• Title, Summary, Keyword: Concentrate Level

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Effect of Level of Concentrate Supplement on Blood Biochemical Changes and Testosterone Level in Crossbred (Bos indicusi×Bos taurus) Calves

  • Santra, A.;Agarwal, N.;Kamra, D.N.;Pathak, N.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.881-885
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    • 1999
  • A growth study was conducted for 238 days in twenty crossbred cattle calves to observe the effect of dietary concentrate supplement on blood biochemical changes and serum testosterone levels. The calves were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) of five animals each. Calves of groups A and B were fed 60% and 30% concentrate, respectively, supplying equal amount of protein along with wheat straw. The calves in group C received 30% concentrate in their diet for 1 to 119 days of experiment and 60% concentrate during 120~238 days of experiment and vice versa in group D. Mean DM and TDN intake were significantly higher in group A than group B, C or D, resulted in higher daily growth rate in the former group. Blood glucose level was significantly higher in group A where as blood urea, hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, and globulin levels remained unchanged among the groups. Serum testosterone level increased with the increasing age of the animals but the level remained same in the animals of group A, B, C and D. A 30% concentrate diet does not have any severe adverse effect on the performance of crossbred cattle.

Estimation of Nutritive Value of Whole Crop Rice Silage and Its Effect on Milk Production Performance by Dairy Cows

  • Islam, M.R.;Ishida, M.;Ando, S.;Nishida, T.;Yoshida, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1383-1389
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    • 2004
  • The nutritive value and utilization of whole crop rice silage (WCRS), Hamasari, at yellow mature stage was determined by three studies. In first study, chemical composition, in vivo digestibility and metabolizable energy (ME) content of WCRS was determined by Holstein steers. WCRS contains 6.23% CP, its digestibility is 48.4% and estimated TDN is 56.4%. Its ME content was 1.91 Mcal/kg DM. Gross energy (GE) retention (% of GE intake) in steers is only 22.7% most of which was lost through feces (44.7% of GE intake). It takes 81 minutes to chew a kg of WCRS by steers. In another study, the effect of Hamasari at yellow mature stage at three stages of lactation (early, mid and late lactation) and two levels of concentrate (40 or 60%) on voluntary intake, ME content and ME intake, milk yield and composition using lactating Holstein dairy cows were investigated. Total intake increased with the concentrate level in early and mid lactation, but was similar irrespective of concentrate level in late lactation. WCRS intake was higher with 40% concentrate level than with 60% concentrate. ME intake by cows increased with the concentrate level and WCRS in early lactating cows with 40% concentrate can support only 90% of the ME requirement. Milk production in accordance with ME intake increased with the increase in concentrate level in early and mid lactating cows but was similar in late lactating cows irrespective of concentrate level. Fat and protein percent of milk in mid and late lactating cows were higher with for 60% concentrate than 40%, but reverse was in early lactating cows. Solids-not-fat was higher with for 60% concentrate than 40% concentrate. Finally in situ degradability of botanical fractions such as leaf, stem, head and whole WCRS, Hamasari at yellow mature stage was incubated from 0 to 96 h in Holstein steers to determine DM and N degradability characteristics of botanical fractions and whole WCRS. Both DM and N solubility, rate of degradation and effective degradability of leaf of silage was lower, but slowly degradable fraction was higher compared to stem and head. Solubility of DM and N of stem was higher than other fractions. The 48 h degradability, effective degradability and rate of degradation of leaf were always lower than stem or head. In conclusion, voluntary intake of silage ranged from 5 to 12 kg/d and was higher with low levels of concentrate, but milk yield was higher with high levels of concentrate. Fat corrected milk yield ranged from 19 to 37 kg per day. For consistency of milk, early lactating cows should not be allowed more than 40% whole crop rice silage in the diet, but late lactating cows may be allowed 60% whole crop rice silage.

Effect of Synchronizing Starch Sources and Protein (NPN) in the Rumen on Feed Intake, Rumen Microbial Fermentation, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Chanjula, P.;Wanapat, M.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Rowlinson, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1400-1410
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    • 2004
  • Eight crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) cows in mid-lactation were randomly assigned to a switchback design with a 2x2 factorial arrangement to evaluate two nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources (corn meal and cassava chips) with different rumen degradability and used at two levels of NSC (55 vs. 75%) with protein source (supplied by urea in the concentrate mix). The treatments were 1) Low degradable low level of corn (55%) 2) Low degradable high level of corn (75%) 3) High degradable low level of cassava (55%) and 4) High degradable high level of cassava (75%). The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2. Urea-treated rice straw was offered ad libitum as the roughage and supplement with 1 kg/hd/d cassava hay. The results revealed that total DM intake, BW and digestion coefficients of DM were not affected by either level or source of energy. Rumen fermentation parameters; NH3-N, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen were unaffected by source of energy, but were dramatically increased by level of NSC. Rumen microorganism populations were not affected (p>0.05) by source of energy, but fungal zoospores were greater for cassava-based concentrate than corn-based concentrate. Milk production and milk composition were not affected significantly by diets containing either source or level of NSC, however concentrate than corn-based concentrate averaging (4.4 and 4.2, respectively). Likewise, income over feed, as estimated from 3.5% FCM, was higher on cassava-based concentrate than corn-based concentrate averaging (54.0 and 51.4 US$/mo, respectively). These results indicate that feeding diets containing either cassava-based diets and/or a higher of oncentrates up to 75% of DM with NPN (supplied by urea up to 4.5% of DM) can be used in dairy rations without altering rumen ecology or animal performance compared with corn-based concentrate.

Effect of Concentrate Level on the Formation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Trans-octadecenoic Acid by Ruminal Bacteria when Incubated with Oilseeds In Vitro

  • Wang, J.H.;Song, M.K.;Son, Y.S.;Chang, M.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.687-694
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    • 2002
  • An in vitro study was conducted to examine the effect of addition level of concentrate on fermentation characteristics and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids composition, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-octadecenoic acid (t-FA) by mixed ruminal bacteria when incubated with linseed or rapeseed. Four levels (0.83, 1.25, 1.67 and 2.08%, w/v) of concentrate and ground oilseeds (linseed or rapeseed; 0.83%, w/v) were added to mixed solution of strained rumen fluid with artificial saliva (1:1, v/v) in the glass jar with a glass lid equipped with stirrer, and was incubated anaerobically for 24 h at $39^{\circ}C$. Addition level of concentrate slightly reflect on pH and ammonia concentration of the culture solution at the various incubation times when incubated with both linseed and rapeseed. Total VFA concentration slightly increased with incubation times and concentrate levels for incubations with oilseeds. While CLA composition had a clearly increasing trend with incubation time when incubated with linseed, percent CLA was relatively stable when incubated with rapeseed. Percent CLA, however, had a clearly decreasing trend with concentrate level throughout incubation times with significances at 3 h incubations when incubated with linseed (p<0.038) and rapeseed (p<0.0009). The differences in compositions of t-FA were relatively small among concentrate levels for both incubations with linseed and rapeseed. The ratios of t-FA to CLA were lower for linseed with increased proportion of CLA than for rapeseed.

Influence of Fiber Content and Concentrate Level on Chewing Activity, Ruminal Digestion, Digesta Passage Rate and Nutrient Digestibility in Dairy Cows in Late Lactation

  • Tafaj, M.;Kolaneci, V.;Junck, B.;Maulbetsch, A.;Steingass, H.;Drochner, W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1116-1124
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    • 2005
  • The influence of fiber content of hay (low-fiber 47% NDF and high-fiber 62% NDF of DM) and concentrate level (high 50% and low 20% of ration DM) on chewing activity, passage rate and nutrient digestibility were tested on four restrict-fed (11.1 to 13.7 kg DM/d) Holstein cows in late lactation. Aspects of ruminal fermentation and digesta particle size distribution were also investigated on two ruminally cannulated (100 mm i.d.) cows of the same group of animals. All digestion parameters studied were more affected by the fiber content of the hay and its ratio to non structural carbohydrates than by the concentrate level. Giving a diet of high-fiber (62% NDF) hay and low concentrate level (20%) increased chewing activity but decreased solid passage rate and total digestibility of nutrients due to a limited availability of fermentable OM in the late cut fiber rich hay. A supplementation of high-fiber hay with 50% concentrate in the diet seems to improve the ruminal digestion of cell contents, whilst a depression of the ruminal fiber digestibility was not completely avoided. Giving a diet of low-fiber (47% NDF) hay and high concentrate level (50%) reduced markedly the chewing and rumination activity, affected negatively the rumen conditions and, consequently, the ruminal digestion of fiber. A reduction of the concentrate level from 50 to 20% in the diet of low-fiber hay improved the rumen conditions as reflected by an increase of the ruminal solid passage rate and of fiber digestibility and in a decrease of the concentration of large particles and of the mean particle size of the rumen digesta and of the faeces. Generally, it can be summarised that, (i) concentrate supplementation is not a strategy to overcome limitations of low quality (fiber-rich) hay, and (ii) increase of the roughage quality is an effective strategy in ruminant nutrition, especially when concentrate availability for ruminants is limited.

Effect of Diet on Enzyme Profile, Biochemical Changes and In sacco Degradability of Feeds in the Rumen of Buffalo

  • Kamra, D.N.;Saha, Sudipto;Bhatt, Neeru;Chaudhary, L. C.;Agarwal, Neeta
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.374-379
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    • 2003
  • Four rumen fistulated Murrah buffaloes were used to study the effect of four diets differing in roughage to concentrate ratio on rumen biochemical changes, microbial enzyme profile and in sacco degradability of feed in a $4{\times}4$ Latin Square design. The animals were fed four diets consisting of 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 ratios of wheat straw and concentrate mixtures, respectively. Wheat straw and concentrate mixture were mixed with water (0.6 l/kg feed) and complete feed mixture was offered to the animals at 8:00 h and 16:00 h in two equal parts. The variation in pH of rumen liquor (difference of maximum and minimum during 0-8 h post feeding) increased with increasing level of concentrate mixture in the diet. There was no effect of diet composition on volatile fatty acids, total nitrogen and trichloro-acetic acid precipitable nitrogen in the rumen liquor, but ammonia nitrogen increased with increasing level of concentrate mixture in the ration. Major portions of all fibre degrading enzymes were present in the particulate material (PM) of the rumen contents, but protease was absent in PM fraction. The activities of micro-crystalline cellulase, acetyl esterase and protease increased with increase in the level of concentrate mixture, but the activities of other enzymes (carboxymethylcellulase, filter paper degrading activity, xylanase, $\beta$-glucosidase and $\beta$-xylosidase) were not affected. The in sacco degradability and effective degradability of feeds increased with increasing level of concentrate mixture in the ration.

Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets

  • do Prado, Ivanor Nunes;Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortez;Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina;Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia;de Souza, Kennyson Alves;Carvalho, Camila Barbosa;Perotto, Daniel;Moletta, Jose Luiz
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.1309-1316
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66 $Purun{\tilde{a}}$ animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers.

Physicochemical Characteristics of Jujube Concentrates Prepared by Boiling (가열처리한 대추 농축액의 물리화학적 특성)

  • Park, Byung-Hak;Chae, Kyung-Yeon;Hong, Jin-Sook
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to determine the optimal cooking conditions in preparing jujube concentrates using various boiling times (5, 10, 15, 20 hours). The moisture contents of the concentrate samples ranged from 38.86 to 42.36%. Crude protein content was highest in the 15 hr-boiled concentrate, crude fat was highest in the 20 hr-boiled concentrate and both the 15 and 20 hr boiled concentrates had high crude fiber contents. There were no differences in color L- and a-values by boiling time; however, the b-value decreased with increasing boiling time. The pH levels of the concentrates ranged from 5.24 to 5.27, and the brix level increased with increasing boiling time. Glucose was the primary of free sugar in the concentrates and its highest level was 102.3 ${\mu}M$ in the 20 hr-boiled concentrate. The 15 hr-boiled concentrate had the highest electron donating ability to 46.68%. The total polyphenol contents of the concentrates ranged from 21.53 to 24.56%, in which the 15-boiled concentrate had the highest level (24.56%). In the sensory evaluation, the 15-hr-boiled concentrate again performed well, showing the highest overall acceptability scores. From these results, 15 hrs was the optimal boiling time for preparing jujube concentrate in terms of obtaining functional compounds and overall product acceptability.

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Effects of Urea Level and Sodium DL-malate in Concentrate Containing High Cassava Chip on Ruminal Fermentation Efficiency, Microbial Protein Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows Raised under Tropical Condition

  • Khampa, S.;Wanapat, Metha;Wachirapakorn, C.;Nontaso, N.;Wattiaux, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.837-844
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    • 2006
  • Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a $2{\times}2$ Factorial arrangement in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to study supplementation of urea level (U) at 2 and 4% and sodium dl-malate (M) at 10 and 20 g/hd/d in concentrate. The treatments were as follows U2M10, U2M20, U4M10 and U4M20, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2.5 and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by urea level and sodium dl-malate. In addition, the viable bacteria were similar for amylolytic and proteolytic bacteria. Cellulolytic bacteria were significantly affected by level of sodium dl-malate especially Selenomonas ruminantium and Megasphaera elsdenii while Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was significantly affected by level of urea supplementation. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 75% DM with urea at 4% in concentrate and sodium dl-malate at 20 g/hd/d with UTS as a roughage could improv rumen ecology and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

Nutrient Utilization and Compensatory Growth in Crossbred (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) Calves

  • Santra, A.;Pathak, N.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.1285-1291
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    • 1999
  • A feeding trial was carried out over 238 days to determine the effect of compensatory growth in crossbred calves having 166 kg body weight. Fifteen crossbred calves were divided into two groups of five calves (G1 group) and ten calves (G2 group) as per randomized block design. Growth study was conducted on the feeding of wheat straw based diet containing 60 and 30 percent concentrate supplying equal amount of protein in group G1 and G2 respectively for 119 days (phase - I). At the end of phase-I, calves of G2 group were subdivided in to two groups (G3 and G4). One sub group (G4) received 60% concentrate in their diet (during 120 to 238 days of experiment) while other subgroup G3 received 30% concentrate in their diet (phase-II). The calves of G1 group continued to receive the same diet as during phase-I experiment. Mean DM intake was significantly higher in calves fed high level of concentrate (in G1 and G4 groups), which resulted in significantly higher digestibility of all nutrients except NDF. Nitrogen balance was positive in all the groups and showed significant differences in phase-II (higher nitrogen retention in G4 group than G1 group). ME intake was significantly affected by the level of dietary concentrate, being higher in high concentrate fed group (G1 and G4 than G2 and G3 group). Higher daily body weight gain in the calves of G4 group during phase-II than in G1 and G3 groups was due to compensatory growth on shifting animals from low concentrate to high concentrate based ration. Average daily body weight gain was higher in phase-I than in the phase-II. Protein and energy intake per unit body weight gain were significantly lower in calves fed high concentrate diet.