu-Sun;Kim Se-Yun
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2005
  • Complex permittivities of material in a wide bandwidth are measured by using an open-ended coaxial probe. To obtain a confident complex permittivity profile, the accuracy of measured reflection coefficients and the stability of the conversion model should be guaranteed in advance. In this paper, the sensitivity of our conversion model is analyzed by employing two instruments with different uncertainties. And various factors effected on the accuracy of measured reflection coefficients are investigated in experiment.

Calculation of Dose Conversion Coefficients in the Anthropomorphic MIRD Phantom in Broad Unidirectional Beams of Monoenergetic Photons (MIRD 인형팬텀의 넓고 평행한 감마선빔에 대한 선량 환산계수 계산)

  • Chang, Jai-Kwon;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.47-58
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    • 1997
  • The conversion coefficients of effective dose per unit air kerma and equivalent dose per unit fluence were calculated by MCNP4A code for antero-posterior(AP) and postero- anterior(PA) incidence of broad, unidirectional beams of photons into anthropomorphic MIRD phantom. Calculations have been performed for 20 monoenergetic photons of energy ranging from 0.03 to 10 MeV. The conversion coefficients showed a good agreement with the corresponding values given in the draft publication of joint task group of ICRP and ICRU within 10%. The deviations may arise from the differences of geometry in the MIRD phantom and the ADAM/EVE phantoms, and the differences in the codes and cross-section data used. Inclusion of a specific oesophagus model results in effective dose slightly different(5% at most) from the effective doses obtained by adopting the equivalent doses for the thymus or pancreas. Deletion of the ULI from the remainder organ appeared not to be significant for the cases of photon dosimetry covered in this study.

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