• Title, Summary, Keyword: Composites

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Advanced 'green' composites

  • Netravali, Anil N.;Huang, Xiaosong;Mizuta, Kazuhiro
    • Advanced Composite Materials
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.269-282
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    • 2007
  • Fully biodegradable high strength composites or 'advanced green composites' were fabricated using yearly renewable soy protein based resins and high strength liquid crystalline cellulose fibers. For comparison, E-glass and aramid ($Kevlar^{(R)}$) fiber reinforced composites were also prepared using the same modified soy protein resins. The modification of soy protein included forming an interpenetrating network-like (IPN-like) resin with mechanical properties comparable to commonly used epoxy resins. The IPN-like soy protein based resin was further reinforced using nano-clay and microfibrillated cellulose. Fiber/resin interfacial shear strength was characterized using microbond method. Tensile and flexural properties of the composites were characterized as per ASTM standards. A comparison of the tensile and flexural properties of the high strength composites made using the three fibers is presented. The results suggest that these green composites have excellent mechanical properties and can be considered for use in primary structural applications. Although significant additional research is needed in this area, it is clear that advanced green composites will some day replace today's advanced composites made using petroleum based fibers and resins. At the end of their life, the fully sustainable 'advanced green composites' can be easily disposed of or composted without harming the environment, in fact, helping it.

Effect of Wood Particle Size on Physical and Mechanical Composites by Nonwoven Web Process

  • Chae, Shoo Geun;Eom, Young Geun
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.40-55
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to discuss the feasibility of wood and plastic wastes as the raw materials for wood particle-plastic composites. For this purpose, composites were manufactured from coarse and fine wood particles and polypropylene fibers by nonwoven web process. And the effect of wood particle size on the performance of the composites were analyzed according to ASTM D 1037-93. In the physical properties of composites, water absorption decreased with the increase of target density and polypropylene fiber content. And the composites with fine wood particles appeared to have slightly lower water absorption than those with coarse wood particles. Thickness swelling did not vary significantly with the increase of target density but increased with the increase of wood particle content. And the composites with fine wood particles were significantly lower in thickness swelling than those with coarse wood particles. In the mechanical properties of composites, dry and wet MOR showed the increasing tendency with the increase of polypropylene fiber content and target density. Dry and wet MOE showed the increasing tendency with the increase of target density but only wet MOE exhibited the increasing tendency with the increase of polypropylene fiber content. Composites with fine wood particles appeared to be generally higher in wet MOR and MOE than those with coarse wood particles. In conclusion, composites with fine wood particles showed generally higher performance than those with coarse ones. Also, composites were significantly superior to control particleboards in the performance, especially in water absorption and thickness swelling.

Effects of Filler Characteristics and Processing Conditions on the Electrical, Morphological and Rheological Properties of PE and PP with Conductive Filler Composites

  • Kim, Youn-Hee;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Ji-Mun;Kim, Sung-Hyun;Kim, Woo-Nyon;Lee, Heon-Sang
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.110-115
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    • 2009
  • The electrical, morphological and rheological properties of melt and dry mixed composites of poly ethylene (PE)/graphite (Gr), polypropylene (PP)/Gr and PP/nickel-coated carbon fiber (NCCF) were investigated as a function of filler type, filler content and processing temperature. The electrical conductivities of dry mixed PP/NCCF composites were increased with decreasing processing temperature. For the melt mixed PP/NCCF composites, the electrical conductivities were higher than those of the melt mixed PE/Gr and PP/Gr composites, which was attributed to the effect of the higher NCCF aspect ratio in allowing the composites to form a more conductive network in the polymer matrix than the graphite does. From the results of morphological studies, the fillers in the dry mixed PP/NCCF composites were more randomly dispersed compared to those in the melt mixed PP/NCCF composites. The increased electrical conductivities of the dry mixed composites were attributed to the more random dispersion of NCCF compared to that of the melt mixed PP/NCCF composites. The complex viscosities of the PP/Gr composites were higher than those of the PP/NCCF composites, which was attributed to the larger diameter of the graphite particles than that of the NCCF. Furthermore, the fiber orientation in the 'along the flow' direction during melt mixing was attributed to the decreased complex viscosities of the melt mixed PP/NCCF composites compared those of the melt mixed PP/Gr composites.

Effect of HTT on Bending and Tensile Properties of 2D C/C Composites

  • Dhakate, S.R.;Aoki, T.;Ogasawara, T.
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.234-242
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    • 2005
  • Bending and tensile properties of 2D cross-ply C/C composites with processing heat treatment temperature (HTT) are evaluated. C/C composites used are made from two types of PAN based T700 and M40 carbon fibers with phenolic resin as carbon matrix precursor. Both the types of composites are heat treated at different temperatures (ranging from 750 to $2800^{\circ}C$) and characterized for bending and tensile properties. It is observed that, real density and open porosity increases with HTT, however, bulk density does show remarkable change. The real density and open porosity are higher in case T-700 carbon fiber composites at $2800^{\circ}C$, even though the density of M40 carbon fiber is higher. Bending strength is considerably greater than tensile strength through out the processing HTT due to the different mode of fracture. The bending and tensile strength decreases in both composites on $1000^{\circ}C$ which attributed to decrease in bulk density, thereafter with increase in HTT, bending and tensile strength increases. The maximum strength is in T700 fiber based composites at HTT $1500^{\circ}C$ and in M40 fiber based composites at HTT $2500^{\circ}C$. After attending the maximum value of strength in both types of composite at deflection HTT, after that strength decreases continuously. Decrease in strength is due to the degradation of fiber properties and in-situ fiber damages in the composite. The maximum carbon fiber strength realization in C/C composites is possible at a temperature that is same of fiber HTT. It has been found first time that the bending strength more or less 1.55 times higher in T700 fiber composites and in M40 fiber composites bending strength is 1.2 times higher than that of tensile strength of C/C composites.

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Improvement Field Emission Uniformity in Carbon Nanotube Composite using Zinc Nano-Fillers

  • Jeon, Sung-Yun;Park, Jae-Hong;Lee, Jong-Hak;Shin, Jun-Ho;Park, Sung-Min;Prashant, Alegaonkar;Yoo, Ji-Beom
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.772-774
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    • 2007
  • The improvement in the field emission parameters, luminescent uniformity, degradation rate and half life has been observed for the thin-multi wall carbon nanotube (t-MWCNT) composite, after incorporating the Zn nanoparticles. The Zn nanoparticles $(diameter\;{\sim}\;100\;{\pm}15\;nm)$ has been incorporated to synthesize the Zn-t-MWCNT composite.

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A Study on Properties of SSBR/NdBR Rubber Composites Reinforced by Silica

  • Lee, Dam-Hee;Li, Xiang Xu;Cho, Ur-Ryong
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.202-206
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    • 2018
  • Five solution styrene butadiene rubber/neodymium butadiene rubber (SSBR/NdBR) composites were manufactured using different ratios of SSBR and NdBR. In this study, the composites were reinforced with NdBR and silica to confirm the physical properties of SSBR used for treads of automobile tires and the dispersibility with silica. The morphologies of the rubber composites were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The crosslinking behaviors of the composites were tested using a rubber process analyzer (RPA), and the abrasion resistances were tested using a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) abrasion tester. The hardness values, tensile strengths, and cold resistances of the composites were also tested according to ASTM standards. Increased NdBR content yielded composites with excellent crosslinking properties, abrasion resistances, hardnesses, tensile strengths, and cold resistances. The crosslinking point increased due to the double bond in NdBR, thereby increasing the degree of crosslinking in the composites. The NdBR-reinforced composites exhibited excellent abrasion resistances, which is explained as follows. In SSBR, a breakage is permanent because a resonance structure between styrene and SSBR forms when the molecular backbone is broken during the abrasion process. However, NdBR forms an additional crosslink due to the breakdown of the molecular backbone and high reactivity of the radicals produced. In addition, the low glass transition temperature (Tg) of NdBR provided the rubber composites with excellent cold resistances.

A Study on the Processing Characteristic in the Compression Molding of Hybrid Thermoplastic Composites (하이브리드 열가소성 복합재료의 압축성형에서 공정특성에 관한 연구)

  • Heo, Seok-Bong;Lee, Joong-Hee;Shin, Gwi-Su;Rhee, Kyoung-Yop
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.2550-2555
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    • 2002
  • Hybrid composites usually are defined as composites having different types of reinforcements such as fibers and particles. The major advantage of hybrid composites is able to control the material properties such as optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. For this reason, hybrid composites are widely used in automotive, marine, household, and electrical industries. The objective of this work was to investigate processing characteristics in the compression molding of hybrid thermoplastic composites. The mechanical properties of composites manufactured in various forming conditions were monitored. The composites contained randomly oriented long carbon fiber and carbon black in polypropylene(PP) matrix were used. The carbon fiber contents of composites were 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, and carbon black contents were 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% by weight. Compression molding was conducted at various mold temperatures. Crstallinity was also measured by using X-RD. The tensile modulus of the composites increased with increasing the mold temperature. However, the impact strength of the composites decreased as the mold temperature increased.

Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Carbon-carbon Composites as a Function of Fiber Volume Content

  • Dhakate, S.R.;Mathur, R.B.;Dham, T.L.
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2002
  • Unidirectional polymer composites were prepared using high-strength carbon fibers as reinforcement and phenolic resin as matrix precursor with keeping fiber volume fraction at 30, 40, 50 and 60% respectively. These composites were carbonized at $1000^{\circ}C$ and graphitised at $2600^{\circ}C$ in the inert atmosphere. The carbonized and graphitised composites were characterized for mechanical properties as well as microstructure. Microscopic studies were carried out of the polished surface of carbonized and graphitised composites after etching by chromic acid, to understand the effect of fiber volume fraction on oxidation at fiber-matrix interface. It is found that the flexural strength in polymer composites increases with fiber volume fraction and so does for the carbonised composites. However, the trend was found to be reversed in graphitised composites. In all the carbonized composites anisotropic region has been observed at fiber-matrix interface which transforms into columnar type microstructure upon graphitisation. The extension of strong and weak columnar type microstructure is function of fiber volume fraction. SEM microscopy of the etched surface of the sample reveal that composites containing 40% fiber volume has minimum oxidation at the interface, revealing a strong interfacial bonding.

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Wear Characterization of $Al/Al_2O_3$ Composites Reinforced with Hybrid of Carbon Fibers and SiC Whiskers (탄소섬유와 SiC 휘스커를 혼합한 $Al/Al_2O_3$ 복합재료의 마멸특성)

  • 봉하동;송정일;한경섭
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.1619-1629
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    • 1995
  • The Al/Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ SiC and Al/Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$/C hybrid metal matrix composites (MMCs) were fabricated by squeeze infiltration method. Uniform distribution of reinforcements were found in the microstructure of metal matrix composites. Mechanical tests were carried out under various test conditions to clearly identify mechanical behavior of MMCs, and the wear mechanism of Al/Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$/(SiC or C) hybrid metal matrix composites were investigated. The tensile strength and hardness of hybrid composites was resulted in increasing compared with those of the unreinforced matrix alloy. Wear resistance was strongly dependent upon kinds of fiber, volume fraction and sliding speed. The wear resistance of metal matrix composites was remarkably improved by the addition of reinforcements. Especially, the wear resistance of the hybrid composites of carbon fibers was more effective than in the composites reinforced with alumina and SiC whiskers of reinforcements. This was due to the effect of carbon fiber on the solid lubrication. Wear mechanisms of hybrid composites were suggested from wear surface analyses. The major wear mechanism of hybrid composites was the abrasive wear at low to intermediate sliding speed, and the melting wear at intermediate to high sliding speed.