• Title, Summary, Keyword: Conflict Risk Level

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Measuring Technologies of Traffic Conflict Risk between Vehicles and Pedestrians (차량-보행자간의 상충위험도 측정 기술 연구)

  • Jang, Jeong-Ah;Lee, Hyeon-Soo
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 2017
  • In Korea, traffic accidents between pedestrians and vehicles in 2015 account for 38.8% of all accidents. This study proposes a system design that can measure the risk of conflict between a vehicle and a pedestrian. Firstly the systemdetect and estimate the position, speed, and directional data of the vehicle and the pedestrian. And then it estimate the conflict point between a vehicle and a pedestrian. The risk of conflict is quantified by estimating the pedestrian safety margin (PSM), which is the time difference between the arrival of the pedestrian at the crossing point to the point of conflict and the vehicle approaching the point. In this system each data is acquired through an external monitoring based evaluation module and an individual wearing module. In the future, such a system can be used for decision making such as the design of road hazard improvement facilities and the designation of the elderly protection area.

Relationship between the Risk Level and the Job Stress Level of Work Types in Architectural Work (건축건설공사의 공종별 위험도와 직무스트레스의 상관관계)

  • Kim, Jeongmin;Lee, Jong-Bin;Chang, Seong Rok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2017
  • In this study, the risk level of architectural works was calculated by applying work period and number of input workers based on accidents records from 2012 to 2014 and the architectural works were divided into four groups(High-High, High-Low, Low-High, Low-Low) according to risk levels of fatal accidents and loss time accidents. And then questionnaire on the job stress level of workers was performed for 670 workers working in the architectural work using Korean Occupational Stress Questionnaire Form developed by KOSHA. And then the relationship between the risk level and job stress level of four groups was analyzed. Results showed that 1) risk levels of fatal and loss time accidents applied by work period and input workers were analyzed to be different with those of previous research based on the number of fatal and loss time accidents; 2) job stress level of workers has been analyzed to have a significant relationship with the risk level of fatal and loss time accident; 3) specially, the average of job stress level of 'HH(High-High)' group was higher than those of other groups; 4) among the subfactors of job stress, interpersonal conflict, job insecurity, organizational system and lack of reward were analyzed to be key factors to affect the risk level.

Factors Influencing Conflict Management of Forestry Recreation - Case of MTB Users - (산림레크리에이션 갈등관리 영향요인 분석 - 산악자전거(MTB) 이용자 사례 -)

  • Shinn, Yun Ho
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.85-97
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    • 2019
  • The conflict management of forest recreation, especially conflict management between hikers and MTB users, has drawn much attention as one of major issues in forest policy making. The main purpose of this study was to investigate hikers' conflict perception against MTB users and their attitudes toward the necessity of conflict management actions, and to identify factors influencing those attitudes. The research data were collected through online surveys of 644 men and women hikers who are aged 20 or older and not participating in MTB riding. The major findings of this study can be summarized as follows: First, the levels of goal interference and social value conflicts against MTB users were not so high, but rather, the awareness level of compatibility was much higher than that of conflict, and hikers' awareness level of safety risks posed by MTB users was also considerably high. Second, hikers' attitudes toward the necessity of conflict management actions were generally shown to be considerably positive, but those attitudes toward indirect management actions such as information, education, and compliance with norms of conduct, were significantly positive than those attitudes toward direct management measures such as zoning, enforcement, and regulations. Finally, the results of the multiple regression analysis showed that four factors that most significantly affect hikers' attitudes toward direct or indirect conflict management actions are behavioral norms conflict, safety risk, compatibility and age. Safety risks had most important influence on hikers' attitudes toward the direct management actions, but behavioral norms conflicts had most important influence on indirect management actions.

Free Cash Flow, Agency Conflicts, and Compensation Plans in a Non-growing Industry

  • Park, Sang-Bum
    • The Korean Journal of Financial Studies
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.249-269
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    • 2004
  • Free cash flow is known as a typical type of agency conflict between managers and shareholders in a firm. The insurance industry, which is not growing, is particularly susceptible to such excessive cash flow. We herein investigate the effects of stock ownership plans on reducing agency conflicts. We adopt undistributed cash flow to proxy free cash flow, and size, default risk, group membership, leverage, investment opportunity, and stock options are selected as explanatory variables. We find that stock option plans are effective(at a 10% level) in reducing free cash flow.

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The impact of male-oriented organizational culture and work-job conflict on female correctional officers' stress (교정조직문화와 여성교도관들의 성차별적 스트레스요인에 대한 분석연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Park, Woong-Sub
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.49
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    • pp.11-36
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    • 2016
  • The prior studies have well established the factors of correctional staff's stress at work. However, it is not clearly identified gender-specific factors influencing female correctional officers' level of stress. Thus, this study aims to examine factors particularly influencing female correctional officers' stress, such as child-rearing and work conflict, overwork bounden, and strains from male-oriented organizational culture. This current data utilized a set of survey data drawn from female correctional officers from 124 prisons located in different regions in this nation. Finally, a total of 172 female correctional officers's survey data was used for the analysis. A set of multivariate analyses reveal that security staff role, satisfaction for life, positive perception toward correctional officers' leadership in prison decreased the risk of stress among female correctional officers. Regarding work-job conflicts variables, child-rearing and work conflict and strains from male-oriented organizational culture were significantly associated with female correctional officers' stress. Yet, the direction of the two variables were different. For female officers, child-rearing and work conflict was not a risk factor for stress in that i decreased the level of stress. But the variable of strains from male-oriented organizational culture was a risk factor for female officers' stress level. Further suggestions for the future studies, discussion on contributions of the current study and policy implications were discussed in the last part of this article.

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Perception of Rural Residents on Effect of Central Place Improvement Project (농촌주민의 중심지활성화 사업에 대한 효과인식)

  • Kim, Jungtae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 2017
  • In analyzing the effect of the central place improvement projects, this study classifies subject residents into two groups of the residents of the project target regions and those of surrounding villages, and conducts verification. As a result of analysis, Variety of cultural programs is the only factor that positively affects the satisfaction level of the residents of the project target region, and it has been analyzed at the significance level of 10% that a one-unit increase in securing rest areas lowers the satisfaction level of the residents of surrounding villages. This shows that the effect of the central place improvement projects currently promoted is at a low level, and there is also a risk of conflict between the residents in the target region and those in surrounding villages. Although there is no statistical significance, analysis shows that a method to provide the residents in surrounding villages with the project-related information and to guarantee their participation in the project enhances the satisfaction level of the residents of surrounding villages. Therefore, institutional improvements reflecting this need to be made.

Need for Reinforcement of Safety Assessment on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO 안전성평가제도의 고찰)

  • Kim Eun-Jin;Choi Dong-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.139-157
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    • 2006
  • Biotechnology has reached the level of giving birth to new forms of life and with this is a growing controversy in the conflict between science and ethics. Especially, GMOs are closely linked to the food products we consume and thus, the majority of the public shows a very sensitive reaction to the safety of GMO food products. Many perspectives arose surrounding the issues of safety on the human body and the ecology. This outlines diverse structural mechanisms to be set up to ensure safety such as risk assessment, risk management etc. Despite the precautionary principle guaranteed in many ways, the problem arises whether and how this principle can be taken in the safety assessment. GMOs due to its uniqueness do not end with just the possession of the technology involved but must also be considered with the prerequisite that they could be cultured again. Therefore the reinforcement of safety assessment system is necessary. That is, the reinforcement of risk assessment including field tests, the consideration of socio-economic effects, the coordinated system of relevant authorities, the development of technology for safety assessment.

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Association of Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms with Ego Resilience and Social Conflict/Support in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (당뇨병 환자에서 우울 및 불안증상과 자아탄력성, 사회적 갈등 및 지지 사이의 연관성)

  • Jung, Hoe-Woon;Kim, Sang Hoon;Park, Sang Hag;Kim, Seung-Gon;Kim, Jung Ho;Seo, Eun Hyun;Yoon, Hyung-Jun
    • Anxiety and mood
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2020
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of depressive/anxiety symptoms with psychosocial factors including ego resilience, social conflict, and social support as well as hemoglobin A1c in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods : The subjects were 144 patients with DM. Depressive/anxiety symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Sociodemographic factors, hemoglobin A1c, ego resilience, social conflict, and social support were measured. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the impact of hemoglobin A1c, ego resilience, social conflict, and social support on depressive/anxiety symptoms. Results : A total of 32.6% and 24.3% of participants were identified with depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Depressive/anxiety symptoms positively correlated with the social conflict score. Conversely, ego resilience and social support negatively correlated with depressive/anxiety symptoms. In the final model of the multiple regression analyses, ego resilience was associated with a lower level of depressive (β=-0.083, p=0.019)/anxiety (β=-0.125, p=0.001) symptoms whereas social conflict was related to a higher level of depressive (β=0.353, p=0.011)/anxiety (β=0.460, p=0.003) symptoms. Also, hemoglobin A1c positively associated with anxiety symptoms (β=0.495, p=0.012) whereas social support negatively related to depressive symptoms (β=-0.464, p=0.004). Conclusion : We found possible risk and protective psychosocial factors of underlying depressive/anxiety symptoms among patients with DM. Our findings suggest that enhancing ego resilience and social support as well as decreasing social conflict would be crucial in the prevention and management of depressive/anxiety symptoms in patients with DM.

The Relationships of Role-Conflict and Role-Overload, Coping Strategies, and Stress Response of Clerical Workers (사무직 근로자의 역할 관련 스트레스 요인과 대처전략, 스트레스 반응간의 관계)

  • Kim, Jeong Hee;Kim, Souk Young
    • Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.56-67
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    • 1999
  • This study was designed to identify the relationships of role-conflict and role-overload, coping strategies, and stress response of clerical workers. The subjects were 115 clerical workers from two company. The instruments were the role-conflict and role-overload scale developed by Lee(1989), coping scale developed by Latack(1986), and the stress response scale developed by Chang(1993). Analysis of data was done by descriptive statistics, Cronbach's $\alpha$, Pearson correlation coefficietnt, ANOVA. The results of this study were summarized as follows ; 1. The average score for the level of stress response was $83.6({\pm}9.1)$. The high risk stress group was 86.1% of the clerical workers, the latent stress group members was 13.9%, and healthy group was 0%. The overall stress level was very high. 2. Considering the coping strategies by sociodemographic factors, the use of control coping strategies showed significant differences by work-time. The use of symptom management coping strategies showed significant differences by sex, age, married status, year of career, pay, and type of work. The organizational coping strategies showed significant differences by year of education and type of work. 3. The clerical workers who had worked below 44 hours per week complained significantly lower stress response(F=4.942, p<.05). 4. Above 65% of all respondents answered that they needed all of organizational level coping strategies. 5. The role-confilct positively related to escape and organizational level coping strategies(r=.562, r=.495, p<.05). The role-overload didn't related to individual level coping strategies, but positively related to organizational level coping strategies(r=.320, p<.05). 6. The control coping strategies and the escape coping strategies positively related to symptom management, organizational level coping strategies(r=.409, r=.324, r=.316, r=.339, p<.05). 7. The relationship between role-related stress and stress response revealed positive correlation(r=.482, r=.431, p<.05), and the relationship between stress response and control, symptom management coping strategies revealed negative cor-relation(r=-.3204, r=-.3146, p<.05). In conclusion, this study revealed that relationship of role related stress, coping strategies, stress response was statistically significant. The result of this study support that coping strategies vary across situation of stress. Based on survey results, future studies should consider coping strategies in specific stress situation and concept of symptom management coping strategy. Also organizational or training interventions could be developed and initiate to help to increase the use of adaptive coping strategies in light of individual and situational differences.

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Oral Health Diagnosis by Using Combination of Evidence in Dezert-Smarandache Theory

  • Fadhillah, Muhammad Kamil;Listio, Syntia;Choi, Yong Keum;Lee, Hyun
    • International journal of advanced smart convergence
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.185-196
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    • 2018
  • Based on World Health Organization (WHO) children and adults have a problem with their oral health, such as Dental cavities and periodontal disease. It is not easy to obtain the high convince level of result of the dental and periodontal diseases. Because each of them have different degrees of uncertainty and there have several discounting factors (error rates) in different of survey. To solve this problem we propose the Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) for efficient combination of uncertain, imprecise and highly conflicting sources of information. Moreover, we apply the SEFP as a context reasoning. Finally, we make the simulation by using 12 surveys and compare Propotional Conflict Redistribution 5 (PCR5) and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) to show the belief or probability for the low, a heavy, high and ultra-high risk situation.