• Title, Summary, Keyword: Compost maturity

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Profile of Microbial Numbers and Growth Activity in Composting Process (도시폐기물의 퇴비화 과정에 있어서 미생물수와 증식활성)

  • Bae, Young Jin;Kaneko, Hidehiro;Fujita, Kenji
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 1993
  • Change in microbial numbers during experimental composting has been investigated. The results show that bacteria and actinomycetes play an important role in decomposing the composting material. The number of bacteria has no relation to the efficiency of composting, though it greatly correlates to the decomposition ratio. Bacterial growth activity that shows potential of bacterial growth was originally proposed. The influence of pH and the decomposition ratio on the growth activity has been studied. It was clarified that the bacterial growth activity is useful in evaluating the efficiency of composting and the maturity of produced compost.

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Composting of Paper Mill Sludge by the Addition of Urea (제지슬러지 퇴비화를 위한 요소 첨가효과)

  • Lee, In-Bog;Chang, Ki-Woon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.453-462
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to know the effect of urea addition for composting of paper mill sludge(PMS). For the purpose. PMSs containing 0%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6% urea were composted at aerated static pile(ASP) for about 80day periods. During the composting, the basic physical, chemical, and biological parameters such as temperature, color. C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity, and phytotoxic test were investigated. From the measurement of the parameters, 0~3% urea-containing PMS except for 6% urea-containing PMS showed to be normally stabilized. Thus among these treatments, 0% and 3% urea-containing PMS were applied at agitated bed system(ABS), a pilot plant of a large scale, to evaluate the possibility of practical use. Considering to the changes of the parameters investigated during composting in ASP and ABS, PMS showed to be successfully stabilized in the two facilities. However, when composted with PMS and urea, even the final PMS compost stabilized for a period enough brought out the bright grayish color. So it may be necessary to add a subsidiary amendments such as animal manure to form brown-colored products.

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Effects of Liquid Pig Manuare Application Method on the Chemical Properties of Paddy Soil and Growth of Paddy Rice (돈분액비 시용법이 논토양의 이화학적 특성과 벼 생육 및 수확량에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Chang Hyun;Kim, Woo Sik;Park, Jee Sung;Ahn, In
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1043-1048
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    • 2012
  • We have researched the changes of paddy soil properties and rice yield by several different methods to treated with liquid pig manure(LPM). In the execution of this experiment, rice was cultivated to full maturity at a paddy field in Jeollabuk-do in 2011. Field experiment was designed with surface application on dry field condition+jet hose spray(Tr. 1), surface application on dry field condition+incorporation with irrigation water(Tr. 2), surface application on dry field condition+application device of fertilizer through irrigation(Tr. 3), submerged application on irrigated field condition+jet hose spray(Tr. 4), submerged application on irrigated field condition+incorporation with irrigation water(Tr. 5) and submerged application on irrigated field condition+application device of fertilizer through irrigation(Tr. 6) plot. Total N, P, K contents in used LPM were 0.44%, 0.07% and 0.14%, respectively. After the experiment, soil properties were not significant difference both several treated plots. But $NO_3$ and $NH_4$ contents at incorporation with irrigation water plots in paddy soil were higher than other plots. The yield was 602 kg $10a^{-1}$ in Tr. 2 plot compared Tr. 6 plot, which showed a value of 9.6% higher.

Nutritional Properties by Composting Process of Algae Biomass as Soil Conditioner (조류 바이오매스를 이용한 토양개량제의 퇴비화 과정에 따른 영양성분 특성)

  • Ahn, Chang-Hyuk;Lee, Saeromi;Park, Jae-Roh
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.604-615
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we produce a new type of the algae soil conditioner(ASC) using discarded algae biomass through a composting process and evaluate its nutritional characteristics. As the main ingredient, the ASCs used algae biomass collected through the coagulation-floating method and made by adding a variety of additional supporting materials (sawdust, pearlite, oilcake etc.). ASCs were divided into 0% in blank, 11.7% in ASC1, 21.6% in ASC2, 37.6% in ASC3, 59.5% in ASC4, and composted during 127 days. ASCs showed a sharp increase in temperature by aerobic microbial reaction, and 6~7 high and low temperature peaks were observed. As a result of physicochemical analysis, mineralization proceeded according to decomposing the organic matter and there was a marked increase not only in macronutrients (TN, P2O5, K2O), but also in secondary macronutrients (CaO, MgO). The microbial community change was found in stage 1 (bacteria, filamentous fungi) → stage 2 (actinomycetes, bacteria) → stage 3 (Bacillus sp.), depending on the maturation process. It was estimated that microbial transition was closely related to temperature change and nutritional behavior. The quality of soil conditioner can be determined according to the maturity of compost process, and it was determined that effective microbial activity could be induced by controlling algae biomass below 59.5% in this study. In conclusion, we found out the possibility of manufacturing and utilizing soil conditioner recycled algae biomass and if further technological development is made on the basis it can be used as an effective soil conditioner.

Cultural Practices for Reducing Cold Wind Damage of Rice Plant in Eastern Coastal Area of Korea (동해안지대 도작의 냉조풍피해와 피해경감대책)

  • 이승필;김칠용
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.407-428
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    • 1991
  • The eastern coastal area having variability of climate is located within Taebaek mountain range and the east coast of Korea. It is therefore ease to cause the wind damages in paddy field during rice growing season. The wind damages to rice plant in this area were mainly caused by the Fohn wind (dry and hot wind) blowing over the Taebaek mountain range and the cold humid wind from the coast. The dry wind cause such as the white head, broken leaves, cut-leaves, dried leaves, shattering of grain, glume discolouration and lodging, On the other hand the cold humid wind derived from Ootsuku air mass in summer cause such symptom as the poor rice growth, degeneration of rachis brenches and poor ripening. To minimize the wind damages and utilize as a preparatory data for wind injury of rice in future, several experiments such as the selection of wind resistant variety to wind damage, determination of optimum transplanting date, improvement of fertilizer application methods, improvement of soils and effect of wind break net were carried out for 8 years from 1982 to 1989 in the eastern coastal area. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. According to available statisical data from Korean meteorological services (1954-1989) it is apperent that cold humid winds frequently cause damage to rice fields from August 10th to September 10th, it is therefore advisable to plan rice cultivation in such a way that the heading date should not be later than August 10th. 2. During the rice production season, two winds cause severe damage to the rice fields in eastern coastal area of Korea. One is the Fohn winds blowing over the Taebaek mountain range and the other is the cold humid wind form the coast. The frequency of occurrence of each wind was 25%. 3. To avoid damage caused by typhoon winds three different varieties of rice were planted at various areas. 4. In the eastern coastal area of Korea, the optimum ripening temperature for rice was about 22.2$^{\circ}C$ and the optimum heading date wad August 10th. The optimum transplanting time for the earily maturity variety was June 10th., medium maturity variety was May 20th and that of late maturity was May 10th by means of growing days degree (GDD) from transplanting date to heading date. 5.38% of this coastal area is sandy loamy soil while 28% is high humus soil. These soil types are very poor for rice cultivation. In this coastal area, the water table is high, the drainage is poor and the water temperature is low. The low water temperature makes it difficult for urea to dissolve, as a result rice growth was delayed, and the rice plant became sterile. But over application of urea resulted in blast disease in rice plants. It is therefore advise that Ammonium sulphate is used in this area instead of urea. 6. The low temperature of the soil inhibits activities of microorganism for phosphorus utilization so the rice plant could not easily absorb the phosphorus in the soil. Therefore phosphorus should be applied in splits from transplanting to panicle initiation rather than based application. 7. Wind damage was severe in the sandy loamy soil as compared to clay soils. With the application of silicate. compost and soil from mointain area. the sand loamy soil was improved for rice grain colour and ripening. 8. The use of wind break nets created a mocro-climate such as increased air. soil and water temperature as well as the reduction of wind velocity by 30%. This hastened rice growth, reduced white head and glume discolouration. improved rice quality and increased yield. 9. Two meter high wind break net was used around the rice experimental fields and the top of it. The material was polyethylene sheets. The optimum spacing was 0.5Cm x 0.5Cm. and that of setting up the wind break net was before panicle initiation. With this set up, the field was avoided off th cold humid wind and the Fohn. The yield in the treatment was 20% higher than the control. 10. After typhoon, paddy field was irrigated deeply and water was sprayed to reduce white head, glume discolouration, so rice yield was increased because of increasing ripening ratio and 1, 000 grain weight.

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Amino Acids in Humic Acids Extracted from Organic By-product Fertilizers (유기질 부산물 비료에서 추출한 부식산 중 아미노산 특성)

  • Yang, Jae-E.;Kim, Jeong-Je;Shin, Myung-Kyo;Park, Yong-Ha
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.128-136
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    • 1998
  • Most of total nitrogen in the surface soil exists in organic forms, of which amino acid-N is the major fraction. By-product fertilizers provide soil with humic substances, and humic acid is an essential component of humus. Amino acids(AAs) are easily converted to inorganic-N forms and thus play an important role in N fertility. This experiment was conducted to investigate the contents and distributions of AAs in humic acids which were extracted from the commercial by-product fertilizers of different composting materials. Total contents of AAs in humic acids ranged from 1.2 to 5.6%, of which neutral AAs were the highest with ranges of 0.8~4.5%. AAs contents in fertilizers composted from the plant residues such as leaf litter, sawdust and bark were in an order of neutral>acidic>basic AAs. In contrast, those from animal wastes, such as poultry and pig manures, were in an order of neutral>basic>acidic AAs. Distributions of total, acidic and neutral AAs were in the respective order of leaf litter>sawdust>pig manure>poultry manure>peat, bark>sawdust>leaf litter>peat and leaf litter>sawdust>bark>peat. Distributions of the basic AAs were in the reversed order of the acidic AAs. In bark fertilizer with increasing compost maturity, contents of the acidic AAs were increased in compensation for the decreases in those of neutral and basic AAs. Results demonstrated that distributions of amino acids in humic acid of by-product fertilizers were different from composting raw materials and degrees of humification.

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A Study on the Applicability of Soilremediation Technology for Contaminated Sediment in Agro-livestock Reservoir (농축산저수지 오염퇴적토의 토양정화기술에 대한 적용성 연구)

  • Jung, Jaeyun;Chang, Yoonyoung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.157-181
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    • 2020
  • Sediments from rivers, lakes and marine ports serve as end points for pollutants discharged into the water, and at the same time serve as sources of pollutants that are continuously released into the water. Until now, the contaminated sediments have been landfilled or dumped at sea. Landfilling, however, was expensive and dumping at sea was completely banned due to the London Convention. Therefore, this study applied contaminated sedimentation soil of 'Royal Palace Livestock Complex' as soil purification method. Soil remediation methods were applied to pretreatment, composting, soil washing, electrokinetics, and thermal desorption by selecting overseas application cases and domestically applicable application technologies. As a result of surveying the site for pollutant characteristics, Disolved Oxigen (DO), Suspended Solid (SS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP) exceeded the discharged water quality standard, and especially SS, COD, TN, and TP exceeded the standard several tens to several hundred times. Soil showed high concentrations of copper and zinc, which promote the growth of pig feed, and cadmium exceeded 1 standard of Soil Environment Conservation Act. In the pretreatment technology, hydrocyclone was used for particle size separation, and the fine soil was separated by more than 80%. Composting was performed on organic and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils. TPH was treated within the standard of concern, and E. coli was analyzed to be high in organic matter, and the fertilizer specification was satisfied by applying the optimum composting conditions at 70℃, but the organic matter content was lower than the fertilizer specification. As a result of continuous washing test, Cd has 5 levels of residual material in fine soil. Cu and Zn were mostly composed of ion exchange properties (stage 1), carbonates (stage 2), and iron / manganese oxides (stage 3), which facilitate easy separation of contamination. As a result of applying acid dissolution and multi-stage washing step by step, hydrochloric acid, 1.0M, 1: 3, 200rpm, 60min was analyzed as the optimal washing factor. Most of the contaminated sediments were found to satisfy the Soil Environmental Conservation Act's standards. Therefore, as a result of the applicability test of this study, soil with high heavy metal contamination was used as aggregate by applying soil cleaning after pre-treatment. It was possible to verify that it was efficient to use organic and oil-contaminated soil as compost Maturity after exterminating contaminants and E. coli by applying composting.