• Title, Summary, Keyword: Compost maturity

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Maturity Evaluation of Pig Manure Compost by Constituents of Organic Matter Influenced by Microbial Activity

  • Shin, Wan-Sik;Chung, Doug-Young;Chang, Ki-woon;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2000
  • Regarding to maturity evaluation of pig manure compost mixed with saw dust, change of constituents of organic matter influenced by microbial activities were investigated. Throughout the two stages of active composting period, we obtained a lot of data related to compost stabilization. However, we found out that only a couple of parameters could be used for adequate evaluation of compost. We, therefore, decided that total sugar and reducing sugar could be used for the reasonable standard criteria of maturity during composting process, even though some enzyme activities by phosphates and cellulase reactions were obtained and compared. Because the other parameters such as contents of lignin, cellulose, and organic acids were difficult to be used for maturity evaluation of pig manure compost.

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Mechanical Test Methods for Compost Maturity

  • Kwon, Soon-Ik;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Jung, Goo-Bok;Park, Woo-Kyun;Hong, Seung-Gil;Kim, Kwon-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.959-961
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    • 2011
  • Manure-based composts can have detrimental effects on the agricultural lands and crops if they are applied without proper stabilization process. Composting is well-known method for the stabilization of manure-based composts and the extent of composting could be examined by maturity test. Among various methods to examine compost maturity, the performances of two mechanical methods (Solvita and CoMMe-100) were examined and the test results were compared with seed germination test. The mechanical methods are considered to be simple and relatively objective. Also they are cost- and time-efficient. Ten commercially available composts collected in Korea were used for this study. Basically, the maturity determined with these mechanical methods was in good agreement with the seed germination test. However, it appeared that the index levels of compost maturity indicated more maturity by CoMMe-100 than Solvita for the same compost. The differences between maturity index levels determined by both methods were able to be minimized through extending the reaction time for CoMMe-100 and adjusting index level for maturity determination in the standard color chart.

Characteristics of compost produced in food waste processing facility (음식물류 폐기물 퇴비화시설에서 생산된 퇴비품질 특성)

  • Lee, Chang-hoon;Park, Seong-jin;Kim, Myeong-sook;Yun, Sun-gang;Ko, Byong-gu;Lee, Deog-bae;Kim, Sung-chul;Oh, Taek-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 2015
  • Food waste has been widely considered as a recycling resource to be applied to agricultural lands due to the effects of organic matter and nutrient for plant productivity. but the maturity and salt concentration in the compost produced from food waste processing facilities should be considered firstly, which was little information on compost quality produced from food waste treatment facility. In this study, we examined actual situation of food waste processing facility on the composting of food waste and evaluated the characteristics of composts produced from food waste processing facilities. The quality of composts was analyzed on the basis of the criteria of fertilizer processing manual. The 46% of food waste treatment facility registered composting produced actually the compost mixed with food waste or animal waste. The compost maturity and salt concentration as indicators of the quality of compost were not met 46.8% of composts collected from food waste processing facilities to the criteria of fertilizer processing manual. Also, 15.6%(moisture) were not satisfied with the criteria. In conclusion, the compost produced from food waste processing facilities is firstly required with better compost maturity and reduced salt concentration in order to use to agricultural lands as an amendment.

Studies on the Correlation between Germination index and CO2 Emission for Evaluation of the Maturity of Compost Products (퇴비의 부숙도 평가에 있어서 CO2 발생량과 발아지수와의 상관성 연구)

  • 백창현;이명규;김창한
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to elucidate the correlation between Germination Index(G.I.) and CO2 emission for evaluation of the maturity of compost products. 13 compost samples was used for this experiment. The G.I. test was carried out on the basis of T-N 200ppm. As a result of this research, we found that CO2 emission method was good simple indicator for evaluation of maturity of compost materials, in spite of G.I. The obtain results are summarized as follows ; 1. The correlation value between the G.I. and the CO2 emission was R2 = 0.776. 2. The correlation value between EC(Electric Conductivity) and G.I. was R2 =0.7. 3. The equation calculated from G.I. and CO2 emission was G.I. = -16.7(InCO2) - 6.87. 4. From these results, we found the possibility of estimation for the value of G.I.(T-N 200ppm) from CO2 emission volume under specific condition.

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Evaluation of Foodwaste-compost Maturity with the Seed Germination Index of Plants (식물의 발아지수를 이용한 음식물 퇴비의 부숙도 평가)

  • Yoon, Eun Joo;Oh, Jeong-Ik;Yoon, Jeon Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.10
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    • pp.667-671
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    • 2014
  • By analyzing seed germination indexes of cabbage and radish, this study aims to evaluate the toxicity of food waste compost, which is produced by fermentation-extinction technology with bio wood chips. In the experimental results, the seed germination index of food waste compost for cabbage and radish was shown in the range of a minimum 104 and maximum 170. It was satisfied with the over 70 criteria in the level of the Korea fertilizer process specification. Consequently, the food waste compost from fermentation-extinction reaction with bio wood chips was evaluated by the appropriate compost maturity for the plantation.

Development of Composting Technology in Animal Waste Treatment - Review -

  • Haga, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.604-606
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    • 1999
  • Solid animal wastes in Japan are treated mainly by composting. The composting process under controlled conditions is able to convert the wastes into high-quality organic fertilizer. Various types of composting facilities with/without forced aeration and turning device are available. Characterization of the maturing process during composting was studied, to improve the quality of compost and to make the degree of maturity. Recycling of animal wastes as compost without any environmental pollution will be closely related to the development of sustainable agriculture with organic fertilizer in Japan.

Maturity Evaluation of Food Waste Compost through Water Extracts Analysis (물용출성분 분석에 의한 음식쓰레기 퇴비의 숙성도 평가)

  • Cheong, Jun-Gyo;Hwang, Eui-Young;Choi, Jung-Young;Namkoong, Wan
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 1996
  • Qualititative changes in water extracts during food waste composting were studied in order to identify parameters that can be used as indicaters of compost maturity. Materials used in this study were food wastes, office paper, newspaper and leaves. Three different compositions of food wastes were used : average composition food waste generated in Korea, a high cereal (carbohydrate) content food waste and a high meat (protein) content food waste. Experimental results indicated that parameters which can be used for compost maturity evaluation were water soluble TOC and water soluble $C_{org}/N_{org}$ ratio. In case of water soluble TOC, it is considered as one of the most desirable parameters, since it showed quite distinct decrease pattern than any other parameters. The $C_{org}/N_{org}$ ratio in the water extracts can also be considered as a appropriate index of the compost maturity since this ratio reached a narrow range (5~6) at the end of composting process regardless of initial raw waste compositions. Water soluble TKN was undesirable parameter as a compost maturity index. The ammonia nitrogen content in water extracts varied considerably during composting process, but finally reached a range of 0.067, 0.085% based on dry compost.

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Effects of Animal Waste Addition on Food Waste Compost under Co-composting

  • Lee, Chang Hoon;Kim, Seok-Cheol;Park, Seong-Jin;Kim, Myeong-Sook;Oh, Taek-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.623-633
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    • 2017
  • Food waste has been recognized as a organic sources for composting and many research was conducted to efficiently utilize or treat. This study was to evaluate a feasibility for producing food waste compost under co-composting with mixture of food and animal waste. The mixing ratio of food and animal waste was 35% as main material, which additionally mixed 30% of sawdust for co-composting. Total days of composting experiment were 84 days and each sub samples were collected at every 7 days from starting of composting. Results showed that inner temperature in composting was rapidly increased to $70{\pm}4^{\circ}C$ within 3~5 days depending on mixing animal waste of cattle, pig, and chicken base compared to sole food waste base. Expecially, the CN ratio in the mixture of food and pig water was the highest (16.2) among compost. After finishing composting experiment, maturity was evaluated with solvita and germination test. Maturity index (MI) of the mixture of food and animal waste was ranged between 6~7, but was 3 in sole food waste. Calculated germination index (GI) was at the range of about 100 irrespectively of mixing of food and animal waste. However, NaCl content and heavy metal as Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents was increased in the mixture of food and animal waste. which was the highest in compost mixed the food and pig waste. Both MI and GI showed that manufactured fertilizer was suitable for fertilizer criteria while sole food waste was not adequate for composting due to composting periods. Overall, mixing the food and animal waste can be utilized for improving compost maturity, but more research should be conducted to make high quality of food waste compost with animal waste in agricultural fields.

Compost Production using Vegetable Waste and Spent Oak Mushroom Substrate (SMS) (채소 부산물과 표고 수확후 배지를 활용한 퇴비 제조방법)

  • Kim, Eui-Yeong;Kook, Seung-Woo;Yuk, Hwa Jung;Yoon, Min Ho;Kim, Sung-Chul
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 2016
  • Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) has generally been used for the manufacture of animal feed and production of bio fuel. Limited research has been conducted in the utilization of SMS as a co-material for composting. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of composting vegetable waste mixed with various ratios of SMS (30, 40, and 50%). The results showed that the C/N ratio decreased when both sawdust (from 22.0~28.8 to 17.7~20.4) and SMS (from 18.5~19.5 to 12.7~16.8) were applied for composing, owing to increased contents of nitrogen. A maturity test conducted using mechanical (Solvita) and germination tests revealed that both sawdust (92.0~101.9%) and SMS (87.8~89.2%) satisfied a criteria of maturity standard (70%). A correlation analysis between compost maturity and its chemical properties revealed that the C/N ratio and pH were the most dominant parameters for compost maturity. Overall, SMS could be utilized as a compost material and especially, vegetable waste mixed with SMS could provide sufficient nutrients for crop growth.

Nondestructive determination of humic acid in compost by NIRS

  • Seo, Sang-Hyun;Han, Xiao-Ri;Cho, Rae-Kwang;Park, Woo-Churl
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1623-1623
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    • 2001
  • Composting is a biological method used to transform the organic waste into stable, humified organic amendments. Humification is indicated as the key factor in improving the quality of compost, because of the importance of humic substances to soil ecology, fertility and structure, and their beneficial effects on plant growth The compost constituents vary widely, however, the degree of maturity is very important factor in compost quality. So this experiment carried out to determine the rapid estimation of the quality in cattle, pig, chicken and waste composts using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy(NIRS). Near infrared reflectance spectra of composts was obtained by Infra Alyzer 500 scanning spectrophotometer at 2-nm intervals from 1100 to 2500nm. Multiple linear regression(MLR) or partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to evaluate a NIRS method for the rapid and nondestructive determination of humic acid contents in composts. The results summarized that NIR spectroscopy can be used as a routine testing method to determine quantitatively the humic acid content in the compost samples ondestructively. Especially, we supposed that absorbance around 2300nm is related to humic acid as a factor of compost maturity. However the NIR absorption approach is empirical, it actually requires many combinations of samples and data manipulations to obtain optimal prediction.

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