• Title, Summary, Keyword: Constructed wetlands

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Microbial population dynamics in constructed wetlands: Review of recent advancements for wastewater treatment

  • Rajan, Rajitha J.;Sudarsan, J.S.;Nithiyanantham, S.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2019
  • Constructed wetlands are improvised man-made systems, designed for adopting the principle of natural wetlands for purifying wastewater - the elixir of life. They are used widely as a cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for treating greywater generated from different tertiary treatment sources. It provides an elaborate platform for research activities in an attempt to recycle earth's natural resources. Among the several organic impurities removal mechanisms existing in constructed wetland systems, the earth's active microbial population plays a vital role. This review deals with the recent advancements in constructed wetland systems from a microbiological perspective to (effect/ devise/ formulate) chemical and physical treatment for water impurities. It focuses on microbial diversity studies in constructed wetlands, influence of wetland media on microbial diversity and wetland performance, role of specific microbes in water reuse, removal of trace elements, some heavy metals and antibiotics in constructed wetlands. The impurities removal processes in constructed wetlands is achieved by combined interactive systems such as selected plant species, nature of substrate used for microbial diversity and several biogeochemical effected reaction cycles in wetland systems. Therefore, the correlation studies that have been conducted by earlier researchers in microbial diversity in wetlands are addressed herewith.

Development of Constructed Wetlands Design Model for Water Quality Management in Rural Basins (농촌유역의 수질관리를 위한 인공습지 설계모형 개발)

  • Choi, In-Uk;Kwun, Soon-Kuk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.497-500
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    • 2001
  • Constructed wetlands are among the recently proven efficient technologies for wastewater treatment. Compared to conventional treatment systems, constructed wetlands are low cost, are easily operated and maintained. Constructed wetlands are particularly sensitive to Nonp oint source pollution(NPSP) because they function as pollutant sinks. The objectives of this study were to review the necessary contents of survey and design factors for constructing constructed wetlands and develop a modified DSS-WQMRA model for design of constructed wetlands. From the results of the case studies, in order to attain BOD target water quality, 0.27%(SF), 0.66%(FWS) wetland area of the total basin is needed.

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Design Model of Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Management of Non-point Source Pollution in Rural Watersheds (농촌유역의 비점원 오염 수질관리를 위한 인공습지 설계모형)

  • 최인욱;권순국
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.96-105
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    • 2002
  • As an useful water purification system for non-point source pollution in rural watersheds, interests in constructed wetlands are growing at home and abroad. It is well known that constructed wetlands are easily installed, no special managemental needs, and more flexible at fluctuating influent loads. They have a capacity for purification against nutrient materials such as phosphorus and nitrogen causing eutrophication of lentic water bodies. The Constructed Wetland Design Model (CWDM), developed through this study is consisted mainly of Database System, Runoff-discharge Prediction Submodel, Water Quality Prediction Submodel, and Area Assessment Submodel. The Database System includes data of watershed, discharge, water quality, pollution source, and design factors for the constructed wetland. It supplies data when predicting water quality and calculating the required areas of constructed wetlands. For the assessment of design flow, the GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Function) is used, and for water quality prediction in streams estimating influent pollutant load, Water Quality Prediction Submodel, that is a submodel of DSS-WQMRA model developed by previous works is amended. The calculation of the required areas of constructed wetlands is achieved using effluent target concentrations and area calculation equations that developed from the monitoring results in the United States. The CWDM is applied to Bokha watershed to appraise its application by assessing design flow and predicting water quality. Its application is performed through two calculations: one is to achieve each target effluent concentrations of BOD, SS, T-N and T-P, the other is to achieve overall target effluent concentrations. To prove the validity of the model, a comparison of unit removal rates between the calculated one from this study and the monitoring result from existing wetlands in Korea, Japan and United States was made. As a result, the CWDM could be very useful design tool for the constructed wetland in rural watersheds and for the non-point source pollution management.

BASELINE MEASUREMENTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FOUR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN TROPICAL AUSTRALIA

  • Fell, A.;Jegatheesan, V.;Sadler, A.;Lee, S.H.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.316-327
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    • 2005
  • Constructed wetlands provide several benefits that are not solely limited to storm water management and are becoming common in storm water management. In this research, four recently constructed wetlands underwent in situ and laboratory water sampling to determine their efficiency in removing storm water pollutants over a 5-month period. From the sampling results, it was determined that each of the wetlands was able to reduce the concentration of pollutants in the stormwater. To aid in the assessment of the wetlands against each other, a model was developed to determine the extent of removal of stormwater pollutants over the length of the wetland. The results from this model complimented the data collected from the field. Improvements, such as increased amounts of vegetation were recommended for the wetlands with the aim of increasing the effectiveness. Further investigations into the wetlands will allow for better understanding of the wetland's performance.

Developing a composite vertical flow constructed wetlands for rainwater treatment

  • Ahmed, Sanjrani Manzoor;Zhou, Boxun;Zhao, Heng;Zheng, You Ping;Wang, Yue;Xia, Shibin
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.87-95
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    • 2020
  • The worldwide shortage of water resources is a major environmental issue. Using pure water for drinking and domestic purposes is a bigger issue than other environmental issues. Industrialization and Urbanization have even polluted rainwater. In China, when it rains, rainwater is stored on the roof or other sources of storage for daily use resulting in pollution. Several studies have been conducted to treat rainwater. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of constructed wetlands by using ACF as a medium. So, this study aims to treat rainwater in Wuhan city through a Composite Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands. First, rainwater was stored in the tank while it flows out of the roof, further it is processed in constructed wetlands. The constructed wetlands is consisted with plants Calamus and Chives, adding ACF (prepared from luffa) has achieved great results in this study. Results show that the pollutants have been removed to a considerable level, there were significant differences in removal rates under different HRT at 6h, 9h and 12h respectively. Therefore, Composite Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands is recommended for total nitrogen and Ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus.

Cycling of Matters in the Constructed Wetland (인공습지에서의 물질순환에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Oug;Park, Je-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzed the changes in the concentrations of the pollutants of constructed treatment wetlands which come from the discharge water of a sewage treatment plant. According to the results of budgets in constructed wetlands, the net production of the organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were 368 kgC/month, 306 kgN/month and -49 kgP/month, respectively. The high particle form of pollutants are mostly removed due to settlement and absorption when passing through wetlands, but because a low processing efficiency for pollutants was shown when sewage treatment plant wastewater flows in, there is a need for a water management system that can reduce the organic matter load through monitoring. The low removal efficiency of constructed wetlands were caused by both structural and operational problems. Therefore, to enable to play a role as a reduction facility of pollutants, an appropriate design and operation manuals for constructed wetlands is urgently needed.

Preparation, Characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from loofah and its application in composite vertical flow constructed wetlands for Tetracycline removal from water

  • Ahmed, Sanjrani Manzoor;Zhou, Boxun;Wang, Yue;Yang, Hang;Zheng, You P.;ShiBin, Xia
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.313-321
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    • 2020
  • ACF preparation from different materials and its application in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment has been focused in environmental field. Different materials have been used to prepare ACF around the world. This study aims to prepare, characterize and use of ACF from loofah for removal of Tetracycline from water through composite vertical flow constructed wetlands. ACF was prepared and it was tested for characterization, later it was used for removal of Tetracycline from water through composite vertical flow constructed wetlands. In composite vertical flow constructed wetlands, three HRTs were set according to the experiment, 1D, 2D, and 3D is individually. Samples were transported immediately from collection point to laboratory for analyzing. Samples were measured for Tetracycline (TC), Total Phosphorus (TP), and Total nitrogen and COD. Tetracycline absorbance with respective 356nm was obtained good and HRT is important factor. Results show that composite vertical flow constructed wetlands with ACF from luffa is best option and it is recommended to study further deep analysis.

Seasonal Effects of Livestock Wastewater Treatment by a Constructed Wetland (인공습지에 의한 축산폐수의 처리시 계절적 영향)

  • Park, Jae-Hong;Kwon, Soo-Youl
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2005
  • Constructed wetlands are considered as an important tool for wastewater treatment, wastewater management and flooding control. In addition, one of the most promising technologies for application in many countries seems to be constructed wetlands due to their properties such as utilization of natural processes, simple construction, operation and maintenance, process stability, cost effectiveness, etc. This research is performed to find the possibility for treating livestock wastewater using a constructed wetland. The removal efficiencies of CODcr, TN, TP, SS, and color were 97.9%, 97.8%, 97.2%, 99.1%, and 84.9%, respectively. In particular, SS was completely removed. In conclusion, constructed wetlands could be applied to livestock wastewater treatment. Further, it needs time for stabilization to reduce the pollutants accumulated in soil.

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Simulation of Various Baffle Types in a Constructed Wetland Sedimentation Tank using CFD (CFD를 이용한 Hybrid 인공습지의 초기침강지 저류판 구조 모의)

  • Noh, Taegyun;Jeon, Jechan;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.324-329
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    • 2016
  • Constructed wetlands are widely applied in urban and rural areas for various purposes such as pollutants reduction, acquisition of eco-spaces and habitats, flooding reduction, acquisition of water resources and environmental education. Since the design of constructed wetlands utilizes ecosystems, special consideration must be given to ecological mechanisms, environmental mechanisms and hydrological mechanisms. To ensure the sustainable functionality of constructed wetlands, it is necessary to achieve stable flow rate and velocity, and remove sediments to ensure sufficient space for detention. To enhance the efficiency of constructed wetland sedimentation basins, this study determined the optimal position for baffle installation, and applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the cross-sectional design of wetlands. CFD analysis revealed that the decrease in flow velocity with baffle installation enhanced the efficiency of sedimentation of particulate matters. Vertical baffles had higher sedimentation efficiency than those with an inclined angle. When vertical baffles were installed in the sedimentation basin of a hybrid constructed wetland to reduce non-point source pollutants in urban areas, the average flow velocity within the basin decreased by 10~30%, while the sedimentation efficiency improved by 1.3~1.5 times. The application of CFD to constructed wetlands is expected to improve the cost efficiency of designing hybrid constructed wetlands with high removal efficiency.

Assessment of the Wetland Soil Development in Constructed Wetlands using the Soil Properties of a Reference Wetland (기준습지 토양특성을 활용한 인공습지의 토양발달 평가)

  • Lee, Ja-Yeon;Kang, Dae-Seok;Sung, Ki-June
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2010
  • Changes in wetland soil properties of two constructed wetlands after their constructions were compared to those of a natural wetland to determine if they could be used for the evaluation of the success of constructed wetlands and the assessment of their functions. One natural wetland as a reference wetland and two constructed wetlands(treatment wetland and experimental wetland) with different contaminant inflow characteristics were selected for this study. Major physicochemical properties of wetland soil such as soil texture, water content, pH, CEC(cation exchange capacity), organic matter content, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus were monitored to investigate the effects of inundation and accumulation of organic matters and nutrients on the wetland soil development. There was a clear difference in soil texture between the natural wetland and the constructed ones, with the high sand content in the constructed wetlands as compared to the high clay content in the natural one. Gradual increases of silt and clay contents over time were observed in the constructed wetlands. The soil of the natural wetland was higher in water content and organic matter but lower in pH than those of the constructed wetlands. The pH of the constructed wetlands reached near neutral ranges after initial increase. CEC and nutrient concentrations of the constructed wetlands seemed to be affected mainly by outside inflows of organic matter and contaminants. Concentrations of organic matter and nutrients decreased over time in the experimental wetland where surface and deep soils with different characteristics were mixed during its construction, suggesting that changes in soil properties during wetland constructions may affect the development of wetland soils or wetland biogeochemistry. This study showed that changes in physicochemical properties of soils in constructed wetlands could be used to assess the success of constructed wetlands and their functions, and also the importance of reference wetlands for the appropriate assessment.