• Title, Summary, Keyword: Concentrate:Forage

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Effects of Natural Grass Forage to Concentrate Ratios and Feeding Principles on Milk Production and Performance of Crossbred Lactating Cows

  • Sanh, M.V.;Wiktorsson, H.;Ly, L.V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.650-657
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of forage:concentrate ratios and feeding principles on milk yield, milk composition, body weight change, postpartum oestrus and feed cost. A total of 36 crossbred F1 cows (Holstein Friesian${\times}$Local Yellow) in the 8th week of lactation were used. In each experiment, animals were divided into three groups using a randomized block design according to the milk yield of the previous eight weeks. Cows were fed 30, 50 and 70% concentrate in the diet based on DM. In experiment 1 (Fc), cows were given the same amount of DM with constant ratios of forage and concentrate within treatments. In experiment 2 (Fa), cows were given the same constant amounts of concentrate as in experiment 1 and ad libitum forage. The forage consisted of a natural grass mixture based on 5 species of grasses with high nutritive values. There was no difference in total DM intake between treatments within experiments. However, cows fed forage ad libitum had higher DM intakes compared to cows fed constant forage (1.6, 4.5 and 9.5% for cows fed 70, 50 and 30% forage, respectively). Daily milk yield of cows fed forage ad libitum was higher than that of cows fed constant forage:concentrate ratio. Within experiment, milk yield was highest for cows fed 30% DM forage, followed by cows fed 50% and then cows fed 70% forage (11.17, 10.98 and 10.71 for the 30Fc, 50Fc and 70Fc cows; 11.73, 11.16 and 10.81 kg for the 30Fa, 50Fa and 70Fa cows, respectively). Decreased forage ratio in the diets resulted in decreased milk fat content and tended to increase milk protein. Increased concentrate ratio in the diet and feeding forage ad libitum increased body weight gain. The effect of forage:concentrate ratio on postpartum oestrus was not significant. The feed cost per kg milk produced was lowest for the cows fed 70% forage. It is concluded that increased ratio of concentrate resulted in increased body weight gain, milk yield, milk protein, and decreased milk fat. Feeding forage ad libitum increased feed intake, milk yield and body weight gain. The ratio of 50% forage is more suitable for milk production and animal condition, but in terms of feed cost and under the conditions of small dairy farmers, the 70% ad libitum forage feeding is recommended.

The Effect of Feeding Order on Dry Matter Intake and Ruminal Characteristics Chage of Daily Cattle (젖소에 급여하는 사료의 급여 순서가 사료섭취량 및 반추위내 생리적 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤상기;김현섭;권응기;강우성;차영호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 1996
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feeding order bay-concentrate-silage, concentratehay- silage, silage-concentrate-hay, silage-concentrate-hay, concentrate-silage-hay) on ruminal characteristics change with 3 fistulated dry Holstein cows in a Latin square design. The main results obtained were as follows : DM intake in forage hayconcentrate-silage feeding order was 1.65% of body weight, which is the highest of all treatments, but that in concentrate-hay-silage 1.4%, which is the lowest. The difference between max and min rumen pH in hayconcentrate-silage feeding order was lowest as 0.55, but there is no significant. The mean rumen $NH_3N$ content in silage-concentrate-hay feeding order was highest as 6.12mg/100ml, but that in silageconcentrate-hay feeding order lowest as 4.82mg/100ml. Acetic acid and propionic acid content was highest in forage hay-concentrate-silage feeding order. but there is no significant. The ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid averaged 3.47~3.69(NS). In conclusion, the best feeding order fitted in ruminal physiology was forage hay-concentrate-silage.

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Relationship Between Nutrient Supply to Muscle and Adipose Tissues and Nitrogen Retention in Growing Wethers on Forage Based Diets Fed with Different Forage Sources

  • Kim, Da Hye;Ichionohe, Toshiyoshi;Choi, Ki Choon;Oda, Shinichi;Hagino, Akihiko;Song, Sang Houn
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.238-244
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    • 2015
  • Three growing wethers were used to investigate the differences in nitrogen (N) retention, blood plasma metabolite concentration and energy-yielding nutrient supply to muscle and adipose tissue. The wethers were fed one of three diets: timothy hay with concentrate (THD), Italian ryegrass with concentrate (IRD), and rice straw with concentrate (RSD) for 11 days. The experimental diets were adjusted to the animals to provide 100 g of daily gain. The triglyceride (TG) concentration of blood plasma in arterial and portal veins was higher with THD and IRD than with RSD. Conversely, the available amount of TG in tissues was higher with IRD. The daily amount of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) supplied to muscle tissue and adipose tissue was numerically higher with THD than IRD or RSD. Although N retention did not differ among the diets, it was numerically higher with THD than with IRD or RSD. The results suggest that the difference in the amount of glucose and NEFA delivered to muscle tissue may reflect the N retention in response to forage based diets.

Effects of Amount of Concentrate Supplement on Forage Intake, Diet Digestibility and Live Weight Gain in Yellow Cattle in Vietnam

  • Ba, Nguyen Xuan;Van Huu, Nguyen;Ngoan, Le Duc;Leddin, Clare M.;Doyle, Peter T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1736-1744
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    • 2008
  • Two experiments were conducted in central Vietnam to test the hypothesis that supplementation with a concentrate, comprising rice bran (45% fresh basis), maize (49%), fish meal (3%), urea (2%) and salt (1%), up to 2% of live weight (LW)/d (dry matter (DM) basis) would linearly increase digestible organic matter intake and LW gain of yellow cattle. In both experiments, there were five treatments, namely a basal diet of fresh grass fed at 1.25% of LW (experiment 1, elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum; experiment 2, native grass) and rice straw (Oryza sativa) fed ad libitum or this diet supplemented with concentrate at about 0.3, 0.7, 1.3 or 2.0% LW. There were 4 male growing cattle per treatment in experiment 1 and 3 in experiment 2. Diets were fed for 44 (experiment 1) or 49 (experiment 2) days, with feed intake recorded daily, LW measured about weekly and digestibility measurements made over 7 days commencing on day 24 (experiment 1) or day 10 (experiment 2). The elephant grass and native grass had neutral detergent fibre (NDF) concentrations of 82 and 73% DM, and nitrogen concentrations of 1.3 and 1.8% DM, respectively. The rice straw used had a NDF concentration of 79-84% DM and nitrogen concentration of 0.8% DM. The concentrate had NDF and nitrogen concentrations of 33 and 2.8% DM. In both experiments, DM intake increased (p<0.001) linearly as the amount of concentrate consumed increased. Rice straw intake declined (p<0.001) (experiment 1: 1.24 to 0.48 kg DM/d; experiment 2: 0.95 to 0.50 kg DM/d) as concentrate intake increased. Grass intake was not significantly affected by concentrate intake in either experiment. The lowest amount of concentrate supplement increased forage intake, after which substitution rate increased as the amount of concentrate consumed increased. However, substitution rates at the highest amount of concentrate consumed were modest at 0.3 to 0.5 kg DM reduction in forage intake/kg DM supplement consumed. In both experiments, digestible organic matter intake increased linearly (p<0.001) (experiment 1: 1.16 to 2.38 kg/d; experiment 2: 1.30 to 2.49 kg/d) as the amount of supplement consumed increased, as did LW gain (experiment 1: 0.15 to 0.81 kg/d; experiment 2: 0.15 to 0.77 kg/d). This was associated with significant (p<0.01) linear increases in organic matter intake and apparent organic matter digestibility. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility declined as concentrate intake increased, but the effect was not significant (p = 0.051) in experiment 2. These results are discussed in relation to existing literature and potential to improve the profitability of cattle fattening in central Vietnam.

Effect of Gynosaponin on Rumen In vitro Methanogenesis under Different Forage-Concentrate Ratios

  • Manatbay, Bakhetgul;Cheng, Yanfen;Mao, Shengyong;Zhu, Weiyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1088-1097
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    • 2014
  • The study aimed to investigate the effects of gynosaponin on in vitro methanogenesis under different forage-concentrate ratios (F:C ratios). Experiment was conducted with two kinds of F:C ratios (F:C = 7:3 and F:C = 3:7) and gynosaponin addition (0 mg and 16 mg) in a $2{\times}2$ double factorial design. In the presence of gynosaponin, methane production and acetate concentration were significantly decreased, whereas concentration of propionate tended to be increased resulting in a significant reduction (p<0.05) of acetate:propionate ratio (A:P ratio), in high-forage substrate. Gynosaponin treatment increased (p<0.05) the butyrate concentration in both F:C ratios. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed there was no apparent shift in the composition of total bacteria, protozoa and methanogens after treated by gynosaponin under both F:C ratios. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis indicated that variable F:C ratios significantly affected the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Rumninococcus flavefaciens, total fungi and counts of protozoa (p<0.05), but did not affect the mcrA gene copies of methanogens and abundance of total bacteria. Counts of protozoa and abundance of F.succinogenes were decreased significantly (p<0.05), whereas mcrA gene copies of methanogens were decreased slightly (p<0.10) in high-forage substrate after treated by gynosaponin. However, gynosaponin treatment under high-concentrate level did not affect the methanogenesis, fermentation characteristics and tested microbes. Accordingly, overall results suggested that gynosaponin supplementation reduced the in vitro methanogenesis and improved rumen fermentation under highforage condition by changing the abundances of related rumen microbes.

Effects of Molasses at Different Levels in Concentrate Supplement on Milk Yield of Dairy Cows Grazing Setaria Grass (Setaria Sphacelata) Pasture in Fiji

  • Eroni, V. Tamani;Aregheore, E.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1455-1463
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    • 2006
  • Effects of different levels of molasses in a concentrate supplement on milk yield of cows grazing Setaria grass pastures were investigated. Thirty Friesian cows, 6-7 years old with mean pre-experimental body weight of $428{\pm}6.5$ kg, in early stage of lactation were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design experiment that lasted for 126 days. Experimental dietary treatments were forage alone and forage/concentrate mixtures with molasses included at 0, 5, 10 or 15% levels designated as $T_1$, $T_2$, $T_3$, $T_4$ and $T_5$, respectively. The parameters studied were voluntary dry matter (DM) intake, average daily live weight change (LWC), milk yield, body condition score (BCS) and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients. The DM and energy contents of Setaria grass were low compared to the concentrate diets. Fibre fractions-NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicellulose and cellulose; and gross energy were higher in concentrate mixtures than in the forage. Total DM intake (forage+concentrate mixtures) was significantly higher (p<0.001) in cows on the concentrate mixtures. LWC was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the cows. Average milk yields were significantly different (p<0.05) between cows. Fat corrected milk (FCM) was similar among cows in the treatments. BCS was better (p<0.001) in cows on concentrate mixtures. Digestibilities of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, OM, and energy were significantly higher (p<0.001) in cows on $T_2$, $T_3$, $T_4$ and $T_5$ than in those on $T_1$. There were no significant differences in the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, ADF and ADL (p>0.001) in cows on concentrate mixtures. This study therefore demonstrated that lactating dairy cows in Fiji need a level of readily fermented energy source such as molasses in their diets; however, a level above 10% is not nutritionally suitable for lactating dairy cows. Based on data on production parameters-milk yield, fat corrected milk, body condition score and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients-molasses levels that range between 5-10% are recommended, however, 10% is the best and therefore recommended for inclusion in the concentrate mixture of lactating dairy cows on a basal diet of Setaria sphacelata in Fiji.

Limiting Concentrate during Growing Period Affect Performance and Gene Expression of Hepatic Gluconeogenic Enzymes and Visfatin in Korean Native Beef Calves

  • Chang, S.S.;Lohakare, J.D.;Singh, N.K.;Kwon, E.G.;Nejad, J.G.;Sung, K.I.;Hong, S.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2013
  • This study elucidated the effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth, plasma profile, and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes and visfatin in the liver of Hanwoo beef calves. The purpose of this study was to test that reducing the amount of concentrate would partially be compensated by increasing the intake of forage and by altering the metabolic status. The study utilized 20 Korean native beef calves (Hanwoo; 60 to 70 d of age) divided into two groups of 10 calves each for 158 d. Control group calves received the amount of concentrate as per the established Korean feeding standards for Hanwoo, whereas calves in the restricted group only received half the amount of concentrate as per standard requirements. Good quality forage (Timothy hay) was available for ad libitum consumption to both groups. Since calves were with their dam until 4 months of age in breeding pens before weaning, the intake of milk before weaning was not recorded, however, the concentrate and forage intakes were recorded daily. Body weights (BW) were recorded at start and on 10 d interval. Blood samples were collected at start and at 50 d interval. On the final day of the experiment, liver biopsies were collected from all animals in each group. The BW was not different between the groups at all times, but tended to be higher (p = 0.061) only at final BW in control than restricted group. Total BW gain in the control group was 116.2 kg as opposed to 84.1 kg in restricted group that led to average BW gain of 736 g/d and 532 g/d in respective groups, and the differences were significant (p<0.01). As planned, the calves in the control group had higher concentrate and lower forage intake than the restricted group. The plasma variables like total protein and urea were higher (p<0.05) in control than restricted group. The mRNA expressions for the gluconeogenic enzymes such as cytosolic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (EC 4.1.1.32) and pyruvate carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.1), and visfatin measured by quantitative real-time PCR in liver biopsies showed higher expression (p<0.05) in restricted group than control. Overall, restricting concentrate severely reduced the growth intensity and affected few plasma indices, and gene expression in liver was increased indicating that restricting concentrate in the feeding schemes during early growth for beef calves is not advocated.

The Effect of Forage Level and Oil Supplement on Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Anaerovibrio lipolytica in Continuous Culture Fermenters

  • Gudla, P.;Ishlak, A.;Abughazaleh, A.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.234-239
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forage level and oil supplement on selected strains of rumen bacteria believed to be involved in biohydrogenation (BH). A continuous culture system consisting of four fermenters was used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design with a factorial arrangement of treatments, with four 10 d consecutive periods. Treatment diets were: i) high forage diet (70:30 forage to concentrate (dry matter basis); HFC), ii) high forage plus oil supplement (HFO), iii) low forage diet (30:70 forage to concentrate; LFC), and iv) low forage plus oil supplement (LFO). The oil supplement was a blend of fish oil and soybean oil added at 1 and 2 g/100 g dry matter, respectively. Treatment diets were fed for 10 days and samples were collected from each fermenter on the last day of each period 3 h post morning feeding. The concentrations of vaccenic acid (t11C18:1; VA) and c9t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater with the high forage diet while the concentrations of t10 C18:1 and t10c12 CLA were greater with the low forage diet and addition of oil supplement increased their concentrations at both forage levels. The DNA abundance of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens vaccenic acid subgroup (Butyrivibrio VA) were lower with the low forage diets but not affected by oil supplement. The DNA abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens stearic acid producer subgroup (Butyrivibrio SA) was not affected by forage level or oil supplement. In conclusion, oil supplement had no effects on the tested rumen bacteria and forage level affected Anaerovibrio lipolytica and Butyrivibrio VA.

Rumen Microbial Population in the In vitro Fermentation of Different Ratios of Forage and Concentrate in the Presence of Whole Lerak (Sapindus rarak) Fruit Extract

  • Suharti, Sri;Astuti, Dewi Apri;Wina, Elizabeth;Toharmat, Toto
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1086-1091
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    • 2011
  • This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of lerak extract on the dynamic of rumen microbes in the in vitro fermentation of diet with different ratios of forage and concentrate. In vitro fermentation was conducted according to the method of Tilley and Terry (1963). The design of experiment was a factorial block design with 2 factors. The first factor was the ratio of forage and concentrate (90:10, 80:20, and 70:30 w/w) and the second factor was the level of lerak extract (0, 0.6, and 0.8 mg/ml). Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, proportional VFA and NH3 concentration were measured at 4 h incubation. Protozoal numbers in the buffered rumen fluid after 4 and 24 h of incubation were counted under a microscope. Bacterial DNAs of buffered rumen fluid were isolated from incubated samples after 24 h of incubation using a QiaAmp kit. Total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Prevotella ruminicola were quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lerak extract markedly reduced protozoal numbers in buffered rumen fluid of all diets after 24 h of incubation. Total bacteria did not change with lerak extract addition. While no difference in F. succinogenes was found, there was a slight increase in R. albus number and a significant enhancement in P. ruminicola number by increasing the level of lerak extract in all diets. Propionate concentration significantly increased in the presence of lerak extract at level 0.8 mg/ml. It was concluded that the addition of lerak extract could modify rumen fermentation and had positive effects on rumen microbes.

Nutritional and performance viability of cactus Opuntia-based diets with different concentrate levels for Girolando lactating dairy cows

  • Inacio, Jonas Gomes;da Conceicao, Maria Gabriela;dos Santos, Djalma Cordeiro;de Oliveira, Julio Cesar Vieira;Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri;de Oliveira Moraes, Glaucia Sabrine;dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny;de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of different concentrate levels in diets based on cactus Opuntia Stricta (Haw.) Haw cladodes on the performance of lactating Girolando cows. Methods: The experiment involved 10 Girolando multiparous dairy cows at 512.6 kg of body weight (BW) and producing 13.2 kg milk/d, allocated into two 5×5 Latin squares. The experimental treatments consisted of control diet composed by cactus Nopalea cochenillifera. Salm-Dyck. cladodes (Nopalea), forage sorghum silage and concentrate at 20% on dry matter (DM) basis, and four concentrate levels diets (20%, 24%, 28%, and 32%) plus cactus Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw. cladodes (Opuntia) and forage sorghum silage. Results: Regarding cows fed control diet, the nutrients intake were greater than for cows fed with cactus Opuntia and concentrate. Regarding concentrate levels, intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC), and total digestible nutrients of cows increased linearly. Organic matter, CP, and NDF digestibilities were similar in between to control diet and cactus Opuntia-based diets. The digestibility of NFC increased linearly when the concentrate was inserted. The N balance was the same for control diet and cactus Opuntia-based diets, irrespective the concentrate levels. Conclusion: For cows producing 14 kg/d with 3.5% of fat, it is recommended 32% of concentrate to be included in cactus Opuntia-based diets, and the increase in concentrate level promotes a linear increase in milk yield.