• Title, Summary, Keyword: Concentration enrichment ratios

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Some heavy metal concentration of surface sediments from the southwestern coast of Korea (서남해안 연근해저 퇴적물의 중금속 함량 및 분포)

  • 전수경;조영길
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.12
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    • pp.1299-1305
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    • 2002
  • Thirty sediment samples of the <63${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ fraction collected from the southwestern coast of Korea were analysed for their heavy metal (Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb) concentration. The results show that sediment texture plays a controlling role on the total metal concentrations and their spatial distribution. A single lM HCl extraction procedure was used in order to assess the environmental risk of heavy metals in bottom sediments. The non-residual fraction was the most abundant pool for Mn and Pb in most samples, which means that this metals are highly avaliable in these sediments. Cr, Ni, Fe, Co, Zn and Cu were mainly associated with the residual fraction, suggesting that their concentrations are controlled significantly by transport processes with the fine particles as carriers from diffuse pollution source. Concentration enrichment ratios(CER) were calculated from the non-residual contents and their values allowed us to classify the sediments according to their environmental risk.

Characteristics of Heavy Metallic Elements of PM10 for Yellow sand and Non-Yellow sand during Springtime of 2002 at Busan (2002년 부산지역 봄철 황사/비황사시 PM10 중의 중금속 농도 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2003
  • We collected and analyzed PM10 samples to account for the characteristics of heavy metallic elements for yellow sand and non-yellow sand during springtime of 2002 at Busan, The mean PM10 mass concentration for springtime of 2002 was $219.82{\mu}g/m^3$ with the maximum $787.50{\mu}g/m^3$ and the minimum $19.44{\mu}g/m^3$. The mean concentration of metallic elements contained in PM10 are shown as follows : Si>Ca>Fe>Al>Na, respectively. The ratio of mean PM10 mass concentration for yellow sand($362.7{\mu}g/m^3$) to that for non-yellow sand($48.3{\mu}g/m^3$) was 7.5, the significant positive correlation (P<0.05) was found between yellow sand and non-yellow sand. The metallic elements concentration ratios of yellow sand to the non-yellow sand were over 10 times for Al, Ca, Mg, 4~8 times for Fe, Si, Mn. But the concentration of Na, Cu, Zn for non-yellow sand was higher than those of yellow sand. The crustal enrichment factor of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, K, Mn, Na, Ni for yellow sand was higher that of non-yellow sand over 10 times, and concentration rate of soil particles of yellow sand was increased 2.3 times that of nonyellow sand.

Evaluation of elemental concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium in top soils from Kuwait

  • Bajoga, A.D.;Al-Dabbous, A.N.;Abdullahi, A.S.;Alazemi, N.A.;Bachama, Y.D.;Alaswad, S.O.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.1638-1649
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    • 2019
  • Top soil samples across the state of Kuwait numering ninety were collected and analysed using gamma-ray spectrometry, to evaluate the elemental concentration of $^{238}U$, $^{232}Th$ and $^{40}K$ and their depletion/enrichment. Results of elemental concentration ranges from 0.48 to 2.61 mg/kg, 0.87-5.23 mg/kg, and 0.24-2.23%, with a mean values of 1.39 mg/kg, 3.47 mg/kg, and 1.18%, for the $^{238}U$, $^{232}Th$ and $^{40}K$, respectively. Further analysis was conducted amongst the five identified soil types, i.e. Aquisalids (S1), Calcigypsids (S2), Petrocalcids (S3), Petrogypsids (S4), and torripsamment (S5). The highest radioactivity concentrations from both uranium and thorium were recorded in the S2 (Calcigypsids) soil, with a value of 1.71 (mg/kg) and 4.45 (mg/kg), respectively. Minimum and maximum values of $^{40}K$ are 1.1(%) and 1.27(%) and is prevalent in Aquisalids (S1) and Petrocalcids (S3) soil types, respectively. Ratios of elemental concentration for $^{232}Th/^{238}U$, $^{40}K/^{238}U$, $^{40}K/^{232}Th$ across the soil types are 2.53, 0.09 and 0.03, with a correlation coefficient of 0.92, 0.34, and 0.38, respectively. A progressively higher $^{232}Th/^{238}U$ ratio is observed moving south-wards, indicating lower $^{238}U$ content in soils from the south relative to the northern part. Overall results indicate Kuwait to be relatively an area with low level of natural radioactivity.

Determination of Li by Isotope Dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

  • Park, Chang J.;Chung, Bag S.
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.427-434
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    • 1995
  • Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with the isotope dilution method is used for the determination of lithium. The isotope dilution method is based on the addition of a known amount of enriched isotope (spike) to a sample. The analyte concentration is obtained by measuring the altered isotope ratio. The spike solution is calibrated through so called reverse isotope dilution with a primary standard. The spike calibration is an important step to minimize error in the determined concentration. It has been found essential to add spike to a sample and the primary standard so that the two isotope ratios should be as dose as possible. Since lithium is neither corrosive nor toxic, lithium is used as a chemical tracer in the nuclear power plants to measure feedwater flow rate. 99.9% $^7Li$ was injected into a feedwater line of an experimental system and sample were taken downstream to be spiked with 95% $^6Li$ for the isotope dilution measurements. Effects of uncertainties in the spike enrichment and isotope ratio measurement error at various spike-to-sample ratios are presented together with the flow rate measurement results in comparison with a vortex flow meter.

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Dispersion and Migration of Potentially Toxic Elements in the Rock-Soil-Plant System from the Boeun Area Underlain by Black Shales, Korea (보은지역 흑색셰일 분포지역에서의 암석-토양-식물계내 잠재적 독성원소들의 분산과 이동)

  • Lee, Jin-Soo;Chon, Hyo-Taek;Kim, Kyoung-Woong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.587-601
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    • 1997
  • This study had three purposes: (1) to investigate the enrichment levels and dispersion patterns of potentially toxic elements in the rock-soil-plant system; (2) to evaluate the uptake ratios of heavy metals from soils into plants and (3) to assess the chemical speciation of heavy metals in soils. Rock, surface soil and plant samples were collected in the Boeun area underlain by black shales of the Okchon Zone. These samples were analyzed for multi-elements using INAA, ICP-AES and AAS. The maximum abundance of U in black shales is 16 mg/kg and radioactivity counts up to 300 cpm. In particular, Mo, V, Ba, Cd, Pb and U are enriched in black shales. Most of soils derived from black shales show high concentrations of U, As, Mo, Ba, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and mean concentrations of As and Mo in soils (20 mg/kg of As and 6.6 mg/kg of Mo) are higher than the permissible level suggested by Kloke (1979). Enrichment index values of soils are calculated and higher than 1.0 in the black shale area with the highest value of 6.4. Mean concentration of Cd in plants is higher than those of Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration of Cd in plant species decreases in the order of Chinese cabbage > red pepper > soybean=sesame > rice stalk > com > rice grain. The biological absorption coefficients (BAC) in plants are in the order of Cd > Zn=Cu > Pb, which suggests that Cd is more bioavailable to plants than Cu, Pb and Zn. From the results of sequential extraction analysis of soils, relatively high proportion of Cu, Pb and Zn are present as residual fractions whereas that of Cd as non-residual fractions. Cadmuim occurs predominantly as exchangeable/water-acid soluble phase in soils, and Cd is more mobile and bioavailable than Cu, Pb and Zn.

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The Metallic Elements of PM10 and PM2.5 in Western Region of Busan in the Springtime of 2005 (2005년 봄철 부산 서부지역 PM10, PM2.5의 금속성분 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.327-340
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    • 2007
  • The $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ aerosols were collected at Busan from March to May, 2005, and the concentrations of some metallic elements were analysed to study their characteristics. The mean concentration of $PM_{10}$ was $66.5{\pm}23.0{\mu}g/m^3$ with a range of 22.2 to $118.1{\mu}g/m^3$. The mean concentration of $PM_{2.5}$ was $46.1{\pm}17.2{\mu}g/m^3$ with a range of 9.7 to $83.3{\mu}g/m^3$. The ratio of $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ was 0.69 at Busan. The distribution of metallic elements for $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ were Cd${\ldots}$ ${\ldots}$ $PM_{10}$ were $94.9{\mu}g/m^3$ and $63.7{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. And The mean mass concentrations of Asian dust and non Asian dust in $PM_{2.5}$ were $56.9{\mu}g/m^3$ and $45.1{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. The mean values of crustal enrichment factors for five elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, V and Zn) were all higher than 10, possibly suggesting the influence of anthropogenic sources. The soil contribution ratios for $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ were 20.5% and 19.4, respectively.

The Measurement of Diffusion Coefficient of Fission Gases in Urania with Respect to O/M Ratio (화학당량에 따른 우라니아의 핵분열 기체 확산 계수 측정)

  • 김희문;박광헌;김봉구;주용선;김건식;송근우;홍권표;강영환
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.99-107
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    • 2003
  • The diffusion coefficient of Xe-133 was obtained from an annealing test. The specimens were made from a UO$_2$ single crystal powder with natural enrichment. Weight and grain size were 300mg and ($23\mu\textrm{m}$, respectively. Oxygen potentials were obtained from an oxygen sensor. Released fractions were obtained from both results of gamma scans and quantitative analysis with MCNP code, The annealing test was performed at three temperatures at once. Diffusion coefficients of Xe-133 were calculated using slope of Booth theory in each O/M ratios. Activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of the diffusion coefficient were obtained. The activation energy of near stoichiomeric $UO_2$ is 310 kJ/mol. The measured values of near stoichiometric $UO_2$ are very close to other data available. Diffusion coefficients increase with hyper-stoichiometry, due to higher concentration of cation vacancies.

The Study of Effects of Additives on the NOx Formation in $H_{2}/O_{2}/N_{2}$ Premixed Flames with Oxygen Enrichments (산소부화된 $H_{2}/O_{2}/N_{2}$ 예혼합 화염에서 첨가제가 NOx 생성에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Lee, Ki-Yong;Kwon, Young-Suk
    • 한국연소학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2003
  • Numerical simulations are performed at atmospheric pressure in order to understand the effect of additives on flame speed and the NOx formation in freely propagating $H_{2}/O_{2}/N_{2}$ flames with oxygen enrichments. A chemical kinetic mechanism is developed, which involves 26 gas-phase species and 99 reactions. Under several equivalence ratios and oxygen enrichments, flame speeds are calculated and compared with those obtained from the experiments, the results of which is in good agreement. As hydrogen chloride as additive is added into $H_{2}/O_{2}/N_{2}$ flames with low oxygen enrichments, its chemical effect causes the decrease of flame speed, radical concentration, and the NO production rate. It is found that the chemical effect of additive has much more influence on the reduction of EINO than its physical effect. However, in flames with very high flame temperature the physical effect rather than the chemical effect becomes more important on the reduction of EINO.

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The Characteristics of Sponge Cake with Moringa Powder (모링가 분말을 첨가한 스펀지케이크의 품질특성)

  • Choi, Hyoung-il
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.188-195
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of moringa powder enrichment in sponge cake. The developed product can be a promising inclusion in the functional foods. Moringa powder was added to sponge cake batter (in the ratios of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12% of the total flour), called MP3, MP6, MP9, and MP12 respectively. The effect of moringa supplementation on physical, chemical and sensory quality of cakes were evaluated and analyzed statistically using SPSS program. The pH of cake was decreased as the concentration of moringa powder added. The specific volume of cake samples decreased with increasing levels of moringa powder in the formulation. Colour measurements showed that lightness and yellowness were decreased with an increased level of moringa powder. But redness result revealed and increasing in redeness with the increasing morigna powder level, compared to the control sample. The results of texture profile analysis showed hardness, springness, cohesiveness of the moringa cake that were higher than control sample. In sensory evaluation, MP3 was selected as the most acceptable sample. In the conclusion, moringa powder was incorporated in the formulation to enrich sponge cakes and was suggested for development of functional foods.

Characteristics of Ambient Particulate Matter in Gwangju (광주지역 먼지 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, Gwang-Yeob;Kim, Seung-Ho;Lee, Kyoung-Seok;Min, Kyoung-Woo;Seo, Hee-Jeong;Kang, Yeong-Ju;Paik, Ke-Jin;Moon, Young-Woon;Shin, Dae-Yewn
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.108-117
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    • 2010
  • In this study, ambient particulate matter ($PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$) levels were measured and their chemical and physical properties were characterized. Two sites in Gwangju were sampled once a month from December 2008 to November 2009. The annual mean concentrations of $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ were $26.9\;{\mu}g/m^3$ and $46.3\;{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, in Nongseongdong and $26.1\;{\mu}g/m^3$ and $44.8\;{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, in Duam-dong. $PM_{2.5}$ levels were 1.8 times higher than the USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national ambient air quality standard for $PM_{2.5}$ ($15\;{\mu}g/m^3$). The average $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ ratio of 0.58 suggested that $PM_{2.5}$ is a significant component of the ambient particle pollution. The order of concentration of metallic elements in $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ was Si > Al > Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Mn. Cd was not detected. The earth crustal enrichment factors for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in $PM_{2.5}$ were higher than those in $PM_{10}$. When the earth crustal enrichment factors for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were higher than 10, this suggested influence from anthropogenic sources. The soil contribution ratios for $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ were 11.3% and 16.4%, respectively, and were higher in the fall and winter. Anions (${SO_4}^{-2}$, ${NO_3}^-$, and $Cl^-$) comprise 28.7% of $PM_{2.5}$ and 21.4% of $PM_{10}$. The correlation coefficient of Zn-Fe, Mn-Cu, Fe-Cu and Fe-Mn in $PM_{2.5}$ was high in the sampling sites, and metallic elements were primarily from anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion and vehicle emissions.