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Damage and biological control of dark winged fungus gnats, Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) in a shiitake cultivation (표고 톱밥재배에서 검정날개버섯파리 Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae)의 피해와 생물적 방제)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Hwan;Cho, Myoung-Rae;Kang, Taek-Jun;Ahn, Seung-Joon;Jeon, Sung-Wook;Lee, Chan-Jung;Cheong, Jong-Chun
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.184-190
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    • 2012
  • Monitorings and management experiment of adult Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) in artificial sawdust grown shiitake mushroom cultivation were carried out by using yellow sticky traps and Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acari: Laelapidae) at Hwaseong, Buyeo and Cheongwon in 2012. The larvae of L. ingenua reduced commercial value of the mushroom by direct eating or retarding the growth of mushroom by spongifying the sawdust medium. The number of L. ingenua caught by traps showed the highest peak in late september resulting in 127.5~1,025.7, 87.4~743.6 and 133.7~650.4 individuals per trap in Hwaseong, Buyeo and Cheongwon, respectively. Damage rate of fruiting bodies in shiitake mushroom by L. ingenua were 7.7~30.3% in Hwaseong, 6.7~25.3% in Buyeo and 5.3~26.0% in Cheongwon and showed the highest peak in late september. L. ingenua were effectively controlled when 30.3 individuals of H. aculeifer per $m^2$ inoculated for three time with 7 to 14 days of interval. In Hwaseong, Buyeo and Cheongwon, density of L. ingenua which were caught on the yellow sticky traps were 168.2, 126.1, 132.5 individuals, respectively. And, damage rate of fruiting bodies by L. ingenua were 5.9%, 5.5% and 5.4% respectively. Both of the L. ingenua density and damage rate of mushroom reduced more than 60% in all experimental site in contrast to the control treatment.

Effects of Seeding Date and Polyethylene Film Mulching on the Yield Potential and Agronomic Characteristics of Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) in Miryang, Korea (밀양지역에서 기장의 파종시기 및 PE 피복이 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Hyun, Jong-Nae;Hwang, Jae-Bok;Ko, Jee-Yeon;Jung, Ki-Youl;Kim, Kyeong-Hoon;Kim, Kyeong-Min
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.283-289
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to identify the optimum seeding dates for selecting a double-cropping system and to assess the effect of polyethylene film mulching on the yield of Proso millet. Seeds of the varieties Hwanggeumgijang and Ibaegchal were sown in Miryang on five different dates: 1st (May 25), 2nd (June 15), 3rd (June 25), 4th (July 5), and 5th (July 15), with and without polyvinyl mulching. The varieties have different characteristics, for example, Hwanggeumgijang is an early-maturing type and more sensitive to temperature, whereas Ibaegchal is a medium-maturing type and more sensitive to the duration for which it is exposed to sunlight. Late-sown Hwanggeumgijang had a short heading date from seeding and required a low accumulated temperature. It also had a shorter period of heading, a shorter culm length and a shorter diameter of stem. In contrast, it had had a higher number of ears $per\;m^2$ although similar ear length and similar 1000-grain weight. The yield potential of Hwanggeumgijang was found to decrease at a late seeding date. In particular, it significantly decreased at the seeding date of July 15. In the case of cultivation with polyvinyl mulching, the period of heading was shorter by 2-4 days and the yield potential was increased by approximately 12-32%. The length and diameter of culm in Ibaegchal were slowly decreased, but the length of ear, the 1000-grain weight and the yield potential were similar for all seeding dates (except July 15) and cultivation with and without mulching. When sown late, the length and diameter of the culm of Ibaegchal very rapidly decreased by the July 15 seeding date. The protein content of Ibaegchal was higher but the amlyose content of Ibaechal was lower compared to Hwanggeumgijang. At late seeding dates, the protein contents of the two varieties increased but the amylose contents were similar.

A Method for Evaluating News Value based on Supply and Demand of Information Using Text Analysis (텍스트 분석을 활용한 정보의 수요 공급 기반 뉴스 가치 평가 방안)

  • Lee, Donghoon;Choi, Hochang;Kim, Namgyu
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.45-67
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    • 2016
  • Given the recent development of smart devices, users are producing, sharing, and acquiring a variety of information via the Internet and social network services (SNSs). Because users tend to use multiple media simultaneously according to their goals and preferences, domestic SNS users use around 2.09 media concurrently on average. Since the information provided by such media is usually textually represented, recent studies have been actively conducting textual analysis in order to understand users more deeply. Earlier studies using textual analysis focused on analyzing a document's contents without substantive consideration of the diverse characteristics of the source medium. However, current studies argue that analytical and interpretive approaches should be applied differently according to the characteristics of a document's source. Documents can be classified into the following types: informative documents for delivering information, expressive documents for expressing emotions and aesthetics, operational documents for inducing the recipient's behavior, and audiovisual media documents for supplementing the above three functions through images and music. Further, documents can be classified according to their contents, which comprise facts, concepts, procedures, principles, rules, stories, opinions, and descriptions. Documents have unique characteristics according to the source media by which they are distributed. In terms of newspapers, only highly trained people tend to write articles for public dissemination. In contrast, with SNSs, various types of users can freely write any message and such messages are distributed in an unpredictable way. Again, in the case of newspapers, each article exists independently and does not tend to have any relation to other articles. However, messages (original tweets) on Twitter, for example, are highly organized and regularly duplicated and repeated through replies and retweets. There have been many studies focusing on the different characteristics between newspapers and SNSs. However, it is difficult to find a study that focuses on the difference between the two media from the perspective of supply and demand. We can regard the articles of newspapers as a kind of information supply, whereas messages on various SNSs represent a demand for information. By investigating traditional newspapers and SNSs from the perspective of supply and demand of information, we can explore and explain the information dilemma more clearly. For example, there may be superfluous issues that are heavily reported in newspaper articles despite the fact that users seldom have much interest in these issues. Such overproduced information is not only a waste of media resources but also makes it difficult to find valuable, in-demand information. Further, some issues that are covered by only a few newspapers may be of high interest to SNS users. To alleviate the deleterious effects of information asymmetries, it is necessary to analyze the supply and demand of each information source and, accordingly, provide information flexibly. Such an approach would allow the value of information to be explored and approximated on the basis of the supply-demand balance. Conceptually, this is very similar to the price of goods or services being determined by the supply-demand relationship. Adopting this concept, media companies could focus on the production of highly in-demand issues that are in short supply. In this study, we selected Internet news sites and Twitter as representative media for investigating information supply and demand, respectively. We present the notion of News Value Index (NVI), which evaluates the value of news information in terms of the magnitude of Twitter messages associated with it. In addition, we visualize the change of information value over time using the NVI. We conducted an analysis using 387,014 news articles and 31,674,795 Twitter messages. The analysis results revealed interesting patterns: most issues show lower NVI than average of the whole issue, whereas a few issues show steadily higher NVI than the average.

Haptic Perception presented in Picturesque Gardens - With a Focus on Picturesque Garden in Eighteenth-Century England - (픽처레스크 정원에 나타난 촉지적 지각 - 18세기 영국 픽처레스크 정원을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Jin-Seob;Kim, Jin-Seon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.37-51
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    • 2016
  • Modern optical mechanisms slanted toward Ocular-centrism have neglected diverse functions of vision, judged objects in abstract and binary perspectives, and organized spaces accordingly, there by neglecting the function of eyes groping objects. Recently, various experiences have been induced through communication with other senses by the complex perception beyond the binary perception system of vision. Haptic perception is dynamic vision that induces accompanying bodily experiences through interaction among the various senses; it recognizes the characteristics of material properties and various sensitive stimulations of human beings. This study elaborates on the major features of haptic perception by examining the theoretical background of this concept, which stimulates the active experience of the subject and determines how characteristics of haptic perception are displayed in picturesque gardens. In order to identify the major features of haptic perception, this study examines how Adolf Hildebrand's theory of vision is developed, expanded, and reinterpreted by Alois Riegl, Wilhelm Worringer, Walter Benjamin, Maurice Merleau Ponty, and Gilles Deleuze in the histories of philosophy and aesthetics. Based thereon, the core differences in haptic perception models and visual perception models are analyzed, and the features of haptic perception are identified. Then, classical gardens are set for visual perception and picturesque gardens are set for haptic perception so that the features from haptic perception identified previously are projected onto the picturesque gardens. The research results drawn from this study regarding features of haptic perception presented in picturesque gardens are as follows. The core differences of haptic perception in contrast to visual perception can be summarized as ambiguity and obscureness of boundaries, generation of dynamic perspectives, induction of motility by indefinite circulation, and strangeness and sublime beauty by the impossibility of perception. In picturesque gardens, the ambiguity and obscureness of boundaries are presented in the irregularity and asymmetric elements of planes and the rejection of a single view, and the generation of dynamic perspectives results from the adoption of narrative structure and overlapping of spaces through the creation of complete views, medium range views, and distant views, which the existing gardens lack. Thus, the scene composition technique is reproduced. The induction of motility by indefinite circulation is created by branching circulation, and strangeness and sublime beauty are presented through the use of various elements and the adoption of 'roughness', 'irregularity', and 'ruins' in the gardens.

A Study on the Acculturation of Guǐmok(槐木) Plantings through the Remaining Species of Guǐjeong(槐亭) (괴정(槐亭)의 잔존 수종을 통해 본 괴목(槐木) 식재의 문화변용)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Han, Sang-Yub;Choe, Seung-Heuy
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.81-97
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to examine what people in Korea recognize the cultural symbolism and the planting patterns of 'Guǐmok', pagoda tree(Sophora japonica). The species planted in the 'Guǐjeong' was empirically investigated and analyzed to determine which species of pagoda tree or Zelkova tree(Zelkova serrata) was taken through literature surveys, field surveys, and interviews with persons. This 'Guǐjeong' was combined to track how the culture of the 'Guǐmok' planting introduced in China was ultimately accepted and transformed in Korea. In this study, we tried to analyze the meaning implicit in the mystery while checking the distribution of the mystery and the form of the mystery, the name of the pavilion and its relevance to the contrast medium. Essentially, the trees that govern the characterization of the nectar plant, regardless of the region, are considered to be a pagoda tree, which is considered an internal factor in which the pagoda tree culture was not completely transformed into a zelkova tree. It was recognized throughout the Joseon Dynasty that the species representing 'Prime ministers(三公)' was judged from all the Joseon Dynasty periods, based on the builder of Guǐjeong's Aho(雅號) and Dangho(堂號). It was confirmed that the tree was very likely to be planted in place of the painting tree. But now is selectively zelkova tree is in accordance with the preparation of planting site conditions and areas on behalf of the Change is very high probability that is planted. Cultural variables that led to the cultural transformation of the 'Guǐmok' seem to have been deeply involved in the geographical space of China and Korea, Confucian practices of the Choson society, comings and goings and letter bridge, and network strength with China through the book spread. In addition, the culture of 'Guǐmok' is presumed to have led to cultural custom of the upper class, not the whole class, in the Yeongnam region, it can be said that the independent adaptation to act to recognize 'Guǐmok' as a pagoda tree, that is a Sophora japonica, has occurred very strongly. The difference between the cultural areas of Yeongnam and non-Yeongnam is also considered to be an internal factor that has played a major role in the cultural transformation of planting of 'Guǐmok'.

A Study on the Competition Strategy for Private Super Market against Super Super Market (슈퍼슈퍼마켓(SSM)에 대한 개인 슈퍼마켓의 경쟁전략에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Seung-Woo;Lee, Sang-Youn
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2011
  • The Korean distribution industry is gearing up for an endless competition. Greeting low growth era, less competitive parties will be challanged seriously for their survival. But for large discount stores, they have shown steady annual growth for years. However, because of the saturation for numbers of stores, the difficulty of gaining new sites, and the changes in the consumer's consumption behavior caused by the recession, now they are seeking for a new customers-based business formats. Accordingly, a large corporate comopanies made supermarkets which are belonged to affiliated companies of large corporate comopanies. They based on the strong buying power, focused on SSM(Super Super Market) ave been aggressively develop nationwide multi-stores. The point is that these stores are threatening at small and medium-sized, community-based private supermarkets. Private supermarkets and retailers, who are using existing old operation systems and their dilapidated facilities, are losing a competitive edge in business. Recent the social effects of large series of corporate supermarkets for traditional markets has been very controversial, and commercial media, academia, and industry associated with it have been held many seminars and public hearings. This may slow down the speed in accordance with the regulations, but will not be the crucial alternative. The reason for this recent surge of enterprise-class SSM up, one of the reasons is a stagnation in their offline discount mart, so they are finding new growth areas. Already in the form of large supermarkets across the country got most of the geographical centre point and is saturated with stages. Targeting small businesses that do not cover discount Mart, in order to expand business in the form of SSM is urgent. By contrast, private supermarkets are going to lose their competitiveness. The vulnerability of individual supermarkets, one of the vulnerabilities is price which economies of scale can not be realized so they are purchasing a small amount of products and difficult to get a quantity discount. The lack of organization and collaboration, and education which is not practical, caused the absencer of service-oriented situations. As a first solution, making specialty shops which are handling agricultures, fruits and vegetables and manufactured goods is recommended. Second, private supermarkets franchisees join the organization for the organization and collaboration is recomaned. It can be meet the scale of economy and can be formed a alternative business formats to a government. Third, the education is needed as a good service will get consumer's awareness. In addition, a psychological stores operating is also one way to stimulate consumer sentiment as SSM can't operate. Japan already has a better conditions of their lives through small chain expression. This study includes the vulnerabilities of private supermarkets, and suggests a competitiveness reinforcement strategies.

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Studies on the morphological variation of plant organs of elongating node-part in rice plant (수도 신장 절위 경엽의 형태변이에 관한 연구)

  • 김만수
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-35
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    • 1969
  • Attempts were made to obtain the fundamental knowledge on the quantitative constitution status of leaves and stem of elongating node-part, and the relationships between these morphological characteristics along with the nitrogen contents of leaves and grain yield were examined varing application amounts of nitrogen in rice plant. I. The agronomic characteristics of leaves and nodes of elongation node-part (4-node parts from the top of stem) were observed at heading stage with 20 leading rice varieties of Kang Won district. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Leaf area magnitude of the flag and the fourth leaf was smaller than that of the second and the third with the average value of flag leaf 18.61 $cm^2$, the second leaf 21.84 $cm^2$, the third 21.52 $cm^2$ and the fourth 18.56 $cm^2$. The weight of leaf blade showed an isotonic tendency with the magnitude of leaf area with the value of the flag leaf 97.0 mg, the second leaf 117.1 mg, the third 115.4 mg, and the fourth 95.3 mg. The weight of each leaf sheath was remarkably larger at the higher node-part than at the lower node-part of the stem with the value of flag leaf sheath 176.3 mg, the second 163.7 mg, the third 163.4 mg and the fourth 123.9 mg. Accordingly, the total leaf weight of each part was larger at the second and the third leaf than at the first and the fourth. Total plant weight of each part (weight of leaf blade, leaf sheath, and culm) also was larger at the middle node-part. 2. Coefficients of variation for the varietal differences of the morphological characteristics of elongating node-part were 12.75% for the leaf area, 15.29% for the weight of leaf blade, 15.90%, for the weight of leaf sheath, 11.42% for the weight of internode, 15.45% for the leaf weight (leaf blade & leaf sheath) and 13.24% for the straw weight. And these coefficient values of the most characteristics were, on the whole, smaller at the second and the third node-part than at the first and the fourth node-part, but the coefficient value of the internode weight was rather small at the third and fourth node-part. 3. Constitutional ratio of each plant organ to the total plant weight in term of dry matter weight (excluding head and root wight) was 39.2% for the leaf sheath, 34.2% for the culm, 26.6% for the leaf blade. And ocnstitutional ratio of leaf sheath in term of dry matter weight was larger at the higher position in contrast with that of culm. 4. Average weight ration of leaf blade to culm, leaf sheath to culm, leaf blades to sheath and the leaf blades to culm plus leaf sheath were 77.7 %, 114.5%, 67.9% and 36.2%, respectively. With regard to the position of the plant organ, the weight ratio of leaf blade to culm and that of leaf sheath to culm were larger at higher part in contrast with that of leaf blade to leaf sheath. 5. Generally, there founded deep relationships between grain yield and each morphological characteristics of plant organ of elongating node-part as follows; Correlation coefficient between total area of 4 leaves (from flag to the fourth leaf) and grain yield was ${\gamma}$=0.666$^{**}$ In regard to the position of leaves, correlation coefficient values of flag, the second, the third and the fourth leaf were ${\gamma}$=0.659$^{**}$, ${\gamma}$=0.609$^{**}$, ${\gamma}$=0.464$^{*}$ and ${\gamma}$=0.523$^{*}$, respectively. Correlation coefficient between total weight of leaf blades and the grain yield was ${\gamma}$=0.678$^{**}$. In regard to the position of leaves, that of flag leaf was ${\gamma}$=0.691$^{**}$, and ${\gamma}$=0.654$^{**}$ for the second leaf, ${\gamma}$=0.570$^{**}$ for the third, and ${\gamma}$=0.544$^{**}$ for the fourth. Correlation between the weight of leaves (blade weight plus sheath weight) and the grain yield showed similar values. In the relationship between plant weight and grain yield there also was significant correlation, but with highly significant value only for the first node-part. There appeared correlation between total weight of leaf sheath and grain yield with the value of ${\gamma}$=0.572$^{**}$ and in regard to the position of each leaf sheath the values were ${\gamma}$=0.623$^{**}$ for the flag leaf, ${\gamma}$=0.486$^{**}$ for the second leaf, ${\gamma}$=0.513$^{**}$ for the third, ${\gamma}$=0.450$^{**}$ for the fourth. However, there was no significant correlation between culm weight and grain yield. 6. With respect to in gain yield, varietal differences in magnitude of leaf area, weight of leaf blade, leaf weight per unit area, weight of leaf sheath, culm weight, total leaf and stem weight were larger in the case of high yielding varieties and decreased in accordance with decreasing yield. And this tendency also was shown in the varietal differences of magnitude of each part. Variation in magnitude of each part for the leaf area, weight of leaf blade, culm weight was significantly small in high yielding varieties compared to low yielding varieties. 7. Plant constitutional ratio of each organ of the elongating node-part in term of weight magnitnde varied to som extent according to varieties indicating leaf blade 27.6%, leaf sheath 39.5%, culm 32.9% in the case of high yielding varieties, leaf blade 25.5%, leaf sheath 38.1%, culm 36.4% in the case of low yielding varieties, and medium yielding varieties showed intermadiate values. 8. Far higher values of the weight ration of leaf blade to culm and leaf sheath to culm were given to the high yielding varieties compared to low yielding varieties. And medium yielding varieties showed intermadiate values. II. Effects of application rate of nitrogen on the morphological characteristics of the elongating node-part, nitrogen content of leaf blade, and their relation with the grain yield of the rice were observed with 3 rice varieties; Shin No.2, Shirogane, and Jinheung varying application amounts of nitrogen as 8kg, 12kg and 16kg per 10 are. 1. As for the variation of morphological magnitude s affected by the amounts of nitrogen application, total leaf area (4 leaves from the flag leaf) increased to 16.5% at 12kg N plot, and about 30% at 16kg N polt compared to 8kg N plot and total weight of leaf blade also increased to similar extent, respectively, in contrast with weight of leaf sheath increasing 4.9% and 7.8%, respectively. However, the weight of culm decreased to 1.5% and 11.2%at the 12kg N plot and 16kg N plot, respectively, and these decreasing rate was noted at the nodes of lower part. 2. As for the verietal differences in variation of morphological magnitude as affected by the amount of nitrogen fertilization, leaf area coefficient value of variation of the total leaf area was 15.40% for Shin No. 2, 12.87% for Shirogane, and 10.99% for Jinheung. With respect to the position of nodes, the largest variation of leaf blade magnitude was observed at the fourth for Shin No. 2, the second for Shirogan, and flag leaf for Jinheung. And there also was an isotonic varietal difference in the weight of leaf blade. Variation in total culm weight showed varietal differences with the coefficient value of 7.72% for Shin No.2, 12.11% for Shirogane, and 0.94% for Jinheung. There also was varietal differences in the variation according to the position of nodes. 3. Variation of each elongating node-part related to the fertilization amount decreased with the increase of fertilization amount in the items of leaf area, weight of leaf sheath, culm weight, but weight of leaf sheath varied more at heavier fertilization than at others. 4. Constitutional ratio of each organ excluding head also varied with fertilization amount; constitutional ratio of leaf blade increased much with the increasing amount of fertilization in contrast with the response of culm eight. However, constitutional ration of the weight of leaf sheath was not much affected. 5. Lower value of the ration of leaf blade to culm was given to the 8kg N per 10 are plot, and the ratio of leaf blade to leaf sheath decreased with the increasing amount of fertilization in contrast with the increase in the ratio of leaf sheath to culm. however, the ration of leaf blade to culm plus leaf sheath decreased. 6. With the increase of nitrogen fertilization, leaf area, weight of leaf blade and leaf sheath increased. Accordingly, grin yield also increased to some extent. It was noted that culm weight was changed inversely to the changes in grain yield, but the degree of this variation varied with varietal characteristics. 7. Nitrogen content of leaves at heading and fruiting stage varied with the fertilization amount, and average nitrogen content of leaves of the varieties used 2.19%, 2.49% and 2.74% at the plot of 8kg N, and 12kg N and 16kg N per 10 are, respectively, at heading time, and 0.80%, 0.92% and 1.03% at each plot at fruiting stage. Thus, nitrogen content of leaves increased much with the increasing amount of fertilization, and higher value was given to the leaves on the higher position of elongating node-part. 8. There also was variation of nitrogen content of leaves in accordance with the varieties. However higher grain yield was obtained from the plants retaining higher nitrogen content in leaves at heading or fruiting stage.

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Histological and Biochemical Studies on the Rooting of Hard-wood Cuttings in Mulberry (Morus species) (뽕나무 古條揷木의 發根에 關한 組織 및 生化學的 硏究)

  • Lim, Su-Ho
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 1981
  • Rootability of the hardwood cuttings of mulberry was related not only histological characteristics but dependent on biochemical properties. In this connection, the characteristics of the hardwood cuttings were histologically observed and the growth substances produced by the cuttings were also identified by means of mung bean bioassay. Amino acid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid contents, and the C/N ratio were also analysed. The results are summarized as follows. 1. There were differences in rootability of cuttings between mulberry species and varieties Among the three mulberry species tested, Morus Lhou Koidz. showed the highest rootability while M. bombycis showed the lowest one. In varietal differences in rootability, it was shown that the varieties could be grouped according to rootability: high varieties(above 80%), medium(41~79%), and low(below 40%). The higher varieties were Kemmochi, Nakamaki, Kosen, and Wusuba roso. 2. The histological characteristic of the hardwood cuttings most closely related to rootability was cell layer arrangement in the sclerenchyma tissue. The lower rootability varieties developed two or three overlapping cell layers in the bark tissue and in the higher rootability varieties they were scattered over the primary cortex. 3. In the higher rootability varieties, there was a positive correlation between the development of root primodia and rootability of the hardwood cuttings. It was also shown that there was a close relationship between the size of primodia and the surface area of the lenticel with rootability of the cuttings. 4. Effect of growth substances extracted from the hardwood cuttings were determined by mung bean bioassay. The higher rootability varieties usually showed higher activities of the growth substances, in contrast the lower rootability varieties showed higher activities of the inhibitory substances. 5. It was evident that the substance separated by paper chromatography was identified as indole acetic acid with $R_f$ value ranging from 0.3 to 0.5. The other substances detected at a $R_f$ value ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 and origin to 0.1 were also responsible for rooting. 6. There exists a quantitatively different distribution of growth substances in a synergistic system in the tissues of cuttings, and the balance between growth and inhibitory substances gives rise to the development of rooting. Particularly, no descent of the substances from winter buds resulted in no rooting of cuttings but these substances were produced a week after planting in a warm environment. 7. It was shown that there were positive correlations between carbohydrate ($r=0.72^*$) and total sugar ($r=0.67^*$) and rootability, respectively, but there were negative correlations between reducing sugars ($r=-0.75^*$) and rootability. 8. High C/N ratio gave rise to high rootability($r=0.67^*$). The latter therefore depended on high amount of carbohydrate rather than nitrogen in the cuttings. 9. The content of RNA and DNA in the cuttings was not changed for upto two weeks after the cuttings were planted. Then an increase in RNA content took place in only the high rootability varieties. 10. There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the compositions of the amino acids between the high rootability varieties and the low rootability varieties. More aspartic acid and cystine were found in the higher rootability varieties than in the low rootability varieties.

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THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS TETRACYCLINE HCL CONCENTRATION TREATED ROOW SURFACES ON PROLIFERATION AND SPREADING OF PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT CELLS (다양한 농도의 테트라사이클린로 처리된 치근면이 치주인대세포의 증식과 전개에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Oh-Chul;Sun, Jo-Young
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.581-596
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    • 1994
  • This in vitro study was undertaken to obtain optimal tetracycline concentration that aids proliferation and spreading of human periodontal ligament cells, for clinical application in root surfaces of periodontally diseased teeth. Periodontal ligament cells used in this study were obtained from explants of periodontal ligament of 1st premolar teeth which were extracted for the purpose of orthodontic treatment. The cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium(DMEM) supplemented with 100 U/ml penicillin, $100\;{\mu}g/ml$ streptomycin and 10% FBS at $37^{\circ}C$, 100% humidity, 5% $CO_2-95%$ air. Cells were used between the third to 4th passage. After root planing of periodontally extracted teeth, the root slabs were cut with carborundum disk. In the cell proliferation experiment, experimental groups were root planing only group, immersed groups in 25, 50, 75, 100, 150mg/ml aqueous solution of Tetracycline HCl followed by a vigorous rinse in PBS. Human PDL cells at concentration of $1{\times}10^5\;cells/ml$ were seeded in each culture well which contained root slabs and incubated for 6 hours. Then, all of the root slabs were moved into new 24 culture well and incubated 24, 48 and 72 hours. The cell counting was done by inverted phase contrast microscope after trypsinization. The following results were obtained. The cell number was increased in order root planing only group, 25, 150, 50, 75, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 24, 48 and 72 hours. The maximal cell number was obtained when the root slabs were immersed in solution with 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl. There were statistically significant between the root planing only group and 75, 100 mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 24 hours, between the root planing only group and 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 48 hours, between the root planing only group and 50, 75, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group, between 25 and 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 72 hours(p<0.05). In the cell spreading experiment, after 30 minutes of incubated, in the root planing only group, the cells were generally round in shape. The cell surface was mostly covered with blebs. The cells started to attach to root surface by cytoplasmic extension in 50, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated groups, more numerous cells attached to root surface than root planing only group. Many orifices of dentinal tubule were exposed, cells showed radially spreaded cytoplasm and unspreaded central region of the cell was covered with blebs. After 6 hours of incubation, in the root planing only group, cells showed radially spreaded cytoplasm and were attached flat appearance. In 50, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated groups, cellular margin was concaved and cytoplasm showed elongated appearance with polarity. After 24 hours of incubation, in the root planing group, cells showed characteristic polarity. In 50, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated groups, cells showed more elongated and spindle - like appearance.

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