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Distribution of Pollutant Content within Surface Sediment and Evaluation of Its Removal Efficiency in the Sihwa Constructed Wetland (시화호 인공습지에서 표층퇴적토의 오염물질 함량 분포와 제거효율 평가)

  • Choi, Don-Hyeok;Choi, Kwang-Soon;Kim, Dong-Sup;Kim, Sea-Won;Hwang, In-Seo;Lee, Mi-Kyung;Kang, Ho;Kim, Eun-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.755-764
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    • 2009
  • To estimate the pollutant removal efficiency by surface sediment, matter content within surface sediment and its release from the sediment were investigated at 12 sites in the Sihwa constructed wetland. The content of COD, TOC, IL, TN, and TP within sediment varied temporally and spacially, showing ranges of 4.1~7.7 mg/g, 0.29~2.81%, 1.88~8.15%, 0.03~0.35%, 362~1,150 ${\mu}g$/g, respectively. The contents of organic matter and TN were significantly highest in March and decreased towards fall (March${\geq}$May${\geq}$July${\geq}$September, p=0.003 for COD, p=0.001 for TOC, p=0.017 for IL, p=0.015 for TN), whereas TP content was not significant statistically in difference between sampling times. The contents of heavy metals also varied largely with sampling sites and times (As:3.5~3.9 ${\mu}g$/g, Cd:0.08~0.38 ${\mu}g$/g, Cr:51.8~107.0 ${\mu}g$/g, Cu:16.4~81.8 ${\mu}g$/g, Pb:26.~81.8 ${\mu}g$/g, Zn:85~559 ${\mu}g$/g). As compared with sediment quality guideline, the content of organic matter within surface sediment of the Sihwa constructed wetland was classified as unpolluted level. In contrast, the contents of TN, TP and heavy metals were classified as medium or severe pollution state, except some heavy metals (Cu and Pb). From the results of release experiment, TN, Pb, and Zn tend to be removed by surface sediment, but TP, Cd, and Cu have a tendency to released from sediment. Therefore, a relevant plan to improve the removal efficiency of pollutant (especially phosphorus) by surface sediment in the Sihwa constructed wetland is needed.

Characteristics of Pinewood Nematode Trapping by Nematophagous Arthrobotrys spp. (선충포획성 Arthrobotrys속균에 의한 소나무재선충 포획 특성)

  • Lee, Gak-Jung;Koo, Chang-Duck;Sung, Joo-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.153-162
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    • 2008
  • Pinewood nematode (PWN) trapping by nematophagous fungi, Arthrobotrys conoides, A. dactyloides and A. oligospora and the fungal growth were characterized. The three Arthrobotrys species each was inoculated into the PWN cultured on Botrytis cinera fungal colony on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The effects of temperature, pH, PWN inoculation density and nutrients on the growth of the three Arthrobotrys spp were measured. A. conoides grew fast, 13.9 mm/day while A. dactyloides grew slow, 3 mm/day. PDA medium was the best for the fungal growth at $25^{\circ}C$ and pH 4.5. The Arthrobotrys spp growth was stimulated by 500 nematodes inoculation but not by 1000 inoculation. A. dactyloides did not grow below pH 4.5 and at high PWN density. A. conoides and A oligospora formed trapping organs with thick constricting hyphal network only when PWN present, while A. dactyloides formed the organ with circular hyphae constitutively. A. conoides formed trapping organs faster than A. oligospora did. The nematode trapping hyphae of the fungi penetrated into PNW inside to form many tiny infection bulbs and to digest the nematode. However, A. dactyloides formed a few trapping organs but no trapping was observed. Infection rate of PWN was 95% by A. conoides, 80% by A. oligospora and 92% by the combination inoculation of A. conoides and A. oligospora. In contrast A. dactyloides increased PWN density without infecton. There was no interaction effect in any combination inoculation of the three Arthrobotrys spp. A. conoides enhanced PWN infection rate by rapid hyphal growth and early trapping, while A. oligospora did it by increasing hyphal density. In conclusion A. conoides is the most effective in both hyphal growth and infection, and thus these characteristics can be utilized as a biological control of PWN.

A Comparative Study of Biotope Mapping between Korea and Germany (한국과 독일의 비오톱지도화에 대한 비교)

  • Choi, Il-Ki;Ahn, Geun-Young;Lee, Eun-Heui
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.565-575
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to derive political implications and to look into the establishment of new directions for the biotope mapping across the Korean territory so that such biotope mapping process could be used as a means of actual plan for natural environment preservation through the comparative study of biotope mapping methodology with that of the biotope mapping pioneer-Germany. As for research methodology, this study collected literature and data related to the biotope mapping of Korea and Germany and examined the general characteristics and inclinations about biotope mapping of both country, at a level of the national territory, federal government, provincial government, city and settlement areas. As a result of the examination, first, it was found that Germany drew up a landscape eco-type map and ecological landscape grade map throughout the nation in order to preserve and manage effectively by differential landscape eco-type unit. In contrast, Korea drew up a map on which Degree of Green Naturality and Ecological Nature Status are reflected for natural environment preservation at a nationwide unit. Secondly, the biotope mapping of German was worked centering on natural areas and their corresponding areas at German provincial government level and it drew up a Red-list by each province, while Korea has yet to carry out biotope mapping at a provincial level corresponding to Germany's. Thirdly, the biotope mapping on German cities and settlement areas includes not only big city areas but also medium & small cities and rural areas whereas Korean biotope mapping is conducted mainly centering on urban areas. In conclusion, this study suggests that the biotope mapping including natural areas and anti-natural area, not limited to city areas should be revitalized in order to be a real means of the all territory's balanced natural environment and biotope preservation & management. In addition, for this purpose, this study suggests that research on biotope pattern catalog and biotope red-list applicable to all territory should be preceded.

Haptic Perception presented in Picturesque Gardens - With a Focus on Picturesque Garden in Eighteenth-Century England - (픽처레스크 정원에 나타난 촉지적 지각 - 18세기 영국 픽처레스크 정원을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Jin-Seob;Kim, Jin-Seon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.37-51
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    • 2016
  • Modern optical mechanisms slanted toward Ocular-centrism have neglected diverse functions of vision, judged objects in abstract and binary perspectives, and organized spaces accordingly, there by neglecting the function of eyes groping objects. Recently, various experiences have been induced through communication with other senses by the complex perception beyond the binary perception system of vision. Haptic perception is dynamic vision that induces accompanying bodily experiences through interaction among the various senses; it recognizes the characteristics of material properties and various sensitive stimulations of human beings. This study elaborates on the major features of haptic perception by examining the theoretical background of this concept, which stimulates the active experience of the subject and determines how characteristics of haptic perception are displayed in picturesque gardens. In order to identify the major features of haptic perception, this study examines how Adolf Hildebrand's theory of vision is developed, expanded, and reinterpreted by Alois Riegl, Wilhelm Worringer, Walter Benjamin, Maurice Merleau Ponty, and Gilles Deleuze in the histories of philosophy and aesthetics. Based thereon, the core differences in haptic perception models and visual perception models are analyzed, and the features of haptic perception are identified. Then, classical gardens are set for visual perception and picturesque gardens are set for haptic perception so that the features from haptic perception identified previously are projected onto the picturesque gardens. The research results drawn from this study regarding features of haptic perception presented in picturesque gardens are as follows. The core differences of haptic perception in contrast to visual perception can be summarized as ambiguity and obscureness of boundaries, generation of dynamic perspectives, induction of motility by indefinite circulation, and strangeness and sublime beauty by the impossibility of perception. In picturesque gardens, the ambiguity and obscureness of boundaries are presented in the irregularity and asymmetric elements of planes and the rejection of a single view, and the generation of dynamic perspectives results from the adoption of narrative structure and overlapping of spaces through the creation of complete views, medium range views, and distant views, which the existing gardens lack. Thus, the scene composition technique is reproduced. The induction of motility by indefinite circulation is created by branching circulation, and strangeness and sublime beauty are presented through the use of various elements and the adoption of 'roughness', 'irregularity', and 'ruins' in the gardens.

Increased Protein of the Secretory Leukocyte Pretense Inhibitor (SLPI) and the Expression of Growth Factors in NIH3T3 Cells by LPS Stimulation (NIH3T3 세포주에서 LPS자극에 의한 분비백혈구단백분해효소억제제 (SLPI)의 단백질증가와 성장인자들의 발현)

  • Lee, Sang-Hwa;Choi, Baik-Dong;Jeong, Soon-Jeong;Jang, Hyun-Seon;Kim, Byung-Ock;Lim, Do-Seon;Park, Joo-Cheol;Wang, Guan-Lin;Jeong, Moon-Jin
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2006
  • Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) involves tissue protection against the destructive action of neutrophil elastase at the site of inflammation. Several studies on new functions of SLPI have demonstrated that SLPI may play a primary role in innate immunity than protease inhibitor, To identify the function of SLPI by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in the embryonic fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells. we studied the expression of SLPI compared to other growth factors involving the LPS treatment. To address this, we performed the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blots for the detection of mRNA and protein expression of the SLPI and some growth factors such as VEGF. bFGF, and PDGF-BB after LPS stimulation. NIH3T3 cells were exposed 100 ng/mL Escherichia coli LPS for 30min, 60min, 90min, 24h, and 48h, respectively. The result of RT-PCR showed that SLPI and VEGF mRNA was expressed strongly in NIH3T3 without related to LPS stimulation. mRNA of bFGF was weakly expressed such as the expression of the control. PDGF mRNA expression gradually increased follows at time course. However, SLPI protein level was increased in lysates and culture medium by LPS stimulation. Phase contrast microscopic and scanning electron microscopic observation showed that the increased cell number and cytoplasmic enlargement of the NIH3T3 cells. Therefore, it suggests that the LPS upregulates SLPI expression in NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, secreted SLPI may stimulate cell proliferation and migration.

Spectroscopic Characterization of Soil Humic Acid Fractions by Molecular Weight (토양에서 추출한 흄산의 분자량별 분류에 따른 분광학적 성질 비교)

  • Shin, Hyun Sang;Moon, Hichung;Yang, Han Beom;Yun, Sock Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.66-70
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    • 1995
  • The soil humic acid was subdivided into four subfractions by molecular weight (F1: >100.000 dalton; F2: >100.000 dalton; F3: >10.000 dalton; F4: >2.000 dalton) using MP-dual hollow fiber ultrafiltration system. The characterization using IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, showed similar spectroscopic features of HA, demonstrating that the bulk properties of HA subfractions are very similar to one another. IR spectral data showed a decrease in polysaccharide contents and increase in carboxylate functionality as molecular weight become smaller.functions. The structure of (NO) can be described by two interactions (N${\cdot}{\cdot}{\cdot}$N, N${\cdot}{\cdot}{\cdot}$O). One is the ONNO structure with an (N${\cdot}{\cdot}{\cdot}$N) interaction. In this structure, acyclic cis-ONNO with $C_{2v}$-symmetry, acyclic trans-ONNO with $C_{2h}$, and cyclic ONNO with trapezoidal structure ($C_{2v}$) are optimized at the MP2 level. The other structure is the ONON structure with an (N${\cdot}{\cdot}{\cdot}$O) interaction. In the structure, acyclic cis-ONON with Cs$^{-symmetry}$ and cyclic ONON of the rectangular ($C_{2h}$), square $(D_{2h})$, rhombic $(D_{2h})$, and parallelogramic $(D_{2h})$ geometries are also optimized. It is found that acyclic cis-ONNO $(^1A_1$) is the most stable structure and cyclic ONNO ($^3A_1$) is the least stable. Acyclic trans-ONNO ($^3A_1$) with an (N${\cdot}{\cdot}{\cdot}$N) interaction, acyclic trans-ONON and bicyclic ONON $(C_{2v})$ with (N${\cdot}{\cdot}{\cdot}$O) interaction, and acyclic cis- and trans-NOON with an (O${\cdot}{\cdot}{\cdot}$O) interaction can not be optimized at the MP2 level. Particularly, acyclic trans-ONNO with $C_{2h}$-symmetry can not be optimized at the CCSD(T) level. Meanwhile, acyclic NNOO ($^1A_1$, $C_s)$ and trianglic NNOO ($^1A_1$,$C_{2v})$ formed by the (O${\cdot}{\cdot}{\cdot}$N) interaction between $O_2$and $N_2$are optimized at the MP2 level. The binding energies and the relative energy gaps among the isomers are found to be relatively small./sec. Spiral CT scans during the arterial phase were obtained 35 seconds after the injection of contrast medium. CT findings of 78 lesions less than 4cm in diameter were correlated with angiographic findings. Results : The attenuation of lesions was high(n = 69), iso(n = 5), and low(n = 4) compared with liver parenchyma during the arterial phase of spiral CT. In lesions with high-, iso-, and low-attenuation during the arterial phase of spiral CT, hypervascularity on angiograms was found in 63 of 69(91.3%), three of five(60%), and three of four lesions(75%), respectively. Six lesions with high-attenuation on the arterial phase of spiral CT were not seen on angiography. Two iso-attenuated and one low-attenuated lesion were hypovascular on angiograms. Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that with some exceptions there was good correlation between the arterial phase of spiral CT and angiography.

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Study of Rat Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells In Vivo and In Vitro (생체 및 시험관에서 유선 상피 모세포의 분리와 동정)

  • Nam Deuk Kim;Kee-Joo Paik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.470-486
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    • 1995
  • Mammary epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of cells with a large proliferativ potential which are responsible for the maintenance of glandular cellularity and are the progenitor cells of mammary cancer. These clonogens give rise to multicellular clonal alveolar or ductal units(AU or DU) on transplantation and hormonal stimulation. To isolate putative mammary clonogens, enzymatically monodispersed rat mammary epithelial cells from organoid cultures and from intact glands are sorted by flow cytometry according to their affinity for FITC labeled peanut lectin(PNA) and PE labeled anti-Thy-1.1 antibody(Thy-1.1) into four subpopulations : cells negative to both PNA and Thy-1.1(B-), PNA+cells, Thy-1.1+cells, and cells positive to both reagents(B+). The in vivo transplantation assays indicate that the clonogenic fractions of PNA+cells from out-growths of organoids in primary cultures for three days in complete hormone medium(CHM) are significantly higher than those of cells from other subpopulations derived from cultrues or from intact glands. Extracellular matrix(ECM) is a complex of several proteins that regulated cell function ; its role in cell growth and differentiation and tissue-specific gene expression. It can act as a positive as well as a negative regulator of cellular differentiation depending on the cell type and the genes studied. Regulation by ECM is closely interrelated with the action of other regulators of cellular function, such as growth factors and hormones. Matrigel supports the growth and development of several different multicellular colonies from mammary organoids and from monodispersed epithelial cells in culture. Several types of colonies are observed including stellate colonies, duct-like structures, two- and three-dimensional web structures, squamous organoids, and lobulo-duct colonies. Organoids have the greatest proliferative potential and formation of multi-cellular structures. Phase contrast micrographs demonstrate extensive intracellular lipid accumulation within the web structures and some of duct-like colonies. At the immunocytochemical and electron micrograph level, casein proteins are predominantly localized near the apical surface of the cells or in the lumen of duct-like or lobulo-duct colonies. Squamous colonies are comprised of several layers of squamous epithelium surrounding keratin pearls as is typical fo squamous metaplasia(SM). All-trans retinoic acid(RA) inhibits the growth of SM. The frequency of lobulo-ductal colony formation increased with the augmentation of RA concentration in these culture conditions. The current study models could provide powerful tools not only for understanding cell growth and differentiation of epithelial cells, but also for the isolation and characterization of mammary clonogenic stem cells.

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Mesozoic Granitoids and Associated Gold-Silver Mineralization in Korea (한국 중생대 화강암류와 이에 수반된 금-은광화작용)

  • 최선규;박상준;최상훈;신홍자
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.25-38
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    • 2001
  • Contrasts in the style of the gold-silver mineralization in geologic and tectonic settings in Korea, together with radiometric age data, reflect the genetically different nature of hydrothermal activities, coinciding with the emplacement age and depth of Mesozoic magmatic activities. It represents a clear distinction between the plutonic settings of the Jurassic Daebo orogeny and the subvolcanic environments of the Cretaceous Bulgugsa igneous activities. During the Daebo igneous activities (about 200-130 Ma) coincident with orogenic time, gold mineralization took place between 197 and 127 Ma. The Jurassic deposits commonly show several characteristics: prominent association with pegmatites, low Ag/Au ratios in the ore-concentrating parts, massive vein morphology and a distinctively simple mineralogy including Fe-rich sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, Au-rich eIectrum. pyrrhotite and/or pyrite. During the Bulgugsa igneous activities (120-60 Ma), the precious-metal deposits are generally characterized by such features as complex vein morphology, medium to high AgiAu ratios in the ore concentrates, and abundance of ore minerals including base-metal sulfides, Ag sulfides, native silver, Ag sulfosalts and Ag tellurides. Vein morphology, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and stable isotope results indicate the diverse genetic natures of hydrothermal systems. The Jurassic Au-dominant deposits were formed at the relatively high temperature (about 300 to 450$^{\circ}$C) and deep-crustal level (>3.0 kb) from the hydrothermal fluids containing more amounts of magmatic waters (3180; 5-10 %0). It can be explained by the dominant ore-depositing mechanisms as CO2 boiling and sulfidation, suggestive of hypo/mesothermal environments. In contrast, mineralization of the Cretaceous Au-Ag type (108-71 Ma) and Agdominant type (98-71 Ma) occurred at relatively low temperature (about 200 to 350$^{\circ}$C) and shallow-crustal level «1.0 kb) from the ore-fonning fluids containing more amounts of less-evolved meteoric waters (15180; -10-5%0). These characteristics of the Cretaceous precious-metal deposits can be attributed to the complexities in the ore-precipitating mechanisms (mixing, boiling, cooling), suggestive of epilmesothermal environments. Therefore, the differences of the emplacement depth between the Daebo and the Bulgugsa igneous activities directly influence the unique temporal and spatial association of the deposit type.

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Anti-Obesity Effects of Fermented Soybean Oils in 3T3-L1 Pre-Adipocytes and High Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6J Mice (발효콩 유지의 3T3-L1 지방전구세포와 고지방식이를 급여한 C57BL/6J 생쥐에 대한 항비만 효과)

  • Kim, Seon-Woong;Kim, Nam-Seok;Oh, Mi-Jin;Kim, Ha-Rim;Kim, Min-Sun;Lee, Da-Young;Yoon, Suk-Hoo;Jung, Mun-Yhung;Kim, Hun-Jung;Lee, Chang-Hyun;Oh, Chan-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.279-288
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the manufacturing of fermented soybean oil using a fermenting strain commonly processed for soybeans [Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA), Bacillus subtilis (BS), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LBA), and B. subtilis+L. acidophilus (BLO)] and evaluated its anti-obesity activities. Cytotoxicity of four kinds of fermented soybean oils was not observed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at 10 and $50{\mu}g/mL$. Triglyceride content was reduced by 20.6% in the BLO group at a treatment concentration of $50{\mu}g/mL$. The simultaneous treatment of fermented soybean oil and differentiation induction medium decreased $PPAR{\gamma}$ and $C/EBP{\alpha}$ gene expression at a concentration of $50{\mu}g/mL$ and blocked adipocyte differentiation by increasing adiponectin gene expression. The inhibitory effect of adipocyte differentiation was greatest in the BLO group. C57BL/6J mice were examined for 4 weeks after being separated into seven groups [normal diet group (N), high fat diet group (C), group fed high fat diet combined with regular soybean oil (SO), group fed non-fermented soybean oil (NF), and groups fed high fat diet combined with 5% fermented soybean oil (BA, BS, LBA, and BLO)] to identify the effects of soybean oil on body weight, serum lipid, adiponectin, insulin, and leptin levels in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity. The body weight and serum lipid level of the C group increased drastically compared to those of the N group. In contrast, the group fed a diet combined with fermented soybean oil showed decreases in weight, serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the C group. Moreover, soybean oil was found to be effective in the BLO group. In conclusion, fermented soybean oil has positive effects in prohibiting adipocyte differentiation increased by high fat diet and improving serum lipid composition. Therefore, fermented soybean oil can be used as a functional food material with anti-obesity activity.

Growth of Plug Seedlings of ‘Nokkwrang’ Pepper in Mixture of Used Rockwool and Woodchip Particles (폐암면과 목재 입자의 혼합비율에 따른 고추 플러그 묘의 생육)

  • Hwang, Seung-Jae;Kim, Oh-Im;Kim, Ik-Joon;Jeong, Byoung-Ryong
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2003
  • Rockwool slabs used for hydroponic cultures are expected to have potential to be reused after breakdown as a growing medium component for hydroponic culture of vegetables and cut flowers, pot plants, or plug plants. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of using particles of used rockwool slabs (PURS) mixed with woodchips for growing plug seedlings of ‘Nokkufang’ pepper. In the first experiment growth of pepper seedlings was tested in media of steam sterilized PURS mixed with chestnut woodchips (CW), which was weatherized for six months and screened through 2.8 mm or 5.6 mm sieves, at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 28:75 or 0:100 (%, v/v). In the second experiment growth of pepper seedlings was tested in 20 different media containing steam sterilized PURS mixed with 4 mm chestnut woodchips (CW), 4 mm pinc woodchips (PW), coir, peatmoss, or perlite. In the first experiment, there were no significant growth differences as affectcd by particle size of CW, while the overall best growth was achieved il1 the control and l00% PURS. In the second experiment, seedling growth was enhanced as compared to the control in 100% PURS or PURS mixed with peatmoss, coir, or perlite. In contrast, growth was suppressed as the proportion of peatmoss or coir mixed with PURS decreased and the proportion of CW increased. Growth was better in the PURS + peatmoss than in the 100% PURS or PURS + coir, and when woodchips were mixed with coir than peatmoss.