• Title, Summary, Keyword: Compost maturity

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Assessment of Compost Maturity on Their Different Stages with Microbial and Biochemical Mass Dynamics (미생물 및 생화학적 질량역적분석에 의한 퇴비화단계별 부숙도 평가)

  • Suresh, Arumuganainar;Choi, Hong Lim;Yao, Hongqing;Zhu, Kun
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.36-47
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    • 2009
  • Microbial and related biochemical mass of composts are important for optimization of its process and end-products. This study was carried out to assess the specific microbial and related biochemical mass which could be used as an indicator for compost maturity during composting stages. The samples from five compost plants were collected at three stages (Initial, Thermophilic and Mature) and analyzed for total aerobic bacteria (TAB), Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Actinomycetes and fungi. Significantly, the coliforms and E.coli counts decreased during the thermophilic stage and were completely eliminated during mature stage. However, the other microbial mass were completely eliminated during mature stage. Which disclosed that Coliforms and E.coli communities can be used as compost maturity indicator. Interestingly, the microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen ratio (MBC/MBN) were decreased a little during the thermophilic stage due to the decreasing number of coliforms, Ecoli and fungi, while the ratio increased during the mature stage due to increasing fungal and aerobic bacterial counts. In addition the heavy metals were shown strong negative correlation with Actenomycetes. This study provides insight to the evaluation of compost maturity as well as the quality by the metal-microbial interactions.

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Effects of Earthworm Cast Addition on Food Waste Compost under Co-composting with Sawdust

  • Lee, Chang Hoon;Nam, Hong-Sik;Kim, Seok-Cheol;Park, Seong-Jin;Kim, Myeong-Sook;Kim, Sung-Chul;Oh, Taek-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.588-597
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    • 2017
  • Food waste has been recognized as a critical problem in Korea and many research was conducted to efficiently reutilize or treat food waste. Main purpose of this research was to evaluate a feasibility for producing fermented organic fertilizer with mixture of earthworm cast (EC). Four different treatments were mixed with food waste and EC at the rate of 0, 10, 20, and 30%, respectively. Total days of composting experiment were 84 days and each sub samples were collected at every 7 days from starting of composting. Results showed that inner temperature in composting was increased to $70{\pm}4^{\circ}C$ within 5~10 days depending on mixing ratio of EC. Among different treatment, the highest increase of inner temperature was observed in treatment mixed with food waste and EC 30%. After finishing composting experiment, maturity was evaluated with solvita and germination test. Maturity index (MI) of each treatment was ranged between 5~7 indicating that manufactured fertilizer was curing or finished stage. Calculated germination index (GI) was at the range of 104~116 depending on mixing ratio of EC. Both MI and GI showed that manufactured fertilizer was suitable for fertilizer criteria while control (FW only) was not adequate for composting. Overall, earthworm cast can be utilized for improving compost maturity by mixing with food waste and more research should be conducted to make high quality of food waste compost with earthworm cast in agricultural fields.

Some Technical Aspects of Composting

  • Hong, Ji-Hyung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.526-537
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    • 1993
  • The development of composting techniques is essential to the low input sustainable agriculture. This paper resents an evaluation of composting system, compost materials, aeration & temperature effects, compost maturity , and operational concerns for compost utilization. The composting of organic waste is markedly affected by the nature of the feedstock and the operational temperature employed for the process. These two major parameters are critically examined in this paper, with references to the decomposition of the organic waste. Future research should concentrate on the indications of stability and environmental problems.

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Changes in Spectroscopic Characteristics of Bark and Piggery Manure By-Product Composts During the Composting (수피${\cdot}$돈분 부산물 비료의 부숙단계별 분광학적 특성 변화)

  • Yang, Jae-E;Park, Chang-Jin;Shin, Myung-Kyo;Park, Yong-Ha;Choi, Moon-Heon;Kim, Jeong-Gyu;Kim, Jeong-Je
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.378-383
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    • 1999
  • Changes of the spectroscopic characteristics of the organic matter fractions and circular filter paper chromatograph were assessed for the bark and piggery manure composts during the composting. as an approach to base the criteria of the compost maturity evaluation. Contents of humic acid-C (HA-C) and fulvic acid-C (FA-C) in both bark and piggery manure composts were decreased as the composting got closer to maturity, but the ratios of HA-C/FA-C were increased. During the composting. ${\Delta}log$ K values were decreased, but RF values were increased. Humic acid of the mature bark compost after 120 days of composting was A-type, as compared to Rp-type for the raw bark and B-type for the immature compost. However. humic acid of the mature piggery manure composts after 40 days of composting was B-type, indicating the humification of the organic matter fractions continued at this stage. Circular filter paper chromatograph of the mature bark compost exhibited the regular sawteeth pattern at the edge, but that of the mature piggery manure showed an irregular sawteeth pattern. Results demonstrated that spectroscopic characteristics and circular filter paper chromatograph of the organic by-product composts might be employed for the compost stability assessment.

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Composting Characteristics of Food Waste - Poultry Manure Mixture Inoculated with Effective Microorganisms (유용미생물처리 음식물쓰레기와 계분 혼합물 퇴비화 특성)

  • Hong, Ji-Hyung;Park, Keum-Joo
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2009
  • This study investigated the evaluation of maturity, stability, nutrient and heavy metal from rotating drum composter of food waste amended with poultry manure composting inoculated with effective microorganisms(EM). Composting were performed for the first, drying reactor($15m^3$) 3 hours and the second, composting reactor($30m^3$) 24 hours, and parameters monitored this period included moisture content, NaCl, pH, electrical conductivity(EC), C/N ratio, organic matter(OM), nutrient content and heavy metal. Changes in compost temperature during composting were maintained constantly in the range of $60{\sim}80^{\circ}C$ using firewood boiler(450 MJ/h). We examined physicochemical parameters and heavy metals in order to assess their effectiveness as stability and maturity, nutrient and harmful indicators such as seed germination rate<60%, potassium 1>%, dm and NaCl>1%, dm at the end of the final compost. The finished compost obtained after decomposition phase at the end of the 2nd composter could not be utilized for land improvement or reclamation.

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Substrate Quality Effects on Decomposition of Three Livestock Manure Composts with Similar Stability Degree in an Acid Loamy Soil

  • Lim, Sang-Sun;Jung, Jae-Woon;Choi, Woo-Jung;Ro, Hee-Myong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.527-533
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    • 2011
  • Decomposition of compost applied to soils is affected basically by its biological stability; but, many other chemical properties of the compost may also influence compost organic-C mineralization. This study was conducted to investigate the principal substrate quality factors of composts that determine C mineralization of compost with similar stability degree (SD). Three composts samples with similar SD but different chemical properties such as pH, C/N, $K_2SO_4$-extractable C, and molar ratio of $NH_4^+$ to $NO_3^-$ were mixed with an acid loamy soil and $CO_2$ emission was monitored during the laboratory incubation for 100 days. Temporal pattern of cumulative compost organic-C mineralization expressed as % of total organic C ($C_{%\;TOC}$) followed double exponential first order kinetics model and the $C_{%\;TOC}$ ranged from 4.8 to 11.8% at the end of incubation. The pattern of C%TOC among the composts was not coincident with the SD pattern (40.1 to 58.6%) of the composts; e.g. compost with the lowest SD resulted in the least $C_{%\;TOC}$ and vice versa. This result indicates that SD of compost can not serve as a concrete predictor of compost mineralization as SD is subject not only to maturity of compost but also to characteristics of co-composting materials such as rice hull (low SD) and sawdust (high SD). Meanwhile, such pattern of $C_{%\;TOC}$ collaborated with pH, C/N, $K_2SO_4$-extractable C, and molar ratio of $NH_4^+$ to $NO_3^-$ of the composts that are regarded as chemical indices of the progress of composting. Therefore, for better prediction of compost mineralization in soils, it is necessary to consider both SD and other chemical indices (pH, C/N, and molar ratio of $NH_4^+$ to $NO_3^-$).

Effect of Food Waste Compost on Crop Productivity and Soil Chemical Properties under Rice and Pepper Cultivation

  • Lee, Chang Hoon;Ko, Byong-Gu;Kim, Myung-Sook;Park, Seong-Jin;Yun, Sun-Gang;Oh, Taek-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.682-688
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    • 2016
  • Food waste has recognized one of useful sources for potentially agricultural application to supply organic matter and nutrients in arable soil. However, there was little information on application of food waste compost related to the maturity and NaCl content in arable soil. This study evaluated the effect of food waste compost application on yield and fertility in soil under flooding and upland condition. The yields in rice and pepper cultivation decreased with increasing the rate of food waste compost application in soil (p<0.05). Maximum yields of rice ($49.0g\;plant^{-1}$) and pepper ($204g\;plant^{-1}$) were shown at 10 and $30Mg\;ha^{-1}$ of food waste compost application, respectively. The N, P, and K contents in grain and plant residues increased by the application of food waste compost, there was no difference on Na/K ratio in plant tissue among the treatments. Application of food waste compost resulted in the increase of pH, EC, TC, available P contents in soil after crop harvest, especially, which was shown the increase of the CEC and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) contents in irrespective of water condition. In conclusion, application of food waste compost in soil was effective on the supply of the organic matter and nutrient. However, it might need caution to apply food waste compost for sustainable productivity in arable soil because of potential Na accumulation.

Estimation of Ammonia Emission During Composting Iivestock Manure Based on the Degree of Compost Maturity (축분 퇴비화 과정 중 퇴비 부숙도를 고려한 암모니아 발생량 산정)

  • 김기연;최홍림;고한종;김치년
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 2006
  • Principal aim of this study is to suggest the statistical equation model which can predict an amount of ammonia emission according to the degree of compost maturity during composting livestock manure. Composting process was classified with intial, midterm and final phase based on germination index of compost samples. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen(TKN) and organic matter(OM) were selected as the independent variables available to contribute to ammonia emission from composting pile. Ammonia concentration measured in the samples taken at the intial phase was about 10ppm, sharply increased to 50ppm at the midterm phase, and gradually decreased to about 10ppm. The contents of Total Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic matter through whole composting period were ranged from 0.6 to 1.2% and from 30 to 40%, respectively, were reduced slightly at the midterm phase, but generally showed no constant fluctuation pattern. In estimating ammonia emission with application of the statistical equation model, the coefficients of independent variables at the midterm phase when an average concentration of ammonia was highest showed a relatively high values whereas those at the initial phase when an that of ammonia was lowest indicated a relatively low values. However, no statistical significance was found in the coefficients of independent variables and the equation model. Additionally, the further research, which can include the considerable analysis data with more samples taken than this study, is needed in order to suggest the statistically significant equation model available to predict ammonia emission during composting process.

COMPOSTING AND LAND APPLICATION OF ANIMAL WASTES

  • Harada, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.113-121
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    • 1992
  • An the livestock production in Japan is industrialized, a tremendous amount of animal wastes is being produced annually, resulting in serious environmental pollution problems. Animal wastes could be pollutants, but they are also important sources of fertilizer nutrients and organic matter. Composting is an effective way of promoting the increased utilization of animal wastes. The characterization of maturing process during composting is important in order to improve the composting technology and to develop and efficient method to estimate the degree of maturity. The rise and fall in temperature, and changes in the constituents of the compost, reflect the maturing process and may serve as indicators for maturation. In addition, the detection of nitrate by diphenylamine, the determination of cation-exchange capacity (CEC), and the germination test, are also recommended as the methods of estimating the degree of maturity. The heavy applications of animal manure and compost may cause an adverse effect on soils and crops. When excess manure is applied, the nitrogen will be accumulated in soil, resulting in accumulation of nitrate in crops and pollution of the groundwater. Guidelines for application rates are recommended, to maintain soil productivity and quality of crops, and to prevent the environmental pollution.

Characterization of composted chicken manures discharged from farms in South Korea

  • Nguyen, Xuan Phuc;Jho, Hoon;Jeong, Yeon-Jae;Jo, Young-Tae;Islam, Mohammad Nazrul;Park, Jeong-Hun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.254-259
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the characteristics as well as the maturity and stability of chicken manure collected from nine chicken farms in South Korea during the summer and winter seasons of 2014 are evaluated. The physicochemical parameter values of the manure, such as BOD, $NO_3-N$ and $PO_4-P$ etc. were determined using the Korea Standard test Method, HPLC, and APHA standard methods. The results showed that the alkalinity content and COD concentration in winter chicken manure were higher than those of summer chicken manure. The moisture content of summer manure was positively correlated with almost all of the other parameters of the manure, whereas it was negatively correlated with almost all of the other parameters in the winter manure. According to the criterion of C/N ratio, chicken manure indicated good quality compost. However, composted chicken manure showed immature and unstable compost when considering the criteria of the $NH_4-N/NO_3-N$ ratio and $NH_4-N$ concentrations.