• Title, Summary, Keyword: Compost maturity

Search Result 57, Processing Time 0.041 seconds

Production and utilization of organic compost from spent mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) substrate (큰느타리버섯 수확 후 배지를 이용한 유기퇴비 제조 및 활용)

  • Lee, Sang-Hwa;Park, Ju-Ri;Oh, So-Ra;Ryu, Song-Yi;Ryu, Young-Hyun;Kang, Min-Gu;Lee, Suk-Hee;Jo, Woo-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
    • /
    • v.16 no.1
    • /
    • pp.39-44
    • /
    • 2018
  • We investigated the possibility of utilizing spent mushroom culture-medium as raw material to produce organic compost. Mushroom culture-medium contained 2.69% nitrogen, 41.07% carbon, and 0.99% phosphoric acid. Nitrogen and carbon content in rice bran were 3.08% and 47.34%, respectively. Nitrogen, carbon, and phosphoric acid content in mushroom Pleurotus eryngii were 3.41%, 34.63%, and 1.70%, respectively. Our study aimed to evaluate the degree of decay of compost produced from the substrate, used to culture King Oyster mushrooms by analyzing seed germination indexes in cucumber, radish, lettuce, and Chinese cabbage. Our results showed that compost from spent mushroom culture-medium completed the stabilization process in 4 to 6 weeks, as evaluated by the appropriate organic compost maturity point for the plantation.

Development of the Optimal Composting Condition for the High Quality of Pig manure compost (고품질의 돈분 퇴비를 위한 합리적인 퇴비화 조건 개발)

  • Chang, Ki-Woon;Yu, Young-Seok;Min, Kyoung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
    • /
    • v.10 no.4
    • /
    • pp.112-117
    • /
    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to induce the optimal composting conditions of pig manure mixed with sawdust and dried paper-mill sludge in the composting for production of high quality compost. Pig manure contains high water content and How C/N ratio because of comparatively high nitrogen content than sawdust and dried paper-mill sludge. Therefore the addition of dried paper-mill sludge and sawdust to the raw materials helps controlling the C/N and the water content of compost pile. The composting system used in the experiment was agitated static bed system. The physical properties of the mixed raw materials was not good at the working conditions in the early stage of composting. The temperature of compost heap reaches at $60^{\circ}C$within 5 day after starting composting in P-2 treatment mixed with pig manure and sawdust(56.6 : 43.4). Then the water content of P-2 was 58%. The pH in all treatments were slowly decreased as the composting was proceeded. Although the changes of T-C and T-N were not extended because of the short composting experiment period. Reduction rates of T-C in treatments were 5-12% without special difference. By considering the efficiency of composting in each of five treatments with pig manure the optimal water contents was about 57% level. Mixing a sawdust as a bulking agent was more positive than dried paper-mill sludge from a viewpoint of compost quality.

  • PDF

Changes of Physico-chemical Properties of paper Mill Sludge amended with Pig Manure in Composting Process (제지슬러지와 돈분을 이용한 퇴비화 과정중 이화학적 특성 변화)

  • Min, Kyoung-Hoon;Chang, Ki-Woon;Yu, Young-suk
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
    • /
    • v.8 no.4
    • /
    • pp.86-92
    • /
    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to determine the optimal mixing ratio of the paper mill sludge(PMS) and pig manure(PM). Since the former contains lots of total carbon and low nitrogen, it was used as carbon source. Also, dried paper mill sludge(DPMS) was added to the mixture to control the water content. The treatments was composed of four as follows, PMS-100(PM 0%+PMS 80%+DPMS 20%), PMS-85(15+65+20), PMS-70(30+50+20), and PMS-55(45+35+20). The mixtures were composted under aerobic condition in $1.25m^3$ static piles. The piles were aerated for 15 minutes per day and turned over the mixture once a week at the early stage of composting. To estimate the maturity of composts, the changes of physico-chemical properties such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio and color were monitored every week. The 25-30 and 55-60% as optimal condition of C/N ratio and moisture content were respectively recommended for effective composting by the evaluation of the changes of phsico-chemical properties for materials taken from compost files during the composting period. When the 30 and 45% of PM were mixed with PMS, the maturity time at least demanded to the stable state were shortened and the qualify of the final product was improved in a view of nutritional components.

  • PDF

Effect of Pyroligneous Acid Liquor on the Maturity of Pig Manure Compost (목초액 처리가 돈분퇴비의 부숙도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jong-Eun;Hong, Joo-Hwa;Chang, Ki-Woon;Hwang, Joon-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.38 no.2
    • /
    • pp.101-107
    • /
    • 2005
  • To investigate the effect of pyroligneous acid liquor (PAL) on the maturity of pig manure compost, PAL was treated to the compost piles. The treatments included applications of 100 and 300 times diluted PAL in addition to the control. The compost piles were stirred in three times at the 1st, 10th, and 25th day of composting. Temperature in the compost pile of control treatment increased from 28 to $60^{\circ}C$ within 10 days and remained nearly at the level until 30th day, then it began to decrease. On the other hand, temperature of the PAL-100 and PAL-300 treatments reached 65 to $70^{\circ}C$ within 8 days and became stabilized until 30th day, then the temperature decreased to about $28^{\circ}C$. However, the temperature of control was stabilized approximately at the 40th day. Initially, the pH of control treatment dropped from 8.2 to slightly above pH 8.0 during 4th day, but that of the PAL-100 treatment declined to 7.8. Among treatments, pH value of PAL-100 treatment was the lowest, which was about 7.3 after becoming stabilization. Also the germination index (GI) was increased at all treatments. The C/N ratio range of PAL-100 treatment was better balanced than others and was at 24.3. Moreover the round paper chromatogram of extracted solution of compost of PAL-100 treatment was the sharpest and clearest among treatments. The GI values of control, PAL-100, and PAL-300 in 60 days of composting were about 108, 120, and 118 in germination test using chinese cabbage, respectively. It can be concluded that the addition of diluted PAL solution is effective in composting of pig manure.

Changes of Physico-chemical Properties and Maturity Assessment during Composting of Turfgrass Clipping Types from the Golf Courses (골프장 잔디예초물 종류에 따른 퇴비화 과정 중 이화학성 변화와 부숙도 평가)

  • Ha, Seung Myung;Chang, Ki Woon;Han, Ki Pil;Hong, Joo Hwah;Lee, Jong Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
    • /
    • v.13 no.4
    • /
    • pp.89-99
    • /
    • 2005
  • The golf courses more than about 200 are operating in Korea. From the golf courses, a great amount of turfgrass clippings tend to increase, steadily. Materials used in the experiment were Creeping Bentgrass(CB), Kentucky Bluegrass(KB), Korean Lawngrass(KL), rice bran and composted chicken drop. Treatments are CB, KB, and KL. The temperature during the composting of all treatments increased rapidly and reached at the highest temperature($57.9^{\circ}C$, $67.8^{\circ}C$, $74.3^{\circ}C$) within 20 days, and then stabilized to the range of $35.2{\sim}41.6^{\circ}C$ at the 30th day. The pH values of all treatments decreased on the first day. However, they were increased rapidly after three days and decreased again on 10~20 days. The pH values of all treatments at the final day were stabilized to the low alkali levels. The contents of total carbon during the period of composting tend to decrease and total nitrogen was increased for factor of reduction of volume. CEC value of all treatments during the period of composting tends to increase. The round paper chromatogram of extracted solution of KL sample was the sharpest and clearest among all treatments. The G.I. values of CB, KB, and KL in 30th day of composting were about 95.1, 77.7, and 98.7 in germination test using chinese cabbage, respectively. Conclusively, all turfgrass clippings used in this experiment were composted well, suitable as composting products standardized by KSC. The maturity of the final compost samples is best in KL, followed by CB and KB treatments. The turfgrass compost can contribute to the plant cultivation for environment-friendly farm, and the results of this study can become the basic data of turfgrass clippings compost. Further research on the mixing ratio of each material is required to produce compost of good quality.

  • PDF

The Agricultural Utilization of Daecheong Lake Sediments and Algae (대청호(大淸湖) 저니(底泥) 및 조류(藻類)의 농업적(農業的) 활용(活用) 연구(硏究))

  • Chang, Ki-Woon;Lim, Jae-Shin;Lee, In-Bog
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.27 no.2
    • /
    • pp.111-116
    • /
    • 1994
  • These studies were carried out to investigate the possibility on the agricultural utilization of lake sediment collected in the Daecheong Lake. Several parameters to estimate the degree of maturity of compost by windrow system were tested during a 50 day periods, and the results were as follows : During the composting of Daecheong Lake sediment, C/N ratio decreased gradually from 18.9 at the beginning to 13.1 at the final, while CEC increased from 33.5me/100g to 62.5me/100g. The temperature of lake sediment pile was the highest as $52^{\circ}C$ at 15th day and then decreased slowly until $30^{\circ}C{\sim}40^{\circ}C$ after 50 days. The results may be suggested that Daecheong Lake sediment compost reaches an acceptable level of stability after about 50 days. In order to know the effect of the Lake sediment and its compost on the growth of tomato(Lycopersicum esculentum M.), pot experiments were performed. The appiication of lake sediment(AS) itself, sediment organic fertilizer(SOF), and NPK mixed with sediment organic fertilizer(NSF) was more effective for tomato plant height, fresh and dry weight, and chlorphyll content than those of control treatment. Also, the lake sediment compost improved the physico-chemical properties of soil such as pH, total carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorous and CEC.

  • PDF

Effect of Spent Mushroom Compost on Tomato Growth after Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. (양송이버섯 재배 후 폐상퇴비가 토마토 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Chan-Jung;Cheong, Jong-Chun;Jhune, Chang-Sung;Kim, Seung-Hwan;Yu, Hyung-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.83-94
    • /
    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of application of spent mushroom compost(SMC) on soil chemical properties and tomato growth. After the mushroom has been harvested, the SMC contains a lot of organic material, different microorganism and high density of mushroom hypha. SMC of white button mushroom(Agaricus bisporus) contained diverse microorganisms including fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. and actinomycetes. These isolates showed strong antagonistic to bacterial wi1t(Ralstonia solanacearum) and fusarium wi1t(Fusarium oxysporum) of tomato. The growth and sugar content of tomato showed no significant difference with other treatments by stage of maturity. The EC, exchangeable K and Ca contents of the soil during growing stage were increased in comparison to those of farmhouse practice, but available phosphate decreased. Microbial population in the soil in all growing stages showed no significant difference with other treatments, but yield of tomato decreased in some way in comparison to farmhouse practice. As the result of analysis on chemical property of soil and plant growth and yield of tomato, it seems likely that SMC of white button mushroom(Agaricus bisporus) may be used as substitute of practice compost on cultivation of tomato.

  • PDF

Studies on a Factor Affecting Composts Maturity During Composting of SWine Manure (돈분 퇴비화 중 부숙도에 미치는 영향인자 구명)

  • Kim, T.I.;Song, J. I.;Yang, C.B.;Kim, M.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.46 no.2
    • /
    • pp.261-272
    • /
    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate indices affecting composts maturity for swine manure compost produced in a commercial composting facility with air-forced from the bottom. The composting was made of swine manure mixed with puffing rice hull(6: 4) and turned by escalating agitator twice a day. Composting samples were collected periodically during a 45-d composting cycle at that system, showing that indices of Ammonium-N to Nitrate-N ratio were sensitive indicators of composting quality. Pile temperature maintained more than 62$^{\circ}C$ and water contents decreased about 20% for 25days of composting. A great variety and high numbers of aerobic thermophilic heterotropic microbes playing critical roles in stability of composts have been examined in the final composts, sbowing that they were detected $10^8$ to $10^{10}$ $CFUg^{-1}$ in mesophilic bacteria, $10^3$ - $10^4$ in fungi and $10^6$ - $10^8$ in actinomycetes, respectively. The results of this study for detennining a factor affecting compost stability evaluations based on composting steps were as follows; 1. Ammonium-N concentrations were highest at the beginning of composting, reaching approximately 421mg/kg. However Ammonium-N concentrations were lower during curing, reaching approximately l04mg/kg just after 45 day. The ratio between $NH_4-N$ and $NO_3-N$ was above II at the beginning of composting and less than 2 at the final step(45 day). 2. Seed germination Index was dependent upon the compost phytotoxicity and its nutrition. The phytotocity caused the GI to low during the period of active composting(till 25 days of composting time) depending on the value of the undiluted. After 25 days of composting time, the GI was dependent upon compost nutrition. The Gennination index of the final step was calculated at over 80 without regard to treatments. 3. E4: E6 ratio in humic acid of composts was correlatively decreased from 8.86 to 6.76 during the period of active composting. After 25 days of composting time, the E4: E6 was consistently decreased from 6.76 to 4.67($r^2$ of total composting period was 0.95). 4. Water soluble carbon had a tendency to increase from 0.54% to 0.78%during the period of active composting. After 25 days of composting time, it was consistently decreased from 0.78% to 0.42%. Water soluble nitrogen increased from 0.22% to 0.32% during the period of 15 days after initial composting while decreased from 0.32% to 0.21% after 15days of composting. In consequence, the correlation coefficient($r^2$) between water soluble carbon and water soluble nitrogen was 0.12 during the period of active composting mule was 0.50 after 25 days of composting time

Composting of Small Scale Static Pile by addition of Microorganism (미생물 첨가에 의한 소규모 정체식 퇴비화)

  • Chang, Ki-Woon;Yu, Young-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.149-153
    • /
    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to survey the utilization possibility of composting system of small scale static pile with animal manure produced from cattle shed and the effect of addition of microorganism on the maturity of compost. Microorganisms added in composting substrate were bacteria+lactobacillus(BL)+photo.(BLP). The composting practiced was a windrow system without aeration equipment and turning was practiced periodically. The water content of substrate mixed with cow manure, rice husk, and sawdust was about 60%. The temperature during the composting process was increased at over $60^{\circ}C$ within 3 days after composting starting. Increase of temperature at the early stage of composting was fasten in BLP and BL than Control. Because the pH of the raw material was high, the changes of pH during composting was little and stabilized in weak alkaline condition. EC value was high for accumulation of manure and urine excreted continuously by animal and the changes of those during composting occurred in 5~10% increase. Reduction rates of C/N ratio were the largest as the 22.7% in BLP and 19.2and 17.5% in BL and Control respectively. In the evaluation of phytotoxicity, there was stabilized within the short time in BLP and not the difference between BL and Control. Treatment of animal manure produced from small scale cattle shed was possible by using the small scale static pile composting system with reasonable water content and turning and the addition of microorganism in composting substrate was effected on the temperature increase at the early stage of composting and reduction of plant toxicity compounds but little on the maturity of compost.

  • PDF

Development of Organic Fertilizer based on the Cow Dung III. Studies on Tentative Guideline for Degree of Maturity (우분(牛糞)의 유기질비료화(有機質肥料化) 연구 III. 부숙도(腐熟度) 기준설정(基準設定))

  • Lim, Dong-Kyu;Jeong, Lee-Geon;Shin, Jae-Sung;Han, Ki-Hak
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.24 no.4
    • /
    • pp.278-285
    • /
    • 1991
  • This study was conducted to manufacture a good qualified organic fertilizer with cow dung through rapid composting process, and the proposal guideline of the degree of maturity could be estimated with the measurement of final product. It included total nitrogen content of above 2% on an oven-dry material basis, C/N ratio of below 20, CEC of more than about 60 me/100g, ratio of carbon in reducing sugar to the total carbon of below 35%, and temperature in pile of above $60^{\circ}C$. The total nitrogen content, the C/N ratio, and the Paper Chromatographic method couldn't be the guideline to evalute the maturity of cow dung compost. CEC was increased in increased fermentation and it was high in the high fermented temperature plots which were cow dung+ shredded bark in 1988, cow+dung+wood chips in 1989, and cow dung+rice straws in 1990. The ratio of carbon in reducing sugar to total carbon in 1990 was lower in cow dung+saw dust than cow dung+rice straws that was the highest temperature in pile. Generally cow dung was mixed well with saw dust and thus the total carbon of the product was high. The measurement of the temperature in pile seems to be a indirect guideline of maturity.

  • PDF