• Title, Summary, Keyword: Completeness axiom

### (예비)교사를 위한 완비성의 학습과 지도에 관한 소고

• Lee, Byung-Soo
• East Asian mathematical journal
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• v.26 no.4
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• pp.581-597
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• 2010
• In this paper, the author focuses on the teaching-level and learning-level of the completeness axiom and its applications on [0,1] and $\mathbb{R}$, $\mathbb{R}{\times}\mathbb{R}$, $\mathbb{R}{\times}\mathbb{R}{\times}\mathbb{R}$ by (expected) teachers in the school mathematics, which is usually introduced in the class of real analysis of university mathematics. Firstly the author considers the properties of the completeness axiom and its 19 equivalent theorems, next he deals with its importances in the school mathematics and finally he suggests the teaching and learning of the concepts on the completeness axiom and its applications on [0,1] and $\mathbb{R}$, $\mathbb{R}{\times}\mathbb{R}$, $\mathbb{R}{\times}\mathbb{R}{\times}\mathbb{R}$ by (expected) teachers in the school mathematics.

### NOTE ON CONVERGENCE OF EULER'S GAMMA FUNCTION

• Choi, Junesang
• Honam Mathematical Journal
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• v.35 no.1
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• pp.101-107
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• 2013
• The Gamma function ${\Gamma}$ which was first introduced b Euler in 1730 has played a very important role in many branches of mathematics, especially, in the theory of special functions, and has been introduced in most of calculus textbooks. In this note, our major aim is to explain the convergence of the Euler's Gamma function expressed as an improper integral by using some elementary properties and a fundamental axiom holding on the set of real numbers $\mathbb{R}$, in a detailed and instructive manner. A brief history and origin of the Gamma function is also considered.

### Involutive Micanorm Logics with the n-potency axiom (N-멱등 공리를 갖는 누승적 미카놈 논리)

• Yang, Eunsuk
• Korean Journal of Logic
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• v.20 no.2
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• pp.273-292
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• 2017
• In this paper, we deal with some axiomatic extensions of the involutive micanorm logic IMICAL. More precisely, first, the two involutive micanorm-based logics $P_nIMICAL$ and $FP_nIMICAL$ are introduced. Their algebraic structures are then defined, and their corresponding algebraic completeness is established. Next, standard completeness is established for $FP_nIMICAL$ using construction in the style of Jenei-Montagna.

### 정수론적 방법에 의한 $\sqrt{2}$의 무리수성 증명에 내재된 실수의 완비성 공리

• 도종훈
• Journal for History of Mathematics
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• v.17 no.1
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• pp.53-60
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• 2004
• In this paper, we analyse several number theoretical proofs of the irrationality of $\sqrt{2}$ and reveal that these proofs are implied by The Completeness Axiom of the real number system.

### The Infinite Decimal Representation: Its Opaqueness and Transparency (무한소수 기호: 불투명성과 투명성)

• Lee, Jihyun
• Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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• v.24 no.4
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• pp.595-605
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• 2014
• Infinite decimals have an infinite number of digits, chosen arbitrary and independently, to the right side of the decimal point. Since infinite decimals are ambiguous numbers impossible to write them down completely, the infinite decimal representation accompanies unavoidable opaqueness. This article focused the transparent aspect of infinite decimal representation with respect to the completeness axiom of real numbers. Long before the formalization of real number concept in $19^{th}$ century, many mathematicians were able to deal with real numbers relying on this transparency of infinite decimal representations. This analysis will contribute to overcome the double discontinuity caused by the different conceptualizations of real numbers in school and academic mathematics.

### Weakly associative fuzzy logics (약한 결합 원리를 갖는 퍼지 논리)

• Yang, Eunsuk
• Korean Journal of Logic
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• v.19 no.3
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• pp.437-461
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• 2016
• This paper investigates weakening-free fuzzy logics with three weak forms of associativity (of multiplicative conjunction &). First, the wta-uninorm (based) logic $WA_tMUL$ and its two axiomatic extensions are introduced as weakening-free weakly associative fuzzy logics. The algebraic structures corresponding to the systems are then defined, and algebraic completeness results for them are provided. Next, standard completeness is established for $WA_tMUL$ and the two axiomatic extensions with an additional axiom using construction in the style of Jenei-Montagna.

### A research on Mathematical Invention via Real Analysis Course in University (대학교의 해석학 강좌에서 학생들의 수학적 발명에 관한 연구)

• Lee, Byung-Soo
• Communications of Mathematical Education
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• v.22 no.4
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• pp.471-487
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• 2008
• Inventive mathematical thinking, original mathematical problem solving ability, mathematical invention and so on are core concepts, which must be emphasized in all branches of mathematical education. In particular, Polya(1981) insisted that inventive thinking must be emphasized in a suitable level of university mathematical courses. In this paper, the author considered two cases of inventive problem solving ability shown by his many students via real analysis courses. The first case is about the proof of the problem "what is the derived set of the integers Z?" Nearly all books on mathematical analysis sent the question without the proof but some books said that the answer is "empty". Only one book written by Noh, Y. S.(2006) showed the proof by using the definition of accumulation points. But the proof process has some mistakes. But our student Kang, D. S. showed the perfect proof by using The Completeness Axiom, which is very useful in mathematical analysis. The second case is to show the infinite countability of NxN, which is shown by informal proof in many mathematical analysis books with formal proofs. Some students who argued the informal proof as an unreasonable proof were asked to join with us in finding the one-to-one correspondences between NxN and N. Many students worked hard and find two singled-valued mappings and one set-valued mapping covering eight diagrams in the paper. The problems are not easy and the proofs are a little complicated. All the proofs shown in this paper are original and right, so the proofs are deserving of inventive mathematical thoughts, original mathematical problem solving abilities and mathematical inventions. From the inventive proofs of his students, the author confirmed that any students can develope their mathematical abilities by their professors' encouragements.

### 실수계의 공리를 이용한 지수 ar의 학습과 지도

• Lee, Byung-Soo
• East Asian mathematical journal
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• v.28 no.2
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• pp.159-172
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• 2012
• In all Mathematics I Textbooks(Kim, S. H., 2010; Kim, H. K., 2010; Yang, S. K., 2010; Woo, M. H., 2010; Woo, J. H., 2010; You, H. C., 2010; Youn, J. H., 2010; Lee, K. S., 2010; Lee, D. W., 2010; Lee, M. K., 2010; Lee, J. Y., 2010; Jung, S. K., 2010; Choi, Y. J., 2010; Huang, S. K., 2010; Huang, S. W., 2010) in high schools in Korea these days, it is written and taught that for a positive real number $a$, $a^{\frac{m}{n}}$ is defined as $a^{\frac{m}{n}}={^n}\sqrt{a^m}$, where $m{\in}\mathbb{Z}$ and $n{\in}\mathbb{N}$ have common prime factors. For that situation, the author shows his opinion that the definition is not well-defined and $a^{\frac{m}{n}}$ must be defined as $a^{\frac{m}{n}}=({^n}\sqrt{a})^m$, whenever $^n\sqrt{a}$ is defined, based on the field axiom of the real number system including rational number system and natural number system. And he shows that the following laws of exponents for reals: $$\{a^{r+s}=a^r{\cdot}a^s\\(a^r)^s=a^{rs}\\(ab)^r=a^rb^r$$ for $a$, $b$>0 and $s{\in}\mathbb{R}$ hold by the completeness axiom of the real number system and the laws of exponents for natural numbers, integers, rational numbers and real numbers are logically equivalent.

### Mathematical Verification of a Nuclear Power Plant Protection System Function with Combined CPN and PVS

• Koo, Seo-Ryong;Son, Han-Seong;Seong, Poong-Hyun
• Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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• v.31 no.2
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• pp.157-171
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• 1999
• In this work, an automatic software verification method for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) protection system is developed. This method utilizes Colored Petri Net (CPN) for system modeling and Prototype Verification System (PVS) for mathematical verification. In order to help flow-through from modeling by CPN to mathematical proof by PVS, an information extractor from CPN models has been developed in this work. In order to convert the extracted information to the PVS specification language, a translator also has been developed. ML that is a higher-order functional language programs the information extractor and translator. This combined method has been applied to a protection system function of Wolsong NPP SDS2(Steam Generator Low Level Trip). As a result of this application, we could prove completeness and consistency of the requirement logically. Through this work, in short, an axiom or lemma based-analysis method for CPN models is newly suggested in order to complement CPN analysis methods and a guideline for the use of formal methods is proposed in order to apply them to NPP Software Verification and Validation.