• Title, Summary, Keyword: Construal Level Theory

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Analysis of Effects of Rational and Emotional Advertising Appeals on Products from a View of Psychological Distance : Focusing on the Eye-Tracking Method (제품에 대한 심리적 거리감에 따른 이성적, 감성적 광고소구의 효과분석: 아이트래킹 방법을 중심으로)

  • Kang, Chang Min;Lee, Kun Chang
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2019
  • Consumers possess their own psychological distance towards products. Based on the construal-level theory, this study aims to analyze which type of advertising appeal is more effective according to psychological distance. Also this study conducts neurophysiology experiment through eye-tracker. By using eye-tracking methods, participants' responses to products was measured and analyzed accordingly. Results revealed that consumers prefer rational appeals when the psychological distance is perceived near, while emotional appeals are preferred when the psychological distance is perceived far. In addition, eye movements measured in Visit Count(VC), Fixation Count(FC), and Total Fixation Duration(TFD) showed significant difference when participants are viewing preferred and non-preferred appeals.

Public Service Good Health Advertising: Effects of Elaboration Likelihood and Construal Level on Consumer Attitudes (보건 관련 공익광고에서 정교화가능성과 해석수준이 광고태도에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jong-Chul;Kim, Kyung-Jin
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.67-79
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    • 2014
  • Purpose - This study aims to accomplish three major research goals. First, it strives to change consumers' focus from peripheral routes to a central route of public service advertising related to the good health policy, without problematic effects, by influencing consumers' knowledge or involvement. Second, this study examines the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and construal level theory (CLT). Specifically, we consider that the central route of ELM might correspond with the focal goal of CLT. Third, this study analyzes ELM through CLT. That is, ELM predicted that low involvement would take the peripheral route, and high involvement would take the central route. Research design, data, and methodology - This study consisted of three experiments. The first experiment had a 2×2 between-subject design. The subjects were university students and the research period was approximately one year. The first independent variable was the involvement of the overweight issue; this variable was measured and split by the median. The second independent variable was the temporal distance (near vs. distant future); this variable was manipulated. The second experiment also had a 2×2 between-subject design. The first variable was the involvement of cervical adenocarcinoma prevention, and was considered already manipulated by sex. Specifically, males had a low involvement of the disease, but females had high involvement. The second independent variable was priming (power vs. submissive). Power priming would induce abstract thinking, but submissive priming would take concrete processing. The third experiment had a 2×2×2 between-subject design. The first variable was cognitive depletion, and was manipulated by memorizing 9-digit numbers. The second and third independent variables were involvement and abstract thinking induction, such as prior experiments. Data were collected through questionnaires, and were analyzed by an SPSS program. Major hypotheses were tested by examining the interaction effects through ANOVA. Results - Major findings are as follows. First, even for low-involved consumers in the overweight category, distant future manipulation induced them to focus not on the peripheral route but on the central route of the public service advertisement. This result does not correspond to the typical ELM prediction. Second, under power priming, low-involved males of the cervical adenocarcinoma category focused on the peripheral route because of the induction to abstract thinking. This result replicated the first experiment, and confirmed the theoretical robustness. Third, high-involved females focused not on the central but on the peripheral route under the mixed condition of cognitive depletion and near future manipulation. Depletion consumed cognitive resources, and the processing mode of consumers changed from systematic to heuristic. Conclusions - ELM needs to be complemented through CLT in context of public service good health advertising. Specifically, the involvement of ELM may impact consumers' thinking mode (abstract vs. concrete), and the interaction effects may influence consumers' focus on advertising (central vs. peripheral route). This study's limitations were bounded subjects, limited stimuli, and somewhat weak external validity.

Formalizing the Role of Social Capital on Individuals' Continuous Use of Social Networking Sites from a Social Cognitive Perspective

  • Guo, Yu;Li, Yiwei;Ito, Naoya
    • Asian Journal for Public Opinion Research
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.90-102
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    • 2014
  • By integrating useful insights from social cognitive theory and social capital theory, we aim to develop a model for better understanding people's behaviors related to the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and formalize the role of social capital in individuals' continuous SNS use. Propositions that emphasize the triadic interactive relationships among environmental, personal, and behavioral factors were highlighted in this study. After reviewing previous studies, in this paper we proposed the following: (1) the causation between SNS use and individuals' perceived social capital might be mutual; social capital may not only be the result of media selectivity, but could also be an essential stimulus initiating the start of using SNSs; (2) the influences of SNSs use on the generation of individuals' online social capital might be conditional upon particular patterns of use; (3) both the level of dependence on SNSs and the differentiated patterns of SNSs use vary according to individuals' perceived offline social capital and their personal characteristics, for instance, personality or self-construal, and social anxiety.

Possessions for Me, Experiences for Others: Preferred Gift Type in Gift-giving Behavior for Self or Others and a Moderate Effect of Emotional Disconnection Level (나를 위한 소유, 타인을 위한 경험: 나 vs 타인을 위한 선물 유형의 차이와 감정적 단절의 조절 효과)

  • Rim, Hye Bin;Kim, Seung Hwan;Doh, Eun Yeong;Lee, Byung-Kwan
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.89-102
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    • 2020
  • Consumers purchase gifts for themselves and for others. This research examined whether one's preferred purchase type (material or experiential) would depend on the gift recipient (self or others). A total of 200 participants took part in online studies via Amazon Mechanical-Turk. Based on the construal-level theory, people will focus on concrete product attributes for psychologically close objects; however, for psychologically distant objects, people will concentrate on abstract product attributes. Study 1 demonstrated that participants preferred material over experiential purchases in self-gifting situations, while they preferred experiential compared to material gifts for others. In Study 2, it was found that individual differences in emotional disconnection moderated the effect of gift recipient on preferred gift type. Specifically, the differences in preferred gift type increased as one's emotional disconnection level increased. The results of this research have theoretical implications in terms of extending construal-level theory to gift-purchasing behaviors. Furthermore, this research has practical implications for marketers and advertisers. Limitations and possible future research directions were also discussed.

The Mechanism of the Influence of Advanced Selling on Consumer Choice (사전예약을 통한 구매결정이 소비자의 선택에 미치는 영향력의 작동원리에 관한 실증연구)

  • Kim, Kyung-Ho;Lee, Hyoung-Tark;Seo, Heon-Joo
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 2016
  • Purpose - In recent, a research finds that advanced selling can influence a consumer's choice(Kim et al., 2013). Advanced selling is defined as the new product launching strategy which company allows consumers to preorder new product before its release(Chu & Zhang, 2011). Prior researches have focused on the benefits of advanced selling(e.g., information gathering for demand prediction, an advantage for pricing strategy, and so on) for companies using this strategy(Chen, 2001; Chu & Zhang, 2011; Li & Zhang, 2013; Tang et al., 2004; Xie & Shugan, 2009). However, Kim et al.(2013) find it can also influence a consumer's choice. In detail, they suggest that when consumers use advanced selling, they are likely to prefer high-performance options rather than low-price options based on construal level theory(Trope & Liberman, 2003). In this paper, we tried to expand the prior researches for finding the mechanism of the influence of advanced selling on a consumer's choice. The purpose of this research is to test the mediating effect on the influence of advanced selling. Research design, data, and methodology - To find the mechanism of the influence of advanced selling, we designed an experiment for testing mediation effect. we recruited 93 students from a university. We assigned participants into one of two groups using randomization method. The participants with each group were given a scenario describing the sales strategy. Finally, they made a choice between high-performance option and low-price option. Sequentially, they also responded some questions for testing mediation effect. Results - First, we replicated prior research to test the influence of advanced selling. As a result, we could find that consumers prefer the high-performance option when they preorder it to purchase at the time of consumption. Thus, the replication result is the same as prior research. Second, we tested that advanced selling can influence the perception of temporal distance. The results confirmed that consumers perceived longer temporal distance in advanced selling condition(β = 1.575, SE = 0.272, p < 0.001). Third, we predicted that temporal distance can increase the importance of desirable attributes and decrease the importance of feasible attributes. The results suggested that temporal distance decreased significantly the importance of attributes related to feasibility(β = -0.19, SE = 0.07, p < 0.01), however, it had non-significant effect on increasing the importance of desirable attributes. Finally, we used Sobel-test for testing mediation effect, and it confirmed that the importance of feasible attributes had mediating role of the influence of advanced selling(Sobel test statistic = -2.110, SE = 0.111, p < 0.05). Conclusions - In this paper, we tried to find the mechanism of the influence on advanced selling from a consumer's choice. With an experiment, we confirmed that the importance of feasible attributes could mediate the effect on advanced selling. Therefore, we suggested some theoretical and practical contributions from this research. Finally, we discussed research limitations and suggested future research topics.

The Study of CSR Communication Effectiveness of Fashion Store Design (패션 매장 디자인의 CSR 커뮤니케이션 효율성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sunyang;Kim, Hayoun;Jeong, Yeojin;Lee, Yuri
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.274-287
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    • 2019
  • Most corporations engage in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities. Consumers are aware of CSR activities in different domains and use the perception and evaluation in purchase decision making. This study reveals how the relationship between consumer perception about a fashion corporation's CSR activities and product evaluation (such as perceived expertise and attractiveness) affects behavioral intention. This study discussed implications for store designs depending on whether it is actively engaging in CSR communication. Two virtual fashion store images of modern or eco design were used as stimuli. The study was conducted from July to August, 2018 based on women in their 20s and 30s. We collected 154 eco designs and 157 modern design responses. The findings of the study show that consumer perceptions of CSR activities affected perceived expertise and attractiveness. Further, perceived expertise and attracti-veness led to purchase intention and time spent in the store. The store design variation had no differences in mean values of consumer perception; however, evaluation and purchase intention indicated that a varied store design emphasized different corporation capabilities.

The Effect of Temporal Distance on Risk Perception and Behavioral Intention : Based on Email Phishing (시간적 거리가 위험지각 및 행동의도에 미치는 영향 : 이메일 피싱을 중심으로)

  • Jung, Koeun;Min, Yoonki
    • Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.2605-2618
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of psychological distance on risk perception and intention to behavior that directly cause risk. In each study, participants were informed about email phishing at each temporal frame. After that assessed their perceived risk (study 1), or indicated their intention to behaviour to protect personal information (study 2). As results, when the temporal distance is close, the risk of email-phishing is perceived as a high level despite the same information except for the temporal frame where the information was presented. Further, it was confirmed that social distance as another dimension of psychological distance interacts with temporal distance. In addition, when an e-mail requests personal information, the intention to behavior is lower than when it is not, and this difference is greater in the 'day' frame in which the temporal distance is close. These results support the construal level theory, suggesting that perception of the risk and the intentions of the behavior causing the risk may be different depending on temporal distance.

Effects of familiarity on the construction of psychological distance (친숙감이 심리적 거리에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Heekyung;Kim, Kyungmi;Yi, Do-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.109-133
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    • 2014
  • Psychological distance refers to the perceived gap between a stimulus and a person's direct experience and its activation influences the decisions and actions that the person makes towards the stimulus. We investigated whether the level of familiarity affects the construction of psychological distance. Specifically, we hypothesized that a familiar stimulus, relative to an unfamiliar stimulus, is perceived to be psychologically closer to the observer and so its perception might be modulated by the perceived spatial distance. The familiarity of stimuli was manipulated in terms of preexposure frequency and preexposure perceptual fluency. In experiments, participants were first exposed with three nonsense words in a lexical decision task. The nonsense words were presented in nonword trials with different levels of frequency (frequent vs. rare, Experiment 1) or with different levels of visibility (less blurred vs. more blurred, Experiment 2). Participants then performed a distance Stroop task with the most familiar and the least familiar nonwords. Each of them appeared in either proximal or distant spatial locations in scenes with clear depth cues. The results showed a significant interaction between the word familiarity and the spatial distance: the familiar word was judged faster in proximal locations but slower in distant locations relative to the unfamiliar word. The current findings suggest that metacognitive evaluation of familiarity could be one of the critical factors that underlie the construction of psychological distance.

Innovation in the Assortment of Goods: Effects on Consumer Attitude for In-Flight Duty Free Items (기내 상품 유통에서 면세품 구색의 혁신: 운항거리와 승무원 이미지 효과)

  • Kim, Kyung-Jin
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.12 no.10
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2014
  • Purpose - The goals of this study are the following. First, this study focused on customer satisfaction of in-flight service. Specifically, in-flight duty free items were considered because of their potential value related with the differentiated strategy of airline companies. Second, this study analyzed feasible strategies that would fence off the aversive attitudes of consumers toward innovation regarding in-flight duty free items. Third, this study strived to discover implicit routes related with the reactions of of consumers to innovation. Fourth, the construal level theory was applied to the context of in-flight service. Psychological distance is expected to promote acceptance of innovation for duty free items. Research design, data, and methodology - This study consisted of three experiments. All data were collected through the participation of university students. First, the experiment employed a 2×2 between-subject design. The first independent variable was temporal distance (long vs. short of navigation time). The second independent variable was innovativeness (innovative duty free items vs. typical items). Further, experiment 2 involved a 2×2 between-subject design. The first independent variable was social distance (typical vs. atypical stewardess image). The second was innovativeness that was based on a pattern similar to that of the prior experiment. The third experiment involved a 2×2×2 design. The first and second independent variables were temporal distance and item innovation, respectively, based on the method of experiment 1. The third independent variable was cognitive depletion (depletion vs. control condition). Results - Experiment 1 demonstrated that the innovation of duty free items would need to consider the journey time of the airline. Specifically, innovative items were preferred in case of a long journey; typical items, however, were liked in a short journey. Further, experiment 2 demonstrated that, in spite of a short journey, innovative items would be preferred if an atypical stewardess was serving. An atypical stewardess was linked with social distance, and the psychological effects would activate a creative and flexible mindset that would fit with innovative duty free items. The final experiment was accomplished for the examination of cognitive processing of psychological distance on innovation-acceptance. Specifically, if the effects were related with systematic processing, then cognitive effort would be needed. In contrast, if they were related with heuristic processing, then such efforts would not be required. The same pattern appeared under both cognitive depletion and control condition; therefore, the effects of psychological distance were implied to be heuristic processing. Conclusions - Managers need to consider the navigation time, stewardess concepts, and depletion of consumers as important factors for innovative strategy regarding in-flight service. Longer journeys are more successful for innovative trials. Further, a more atypical stewardess image is more successful for atypical service. Long navigation and unfamiliar stewardesses may activate creative and flexible thinking. Further, cognitive depletion of consumers is not a dominant factor of psychological distance effects, because the effects are not related with systematic processing, but with heuristic processing.