• Title, Summary, Keyword: Compost maturity

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Evaluating Feasibility of Producing Fermented Organic Fertilizer with Vegetable Waste

  • Kim, Eui-Yeong;Kook, Seung-Woo;Oh, Taek-Keun;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Ko, Byong-Gu;Kim, Seok-Cheol;Kim, Sung-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.760-767
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    • 2016
  • Food waste (FW) has been recognized as a critical problem in Korea and many research was conducted to efficiently utilize or treat FW. Main purpose of this research was to evaluate a feasibility for producing fermented organic fertilizer with vegetable waste (VW). Three different organic materials (saw dust, coco peat, and waste mushroom media) were mixed with VW at the rate of 30, 40, 50% respectively. Total days of composting experiment were 35 days and each sub samples were collected at every 5 days from starting of composting. Result showed that inner temperature of composting was increased to $60{\pm}4^{\circ}C$ within 5~10 days depending on varied organic materials and mixing ratio. Among different treatment, the highest increase of inner temperature was observed when 30% of saw dust was mixed with VW. After finishing composting experiment, maturity of each compost was evaluated with solvita and germination test. Maturity index (MI) of each treatment was ranged between 5~7 indicating that manufactured fertilizer was curing or finished stage. Calculated germination index (GI) was at the range of 57.83~101.16 depending on organic materials and mixing ratio. Both MI and GI showed that manufactured fertilizer was met for fertilizer criteria while control (VW only) was not adequate for composting. Overall, VW can be utilized for making organic fertilizer mixing with saw dust, coco peat and more research should be conducted to make high quality of organic fertilizer with vegetable waste.

Evaluation of Compost Maturity by Physico-chemical Properties and Germination Index of Livestock Manure Compost (축분 퇴비의 이화학적 특성과 발아지수를 이용한 부숙도 평가)

  • Chang, Ki-Woon;Hong, Joo-Hwa;Lee, Jong-Jin;Han, Ki-Pil;Kim, Nam-Cheon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the humification grade of compost, based on physico-chemical property and phyto-toxicity during the composting with three kinds of livestock manures and saw dust. The ratios of the compost, which was mixed with pig manure(P) and sawdust(S) were 4 : 6(PS-1), 5 : 5(PS-2) and 6 : 4(PS-3); poultry manure(PO) and sawdust(S) were 4 : 6(POS-1), 5 : 5(POS-2) and 6 : 4(POS-3); cow manure(C) and sawdust(S) were 4 : 6(CS-1), 5 : 5(CS-2) and 6 : 4(CS-3) by volume to volume, and they were decomposed for 60 days. In the result, the temperature in all treatments during composting rapidly increased above $65.4^{\circ}C$, and then gradually decreased to around $40^{\circ}C$. At 60 day, after the treatment, pH 5.9 ~ 8.0 at the incipient stage increased to 7.6 ~ 8.5, and the C/N ratio was 13.8 ~ 21.1 at the final composting stage. Germination Index(G.I.) showed in the range of 75.1 ~ 94.6 in all treatments at day 60. Therefore, it is likely recommended to take the best humification grade when the temperature maintains above $65^{\circ}C$ longer than a day at minimum, in the range of pH 6.5 ~ 8.5 for the final compost, under 20 of C/N ratio, and G.I. above 80. The level of G.I. above 80 should be the mature compost which could be used in the field without gas demage to crops.

Study on the Recycled Compositing System for Reducing Bulking Agent Cost (부자재 비용절감을 위한 순환퇴비화 시스템에 관한 연구)

  • 최명환;홍지형;박금주;최원춘
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.191-199
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    • 2000
  • This study was initiated to investigate the influence of biophysical condition on the composting characteristics, and conducted to develop technology for using recycled compost as a bulking agent cost to reduce operating cost. To methods of aeration, continuous aeration (CA: run No. I) and intermittent aeration (IA: run No. 2) were performed with three 12.3 liter laboratory scale vessels for ten days. Manure and rice hulls were mixed for thirst trial (I), rice hulls and recycled compost after first trial were mixed for second trial (II), dairy manure and only recycled compost after second trial were mixed for third trial (III). During the composting process, temperatures of the compost mass and ammonia emissions were measured. The quality and maturity of compost were ascertained by examining the characteristics and composition of the compost. Also, loss of mass was determined by measuring the mass of materials in the vessels before and after composting. The results in this study are as follows: 1. The periods of optimum temperature ($>55^{\circ}C$) to kill pathogens were maintained from 38 to 78 hours for CA and from 60 to 98 hours for IA. 2. The more recycled compost mixed, the more ammonia emitted. The maximum ammonia emissions were 287 ppm at CA and 420 ppm at IA. 3. Biofiltration system was required for the compo sting system using only recycled compost as an amendment, because the ammonia emissions was produced above 100 ppm at the end of composting process. 4. The quality and maturity of compost: - Fresh compost, were required drying, because moisture contents of the compost were approximately 70% in all tests. - The pH values were observed to rise smoothly, from 7.9 to 8.3 at CA and from 8.4 to 8.6 at IA. The CfN ratios of the fresh compost were ranged form 21.05 to 16.42 for CA and from 22.81 to 14.75 for IA. The final C/N ratios for test II and III were below 20.were below 20.

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Evaluation of Compost Maturity during the Active Composting of Cow Manure and Castor Meal (우분과 피마자박을 이용한 퇴비화 과정 중 부숙도 평가)

  • Chang, Ki-Woon;Hong, Joo-Hwa;Lee, Jong-Jin;Han, Ki-Pil;Kim, Nam-Cheon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to find an optimal combination rate of castor meal for the good qualitative compost and to estimate the humification grade by physico-chemical characterization and phyto-toxicity test during composting of the mixture with cow manure and castor meal. The material ratios of the compost which was mixed with cow manure(C), castor meal(C), and saw dust(S) were 5 : 1 : 4(CCS-1), 5 : 2.5 : 2.5(CCS-2) and 5 : 4 : 1(CCS-3) by volume to volume, and they were decomposed for 60 days. In the result, the changes of temperature in all treatments during composting radically increased more than $63.6^{\circ}C$ at the incipient stage, and gradually decreased around $42^{\circ}C$. At the 60 days after the treatment, pH was slowly increased from 7.0 to 8.0, and the C/N ratio was 12.3~13.8 at the final composting stage. The low C/N ratio value was caused by the castor meal with high nitrogen level(T-N 5.7%). G.I.(germination index) showed in the range of 77.5 to 82.6 in all treatments. Among all treatments CCS-1 was appeared to be the best condition for composting. Therefore, the combination rate of castor meal which was used for compost humification improvement could be recommended 10% to manufacture the good qualitative cow manure compost.

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Feasibility of Composting Combinations of Sewage Sludge, Cattle Manure, and Sawdust in a Rotary Drum Reactor

  • Nayak, Ashish Kumar;Kalamdhad, Ajay S.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this paper was to study the effect of five different waste combinations (C/N 15, C/N 20, C/N 25, C/N 30, and control) of sewage sludge coupled with sawdust and cattle manure in a pilot scale rotary drum reactor, during 20 days of the composting process. Our results showed that C/N 30 possesses a higher temperature regime with higher % reduction in moisture content, total organic carbon, soluble biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand; and higher % gain in total nitrogen and phosphorus at the end of the composting period implying the total amount of biodegradable organic material is stabilized. In addition, $CO_2$ evolution and oxygen uptake rate decreased during the process, reflecting the stable behavior of the final compost. A Solvita maturity index of 8 indicated that the compost was stable and ready for usage as a soil conditioner. The results indicated that composting can be an alternate technology for the management of sewage sludge disposal.

Mass Reduction and Physicochemical Properties of the Produced Compost during Composting Domestic Food Wastes in a Small Composter (소형 퇴비화용기에서 가정 음식물쓰레기의 퇴비화 과정 중 감량화 및 생산 퇴비의 물리화학적 특성)

  • Park, Ju-Won;Seo, Jeoung-Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.238-243
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    • 2001
  • Mass reduction and physicochemical properties of the produced compost were investigated during composting domestic food wastes without additive. A small composter used in this study had the height of 15 cm from the center of bottom half circle (diameter 24 cm) up to under the lid, the side length of 50 cm and the horizontal lid angle of $50^{\circ}$ and was operated at the heating unit temperature of $85^{\circ}$. It was mixed by the rotating arm for two minutes in every half hour while supplied with air flow at 3 L/min for 10 minutes in every half hour. This condition was found in a preliminary experiment as optimal for keeping the water content of composting material in the optimal range without adding any bulking materials. The domestic food wastes were added into the composter at the rate of 1 kg/day without additives during composting. The results were as follows; during the composting process, water content maintained in the range of $51.0{\sim}53.5%$. Hemicellulose and lignin contents did not show any tendency, but cellulose content decreased. During the composting process, $NH_3-N$ and $NO_2-N$ were not detected due to nitrification. The contents of inorganic compounds did not increase during the composting process. They were in the range of $1.32{\sim}1.71%\;P_2O_5$, $1.29{\sim}1.48%\;CaO$, $0.41{\sim}0.49%\;MgO$, and $0.38{\sim}0.74%\;K_2O$. For 20 days, weight reduction rate was 67.5% in wet basis, and decomposition rate was 48% in dry basis. Concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, As) was less than the limiting value of the compost. Maturity of the produced compost was 3 grade through reaching maximum temperature of $46{\sim}48^{\circ}C$.

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Evaluation of Maturity Index for Garbage Composting Using the Sawdust as Bulking Agent (톱밥을 공극개량제로 사용한 음식쓰레기 퇴비화시 숙성도 지표의 적합성 평가)

  • Namkoong, Wan;Park, Sang-Hoo;In, Byung-Hoon;Park, Joon-Seok;Lee, Noh-Sup
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2000
  • The objective of study was to evaluate the apropriate maturity indices for garbage composting using sawdust as bulking agent. Materials used in this study were the average composition garbage(G20) and garbage conditioned by sawdust(GS30, GS50) and cereals(GSC30). Indices for evaluating maturity were VS, water soluble TOC, polysaccharide, Humification Index(HI), and E4/E6. Experiment results showed that VS reduction was the most desirable index for evaluating compost maturity except for the GS50 which were conditioned with high sawdust Water soluble TOC decreased rapidly during the composting of first one month and then little changed. Therefore, water soluble TOC was recommended as maturity index. Polysaccharide was considered as a maturity index in case of garbage conditioned with sawdust and high cereals. Humification Index(HI) and E4/E6 were available as maturity indices in case of only some garbage composting so additional study was needed to confirm them as maturity indices for all garbage composting. Correlation analysis indicated that indices for evaluating maturity of garbage(about 30 C/N ratio) adding sawdust as bulking agent and high cereals, were VS reduction, water soluble TOC, polysaccharide, and E4/E6.

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Effect on Livestock Manure Composting by the Enriched Microbial Population (미생물에 의한 축산 폐기물 퇴비화에 미치는 영향)

  • 신혜자
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 2002
  • Several kinds of thermophilic, aerobic microorganisms (Bacillus genus), metal leaching microorganisms (Thiobacillus, T. ferooxidans), and other nondegradable chemical-degrading microorganisms (Pseudomonas genus) were utilized to study the effect on composting livestock manure. Under the Carbon-Nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 35∼40 and water content of 50∼65% conditions, the composting in the cycling drum reactor showed slower composting and lower temperature increase than that of the manual reactor. Element analysis after composting indicated relatively high levels of mineral contents with the substitutional effect of chemical fertilizer. Metal analysis before and after composting showed lower As in all, Cr in pig, Pb in cow, Hg in chicken, and Cu in cow manure compost than the regulation values. Compost maturity was ascertained by the several maturity tests. Salmonella and E. cozi detection test by SS or EMB agar plate confirmed the safety from the pathogenic microorganisms. The results suggest that the inoculation of metal and some other chemical degrading microorganisms during composting might decrease metal contamination and increase composting rate.

Liquid-Composting Conditions of By-product Obtained from Degradation of Animal Carcass for Agriculture Recycling (폐가축사체의 농업적 재활용을 위한 가축사체 액상부산물의 액비화 조건 구명)

  • Seo, Young-Jin;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kang, Se-Won;Lee, Sang-Gyu;Park, Ju-Wang;Choi, Ik-Won;Sung, Hwan-Hoo;Kang, Seog-Jin;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.348-354
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: Globally, concern about emerging infectious diseases of livestock is growing. For the disposal of the animal carcass, it is necessary to recycle the carcass into an agriculturally usable product. The objective of this study was to investigate the composting conditions of liquid by-product obtained from degradation of animal carcass. METHODS AND RESULTS: Optimum conditions of liquid fertilizer were investigated using different microorganisms, pHs, and volumes of microorganisms (Lactobacillus rhamnosus+Pichia deserticola). Based on the results from the optimum conditions, compost maturity and quality of liquid fertilizer were evaluated for 112 days. The compost maturity of liquid fertilizer were higher in the order of LP(Lactobacillus rhamnosus + Pichia deserticola) > BC(Bacillus cereus) > BS(Bacillus subtilis). The optimum condition under different volumes of LP was injection of 0.5 mL/100 mL. The compost maturity under different pHs were higher in the order of pH 7 > $$5{\geq_-}9{\frac{._-}{.}}11$$. The liquid by-product at 56 days after composting was completely decomposed. The concentrations of T-N, T-P and $K_2O$ in liquid fertilizer at 56 days were 0.94, 0.17 and 3.78%, respectively, and the sum of those concentrations was 4.89%. CONCLUSION(S): Liquid fertilizer of by-product using pig carcass was decomposed with optimum conditions(LP, pH 7, injection of 0.5 mL/100 mL) in 56 days after composting, and was suitable for official standard of commercial fertilizer.

Changes in Characteristics of Bark and Piggery Manure By-Product Fertilizers During the Composting (수피${\cdot}$돈분 부산물 비료의 부숙단계별 특성 변화)

  • Yang, Jae-E;Park, Chang-Jin;Yong, Seok-Ho;Kim, Jeong-Je
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.372-377
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    • 1999
  • Objective of this research was to draw the basic criteria of the compost maturity evaluation, by assessing the stability of chemical and physical properties of the bark and piggery manure byproduct composts during the composting. Colors of the mature composts were black and dark brown for the bark and piggery manure by-product composts, respectively. Good earthy odor was detected for both by-product composts after approximately 40 days composting, by which odors of the original raw materials were disappeared. pH and EC of the mature bark: compost were stabilized at 6.5 and 1dS/m, respectively. The respective values for the piggery compost were stabilized at 7.2 and 6dS/m. Organic matter contents were decreased with time to be stabilized at about 60% at the end of composting. During composting, total N contents of the bark and piggery composts were maintained at $1.1{\sim}1.5%$, and $1.5{\sim}2.2%$, respectively. For both fertilizers, $NH_4-N$ contents were increased at the initial stage bur. decreased after the middle stages of decomposition, resulting in the increase of $NO_3-N$ contents. Total inorganic N contents were increased with time. C/N ratios of both mature composts were stabilized at $25{\sim}27$. CEC of the bark compost was increased logarithmically with time and that of mature compost was 87cmol(+)/㎏. CEC of the piggery manure compost was hyperbolic function with rime and reached at 70cmol(+)/㎏ at the mature stage. Crude fiber analysis indicated that relative contents of lignin were increased with composting by compensating for the decreases of cellulose and hemicellulose contents.

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