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Studies on the morphological variation of plant organs of elongating node-part in rice plant (수도 신장 절위 경엽의 형태변이에 관한 연구)

  • 김만수
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-35
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    • 1969
  • Attempts were made to obtain the fundamental knowledge on the quantitative constitution status of leaves and stem of elongating node-part, and the relationships between these morphological characteristics along with the nitrogen contents of leaves and grain yield were examined varing application amounts of nitrogen in rice plant. I. The agronomic characteristics of leaves and nodes of elongation node-part (4-node parts from the top of stem) were observed at heading stage with 20 leading rice varieties of Kang Won district. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Leaf area magnitude of the flag and the fourth leaf was smaller than that of the second and the third with the average value of flag leaf 18.61 $cm^2$, the second leaf 21.84 $cm^2$, the third 21.52 $cm^2$ and the fourth 18.56 $cm^2$. The weight of leaf blade showed an isotonic tendency with the magnitude of leaf area with the value of the flag leaf 97.0 mg, the second leaf 117.1 mg, the third 115.4 mg, and the fourth 95.3 mg. The weight of each leaf sheath was remarkably larger at the higher node-part than at the lower node-part of the stem with the value of flag leaf sheath 176.3 mg, the second 163.7 mg, the third 163.4 mg and the fourth 123.9 mg. Accordingly, the total leaf weight of each part was larger at the second and the third leaf than at the first and the fourth. Total plant weight of each part (weight of leaf blade, leaf sheath, and culm) also was larger at the middle node-part. 2. Coefficients of variation for the varietal differences of the morphological characteristics of elongating node-part were 12.75% for the leaf area, 15.29% for the weight of leaf blade, 15.90%, for the weight of leaf sheath, 11.42% for the weight of internode, 15.45% for the leaf weight (leaf blade & leaf sheath) and 13.24% for the straw weight. And these coefficient values of the most characteristics were, on the whole, smaller at the second and the third node-part than at the first and the fourth node-part, but the coefficient value of the internode weight was rather small at the third and fourth node-part. 3. Constitutional ratio of each plant organ to the total plant weight in term of dry matter weight (excluding head and root wight) was 39.2% for the leaf sheath, 34.2% for the culm, 26.6% for the leaf blade. And ocnstitutional ratio of leaf sheath in term of dry matter weight was larger at the higher position in contrast with that of culm. 4. Average weight ration of leaf blade to culm, leaf sheath to culm, leaf blades to sheath and the leaf blades to culm plus leaf sheath were 77.7 %, 114.5%, 67.9% and 36.2%, respectively. With regard to the position of the plant organ, the weight ratio of leaf blade to culm and that of leaf sheath to culm were larger at higher part in contrast with that of leaf blade to leaf sheath. 5. Generally, there founded deep relationships between grain yield and each morphological characteristics of plant organ of elongating node-part as follows; Correlation coefficient between total area of 4 leaves (from flag to the fourth leaf) and grain yield was ${\gamma}$=0.666$^{**}$ In regard to the position of leaves, correlation coefficient values of flag, the second, the third and the fourth leaf were ${\gamma}$=0.659$^{**}$, ${\gamma}$=0.609$^{**}$, ${\gamma}$=0.464$^{*}$ and ${\gamma}$=0.523$^{*}$, respectively. Correlation coefficient between total weight of leaf blades and the grain yield was ${\gamma}$=0.678$^{**}$. In regard to the position of leaves, that of flag leaf was ${\gamma}$=0.691$^{**}$, and ${\gamma}$=0.654$^{**}$ for the second leaf, ${\gamma}$=0.570$^{**}$ for the third, and ${\gamma}$=0.544$^{**}$ for the fourth. Correlation between the weight of leaves (blade weight plus sheath weight) and the grain yield showed similar values. In the relationship between plant weight and grain yield there also was significant correlation, but with highly significant value only for the first node-part. There appeared correlation between total weight of leaf sheath and grain yield with the value of ${\gamma}$=0.572$^{**}$ and in regard to the position of each leaf sheath the values were ${\gamma}$=0.623$^{**}$ for the flag leaf, ${\gamma}$=0.486$^{**}$ for the second leaf, ${\gamma}$=0.513$^{**}$ for the third, ${\gamma}$=0.450$^{**}$ for the fourth. However, there was no significant correlation between culm weight and grain yield. 6. With respect to in gain yield, varietal differences in magnitude of leaf area, weight of leaf blade, leaf weight per unit area, weight of leaf sheath, culm weight, total leaf and stem weight were larger in the case of high yielding varieties and decreased in accordance with decreasing yield. And this tendency also was shown in the varietal differences of magnitude of each part. Variation in magnitude of each part for the leaf area, weight of leaf blade, culm weight was significantly small in high yielding varieties compared to low yielding varieties. 7. Plant constitutional ratio of each organ of the elongating node-part in term of weight magnitnde varied to som extent according to varieties indicating leaf blade 27.6%, leaf sheath 39.5%, culm 32.9% in the case of high yielding varieties, leaf blade 25.5%, leaf sheath 38.1%, culm 36.4% in the case of low yielding varieties, and medium yielding varieties showed intermadiate values. 8. Far higher values of the weight ration of leaf blade to culm and leaf sheath to culm were given to the high yielding varieties compared to low yielding varieties. And medium yielding varieties showed intermadiate values. II. Effects of application rate of nitrogen on the morphological characteristics of the elongating node-part, nitrogen content of leaf blade, and their relation with the grain yield of the rice were observed with 3 rice varieties; Shin No.2, Shirogane, and Jinheung varying application amounts of nitrogen as 8kg, 12kg and 16kg per 10 are. 1. As for the variation of morphological magnitude s affected by the amounts of nitrogen application, total leaf area (4 leaves from the flag leaf) increased to 16.5% at 12kg N plot, and about 30% at 16kg N polt compared to 8kg N plot and total weight of leaf blade also increased to similar extent, respectively, in contrast with weight of leaf sheath increasing 4.9% and 7.8%, respectively. However, the weight of culm decreased to 1.5% and 11.2%at the 12kg N plot and 16kg N plot, respectively, and these decreasing rate was noted at the nodes of lower part. 2. As for the verietal differences in variation of morphological magnitude as affected by the amount of nitrogen fertilization, leaf area coefficient value of variation of the total leaf area was 15.40% for Shin No. 2, 12.87% for Shirogane, and 10.99% for Jinheung. With respect to the position of nodes, the largest variation of leaf blade magnitude was observed at the fourth for Shin No. 2, the second for Shirogan, and flag leaf for Jinheung. And there also was an isotonic varietal difference in the weight of leaf blade. Variation in total culm weight showed varietal differences with the coefficient value of 7.72% for Shin No.2, 12.11% for Shirogane, and 0.94% for Jinheung. There also was varietal differences in the variation according to the position of nodes. 3. Variation of each elongating node-part related to the fertilization amount decreased with the increase of fertilization amount in the items of leaf area, weight of leaf sheath, culm weight, but weight of leaf sheath varied more at heavier fertilization than at others. 4. Constitutional ratio of each organ excluding head also varied with fertilization amount; constitutional ratio of leaf blade increased much with the increasing amount of fertilization in contrast with the response of culm eight. However, constitutional ration of the weight of leaf sheath was not much affected. 5. Lower value of the ration of leaf blade to culm was given to the 8kg N per 10 are plot, and the ratio of leaf blade to leaf sheath decreased with the increasing amount of fertilization in contrast with the increase in the ratio of leaf sheath to culm. however, the ration of leaf blade to culm plus leaf sheath decreased. 6. With the increase of nitrogen fertilization, leaf area, weight of leaf blade and leaf sheath increased. Accordingly, grin yield also increased to some extent. It was noted that culm weight was changed inversely to the changes in grain yield, but the degree of this variation varied with varietal characteristics. 7. Nitrogen content of leaves at heading and fruiting stage varied with the fertilization amount, and average nitrogen content of leaves of the varieties used 2.19%, 2.49% and 2.74% at the plot of 8kg N, and 12kg N and 16kg N per 10 are, respectively, at heading time, and 0.80%, 0.92% and 1.03% at each plot at fruiting stage. Thus, nitrogen content of leaves increased much with the increasing amount of fertilization, and higher value was given to the leaves on the higher position of elongating node-part. 8. There also was variation of nitrogen content of leaves in accordance with the varieties. However higher grain yield was obtained from the plants retaining higher nitrogen content in leaves at heading or fruiting stage.

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Histological and Biochemical Studies on the Rooting of Hard-wood Cuttings in Mulberry (Morus species) (뽕나무 古條揷木의 發根에 關한 組織 및 生化學的 硏究)

  • Lim, Su-Ho
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 1981
  • Rootability of the hardwood cuttings of mulberry was related not only histological characteristics but dependent on biochemical properties. In this connection, the characteristics of the hardwood cuttings were histologically observed and the growth substances produced by the cuttings were also identified by means of mung bean bioassay. Amino acid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid contents, and the C/N ratio were also analysed. The results are summarized as follows. 1. There were differences in rootability of cuttings between mulberry species and varieties Among the three mulberry species tested, Morus Lhou Koidz. showed the highest rootability while M. bombycis showed the lowest one. In varietal differences in rootability, it was shown that the varieties could be grouped according to rootability: high varieties(above 80%), medium(41~79%), and low(below 40%). The higher varieties were Kemmochi, Nakamaki, Kosen, and Wusuba roso. 2. The histological characteristic of the hardwood cuttings most closely related to rootability was cell layer arrangement in the sclerenchyma tissue. The lower rootability varieties developed two or three overlapping cell layers in the bark tissue and in the higher rootability varieties they were scattered over the primary cortex. 3. In the higher rootability varieties, there was a positive correlation between the development of root primodia and rootability of the hardwood cuttings. It was also shown that there was a close relationship between the size of primodia and the surface area of the lenticel with rootability of the cuttings. 4. Effect of growth substances extracted from the hardwood cuttings were determined by mung bean bioassay. The higher rootability varieties usually showed higher activities of the growth substances, in contrast the lower rootability varieties showed higher activities of the inhibitory substances. 5. It was evident that the substance separated by paper chromatography was identified as indole acetic acid with $R_f$ value ranging from 0.3 to 0.5. The other substances detected at a $R_f$ value ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 and origin to 0.1 were also responsible for rooting. 6. There exists a quantitatively different distribution of growth substances in a synergistic system in the tissues of cuttings, and the balance between growth and inhibitory substances gives rise to the development of rooting. Particularly, no descent of the substances from winter buds resulted in no rooting of cuttings but these substances were produced a week after planting in a warm environment. 7. It was shown that there were positive correlations between carbohydrate ($r=0.72^*$) and total sugar ($r=0.67^*$) and rootability, respectively, but there were negative correlations between reducing sugars ($r=-0.75^*$) and rootability. 8. High C/N ratio gave rise to high rootability($r=0.67^*$). The latter therefore depended on high amount of carbohydrate rather than nitrogen in the cuttings. 9. The content of RNA and DNA in the cuttings was not changed for upto two weeks after the cuttings were planted. Then an increase in RNA content took place in only the high rootability varieties. 10. There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the compositions of the amino acids between the high rootability varieties and the low rootability varieties. More aspartic acid and cystine were found in the higher rootability varieties than in the low rootability varieties.

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THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS TETRACYCLINE HCL CONCENTRATION TREATED ROOW SURFACES ON PROLIFERATION AND SPREADING OF PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT CELLS (다양한 농도의 테트라사이클린로 처리된 치근면이 치주인대세포의 증식과 전개에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Oh-Chul;Sun, Jo-Young
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.581-596
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    • 1994
  • This in vitro study was undertaken to obtain optimal tetracycline concentration that aids proliferation and spreading of human periodontal ligament cells, for clinical application in root surfaces of periodontally diseased teeth. Periodontal ligament cells used in this study were obtained from explants of periodontal ligament of 1st premolar teeth which were extracted for the purpose of orthodontic treatment. The cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium(DMEM) supplemented with 100 U/ml penicillin, $100\;{\mu}g/ml$ streptomycin and 10% FBS at $37^{\circ}C$, 100% humidity, 5% $CO_2-95%$ air. Cells were used between the third to 4th passage. After root planing of periodontally extracted teeth, the root slabs were cut with carborundum disk. In the cell proliferation experiment, experimental groups were root planing only group, immersed groups in 25, 50, 75, 100, 150mg/ml aqueous solution of Tetracycline HCl followed by a vigorous rinse in PBS. Human PDL cells at concentration of $1{\times}10^5\;cells/ml$ were seeded in each culture well which contained root slabs and incubated for 6 hours. Then, all of the root slabs were moved into new 24 culture well and incubated 24, 48 and 72 hours. The cell counting was done by inverted phase contrast microscope after trypsinization. The following results were obtained. The cell number was increased in order root planing only group, 25, 150, 50, 75, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 24, 48 and 72 hours. The maximal cell number was obtained when the root slabs were immersed in solution with 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl. There were statistically significant between the root planing only group and 75, 100 mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 24 hours, between the root planing only group and 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 48 hours, between the root planing only group and 50, 75, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group, between 25 and 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 72 hours(p<0.05). In the cell spreading experiment, after 30 minutes of incubated, in the root planing only group, the cells were generally round in shape. The cell surface was mostly covered with blebs. The cells started to attach to root surface by cytoplasmic extension in 50, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated groups, more numerous cells attached to root surface than root planing only group. Many orifices of dentinal tubule were exposed, cells showed radially spreaded cytoplasm and unspreaded central region of the cell was covered with blebs. After 6 hours of incubation, in the root planing only group, cells showed radially spreaded cytoplasm and were attached flat appearance. In 50, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated groups, cellular margin was concaved and cytoplasm showed elongated appearance with polarity. After 24 hours of incubation, in the root planing group, cells showed characteristic polarity. In 50, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated groups, cells showed more elongated and spindle - like appearance.

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