• Title, Summary, Keyword: Community Development

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A Qualitative Study on Facilitating Factors of User-Created Contents: Based on Theories of Folklore (사용자 제작 콘텐츠의 활성화 요인에 대한 정성적 연구: 구비문학 이론을 중심으로)

  • Jung, Seung-Ki;Lee, Ki-Ho;Lee, In-Seong;Kim, Jin-Woo
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.43-72
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    • 2009
  • Recently, user-created content (UCC) have emerged as popular medium of on-line participation among users. The Internet environment has been constantly evolving, attracting active participation and information sharing among common users. This tendency is a significant deviation from the earlier Internet use as an one-way information channel through which users passively received information or contents from contents providers. Thanks to UCCs online users can now more freely generate and exchange contents; therefore, identifying the critical factors that affect content-generating activities has increasingly become an important issue. This paper proposes a set of critical factors for stimulating contents generation and sharing activities by Internet users. These factors were derived from the theories of folklores such as tales and songs. Based on some shared traits of folklores and UCC content, we found four critical elements which should be heeded in constructing UCC contents, which are: context of culture, context of situation, skill of generator, and response of audience. In addition, we selected three major UCC websites: a specialized contents portal, a general internet portal, and an official contents service site, They have different use environments, user interfaces, and service policies, To identify critical factors for generating, sharing and transferring UCC, we traced user activities, interactions and flows of content in the three UCC websites. Moreover, we conducted extensive interviews with users and operators as well as policy makers in each site. Based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of the data, this research identifies nine critical factors that facilitate contents generation and sharing activities among users. In the context of culture, we suggest voluntary community norms, proactive use of copyrights, strong user relationships, and a fair monetary reward system as critical elements in facilitating the process of contents generation and sharing activities. Norms which were established by users themselves regulate user behavior and influence content format. Strong relationships of users stimulate content generation activities by enhancing collaborative content generation. Particularly, users generate contents through collaboration with others, based on their enhanced relationship and specialized skills. They send and receive contents by leaving messages on website or blogs, using instant messenger or SMS. It is an interesting and important phenomenon, because the quality of contents can be constantly improved and revised, depending on the specialized abilities of those engaged in a particular content. In this process, the reward system is an essential driving factor. Yet, monetary reward should be considered only after some fair criterion is established. In terms of the context of the situation, the quality of contents uploading system was proposed to have strong influence on the content generating activities. Among other influential factors on contents generation activities are generators' specialized skills and involvement of the users were proposed. In addition, the audience response, especially effective development of shared interests as well as feedback, was suggested to have significant influence on contents generation activities. Content generators usually reflect the shared interest of others. Shared interest is a distinct characteristic of UCC and observed in all the three websites, in which common interest is formed by the "threads" embedded with content. Through such threads of information and contents users discuss and share ideas while continuously extending and updating shared contents in the process. Evidently, UCC is a new paradigm representing the next generation of the Internet. In order to fully utilize this innovative paradigm, we need to understand how users take advantage of this medium in generating contents, and what affects their content generation activities. Based on these findings, UCC service providers should design their websites as common playground where users freely interact and share their common interests. As such this paper makes an important first step to gaining better understand about this new communication paradigm created by UCC.

Comparing Farming Methods in Pollutant runoff loads from Paddy Fields using the CREAMS-PADDY Model (영농방법에 따른 논에서의 배출부하량 모의)

  • Song, Jung-Hun;Kang, Moon-Seong;Song, In-Hong;Jang, Jeong-Ryeol
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.318-327
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: For Non-Point Source(NPS) loads reduction, pollutant loads need to be quantified for major farming methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of farming methods on NPS pollutant loads from a paddy rice field during the growing season. METHODS AND RESULTS: The height of drainage outlet, amount of fertilizer, irrigation water quality were considered as farming factors for scenarios development. The control was derived from conventional farming methods and four different scenarios were developed based combination of farming factors. A field scale model, CREAMS-PADDY(Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems for PADDY), was used to calculate pollutant nutrient loads. The data collected from an experimental plot located downstream of the Idong reservoir were used for model calibration and validation. The simulation results agreed well with observed values during the calibration and validation periods. The calibrated model was used to evaluate farming scenarios in terms of NPS loads. Pollutant loads for T-N, T-P were reduced by 5~62%, 8~37% with increasing the height of drainage outlet from 100 mm of 100 mm, respectively. When amount of fertilizer was changed from standard to conventional, T-N, T-P pollutant loads were reduced by 0~22%, 0~24%. Irrigation water quality below water criteria IV of reservoir increased T-N of 9~65%, T-P of 9~47% in comparison with conventional. CONCLUSION(S): The results indicated that applying increased the height of drainage after midsummer drainage, standard fertilization level during non-rainy seasons, irrigation water quality below water criteria IV of reservoir were effective farming methods to reduce NPS pollutant loads from paddy in Korea.

Environmental Characteristics and Vegetation of the Natural Habitats of Korean Endemic Plant Eranthis byunsanensis B.Y. Sun (한국 특산식물 변산바람꽃 자생지의 환경 특성과 식생)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ji;Jeong, Hye-Ran;Ku, Ja-Jung;Choi, Kyung;Park, Kwang-Woo;Cho, Do-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.90-97
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    • 2012
  • Environmental characteristics and vegetation of the natural habitats of Eranthis byunsanensis B.Y. Sun were investigated in order to provide the basic data for conservation, restoration, and utilization of this Korean endemic plant. This study was conducted in Anyang, Byeonsan, Geoje, Gyeongju, Jeju, Ulsan and Yeosu. E. byunsanensis was distributed around the altitudes of 84~585 m with a slope degree of $10{\sim}20^{\circ}$, and mostly formed discontinuous populations in north-east part of valleys. Soil analysis showed the mean organic matter of 9.6% and a slightly acidic pH (mean pH of 4.9). The mean gravimetric water content was 16.5%. Correlation coefficients between environmental factors and community characteristics suggested that there was a positive correlation between slope degree and soil water content, between slope degree and soil pH, between soil organic matter and importance value, and between species richness or evenness and species diversity. The vascular plants from 59 quadrats of 7 habitats were identified into 144 taxa. A few species were dominants and similarly distributed in Byeonsan, Jeju, Ulsan and Yeosu. The highest species diversity was found in Geoje (1.43), while Anyang showed the lowest (0.87). Species evenness of Gyeongju and Jeju was bigger than 0.8, but that of Geoje was the lowest (0.59). Dominant species of woody plants in and around the 59 plots were represented by high frequency of Acer pictum subsp. mono, Carpinus cordata, Lindera obtusiloba, and Carpinus laxiflora. The results of this study can provide useful data for conservation and restoration of natural habitats of Korean endemic Eranthis byunsanensis and for the development and growth of this species for ornamental purposes.

Variations and Characters of Water Quality during Flood and Dry Seasons in the Eastern Coast of South Sea, Korea (한국 남해 동부 연안 해역에서 홍수기와 갈수기 동안 수질환경 특성과 변동)

  • Jeong, Do Hyeon;Shin, Hyeon Ho;Jung, Seung Won;Lim, Dhong Il
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.19-36
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    • 2013
  • Physiochemical characters of sea waters during summer flood- and winter dry-seasons and their spatial variations were investigated along the coastal area off the eastern South Sea, Korea. Using the hierarchical clustering method, in this study, we present comprehensive analyses of coastal waters masses and their seasonal variations. The results revealed that the coastal water of the study area was classified into six water masses (A to F). During summer season, the surface water was mainly occupied by the coastal pseudo-estuarine water (water mass B) with low salinity and high nutrients and the river-dominated coastal water (water mass C) with low nutrients, respectively. The bottom water was dominated by cold water (water mass D) with very low temperature, high salinity and high nutrients, compared to masses of surface water. Notably, the water mass B, with high concentrations of nutrients (silicate and nitrogen) and low salinity, which is strongly controlled by the water quality of river freshwater, seems to play an important role in controlling the water quality and further regulating physical processes on ecosystem in the eastern coastal area of South Sea. The water mass D (bottom cold water) coupled with a strong thermocline, which exists in near-bottom layer along the western margin of Korea Strait, has a low temperature, pH and DO, but abundant nutrients. This water mass disappears in winter owing to strong vertical mixing, and subsequently may act as a pool for nutrients during winter dry-season. On the other hand, vertically well-mixed water column during the winter season was typically occupied by the Tsushima (water mass E) and the coastal water (water mass F) with a development of coastal front formed in a transition zone between them. These winter water masses were characterized by low nutrient concentration and balance in N/P ratio, compared with summer season with high nutrient concentrations and strong N-limitation. Accordingly, the analysis of water masses will help one to better chemical and biological processes in coastal area. In most of the study area, characteristically, the growth of phytoplankton community is limited by nitrogen, which is clearly different with coastal environment of West Sea of Korea, with a relative lack of phosphorus. It showed the western and the southern coasts in Korea are substantially different from each other in environmental and ecological characteristics.

A Study Dental Hygiene Students' Knowledge and Attitude toward Elderly (치위생(학)과 학생들의 노인에 대한 지식 및 태도에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jeong-Ran;Lee, Yeun-Kyoung
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.311-317
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    • 2009
  • The study conducted research investigating their about knowledge and attitude of toward elderly aimed at 251 students in the Department of Dental Hygiene located in some areas of Gyeongbuk and Gyeongnam. The total average score concerning knowledge about the elderly was found to be 11.78 out of a full score of 25 points, and the level of physical and physiological knowledge was the highest. As regards the total average of the attitude toward the elderly, it posted at 98.58 points out of a full score of 150 points and the attitude regarding the aspect of welfare was the most positive. About toward elderly correlation of knowledge and attitude between higher knowledge score more positive was attitude about toward elderly. From the above results, it would be necessary to reinforce not only the physical and physiological aspect of the elderly but also the education in the family and social areas during the development of educational contents for the Department of Dental Hygiene in relation to the elderly. Furthermore, it is deemed imperative to improve the relationship between the younger generations and the elder generation by having students practice in institutions related to the elderly, such as institutions for senior nursing and senior welfare centers and to develop a generational community program that will provoke positive interactions between them.

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The Relationship Between Social Security Network and Security Life Satisfaction in Community Residents: Scale Development and Application of Social Security Network (사회안전망과 지역사회주민의 안전생활만족의 관계: 사회안전망 척도개발과 적용)

  • Kim, Chan-Sun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.108-118
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to develop a relationship of measuring method for the social security network and verify its validity and reliability and apply it to investigate the due to security life satisfaction. This study is based by setting general residents of Seoul in 2013 and using the stratified cluster random sampling method to analyze a total amount of 203 examples. The measuring methods for the social security network was developed through document research, conceptual definition and drafting the survey, experts' conference, preliminary inspection and original examination, verification of the validity and reliability of the survey. An experts' conference took pace to verify the validity of the survey, and 6 factors were extracted through exploratory factor analysis crime prevention design, street CCTV facilities, volunteer neighborhood patrol, local government security education, police public peace service, private security service. The conclusion are the following. Collected data was analyzed based on the aim of this study using SPSSWIN 18.0, and practice frequency analysis, F test, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis. First, the validity of the social security network measurement is very high. Thus, the factors constituting the social security network were found to be crime prevention design, street CCTV facilities, volunteer neighborhood patrol, local government security education, police public peace services, and private security services, and the crime prevention design factor was found to be most explanatory. Second, the reliability of the social security network measurement is very high. Thus, the correlation between the questions and the sector, the questions and the social security net was very high, and the internal consistency showed a Cronbach's${\alpha}$ value of over 0.865. Third, the establishment of a social security network had the biggest effect on people in their forties. Thus, when the crime prevention design, street CCTV facilities, local government security education, police public peace services are systematically established, the social anxiety of citizens was reduced.

The Study on the Flora and Vegetation of Salt Marshes of Mankyeong River Estuary in Jeonbuk (전북 만경강 하구역 일대의 염습지 식물상 및 식생에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Chong-Hwan;Lee Kyenog-Bo;Cho Du-Sung;Myoung Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.289-298
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate salt marsh flora and vegetation in the mouth of Mankyeong river estuary area where has a project for Sea Man Geum Reclaimed Land so that we can foster a foundation on restoration of an ecological habitat, development of applicable plants and establishment of a conservation policy after developing the reclaimed land for salt marsh vegetation which has great ecological value. As a result of this research, there are 10 families 25 genera 29 species and 3 varieties of vascular plants in the Mankyong-river estuary area. These are 0.76% among 4,191 of Korean vascular plants. There are also 5 families 6 genera 6 species and 1 varietiy of the naturalized plants which are 7 taxa in total and 3.85% of indicators of naturalized plants. Firstly, a district of low tide marsh has below 5% of vegetation coverage of Suaeda japonica and the vegetation cover was increasing rapidly while moving to a place of high tide marsh which is in the direction to a bank. In general, a range of from low tide marsh to high tide marsh is distributed with sequence of Suaeda japonica$\rightarrow$Suaeda maritima$\rightarrow$Suaeda japonica$\rightarrow$Aster tripolium$\rightarrow$Artemisia scoparia$\rightarrow$Carex scabrifolia$\rightarrow$Zoysia sinica$\rightarrow$Phragmites australis$\rightarrow$Phacelurus latifolius. Suaeda japonica has the highest dominance among the species composition and Aster tripolium, Phragmites australis, Artemisia scoparia, Carex scabrifolia and Phacelurus latifolius are distributed as zonation or patch. By the Z-M method eleven plant communities were recognized; Suaeda japonica, Suaeda japonica-Suaeda maritima, Suaeda maritima, Suaeda japonica-Aster tripolium, Aster tripolium, Phragmites australis, Carex scabrifolia, Phacelurus latifolius, Artemisia scoparia-Aster tripolium, Paspalum distichum var. indutum and Aster tripolium-Artemisia scoparia community. The actual vegetation map was constructed of the grounds of the communities classified and other data.

Festival Space Design to Change the Value of Sudokwon Landfill Site - 2014 Dreampark Chrysanthemum Festival Basic Plan and Design - (수도권 매립지 가치변화를 위한 지속 가능한 축제 공간 계획 - 2014 드림파크 국화축제 기본계획 및 기본설계 -)

  • Kim, Ok-Kyung;Lee, Hak-Youn;Kim, Joo-Am;Lee, Bo-Ram;Kim, Ha-Yan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2014
  • This paper offers a landscape design proposal for the 2014 Dreampark Chrysanthemum Festival within the Sudokwon Landfill Site. This site is located at 58 Baeksukdong, Seo-gu, Incheon, and it has an area of approximately $560,000m^2$. Over 1.53million visitors came to this festival on the previous year. This design includes an overall masterplan and a series of planting plans along with a core selection of iconic topiaries. The goal of the design is to create a landscape that improves the value of the place image and local economy as well as celebrates the 2014 Incheon Asian Game. In order to achieve this goal, three design subjects were considered: promoting local pride as a part of Incheon, increasing the aesthetic value of the site based on the brand image, and sustainable placemaking. To promote local pride, the 2km long "Little Incheon" is designed over a wildflower field, which is inspired by Incheon Bridge to give a strong image of the locality. A variety of programs from local gardening participation were introduced to the east part of the site. The design also outlines the vision for the development of Dreampark - a people-oriented gathering place for the entire community with spaces that offer a variety of unstructured recreational and cultural experiences. To increase the aesthetic brand value of the festival, it introduced a variety of wildflower beds scattering through the whole site. It creates a strong brand image for the festival and memories that will encourage visitors to return. Various folktales of Asian countries are displayed by autumn flowers and groundcover plants at the centre of the site, which is the highlight of the festival site. For sustainable placemaking, the design preserves the existing trees and reed beds for wildlife to create natural layers of landscape. In addition, facilities and service centers are designed to be flexible and are centred on the needs of the people using them. Also a festival management scheme was planned in order to operate the site efficiently and economically.

An Estimation of Concentration of Asian Dust (PM10) Using WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ (MADRID) During Springtime in the Korean Peninsula (WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ(MADRID)을 이용한 한반도 봄철 황사(PM10)의 농도 추정)

  • Moon, Yun-Seob;Lim, Yun-Kyu;Lee, Kang-Yeol
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.276-293
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    • 2011
  • In this study a modeling system consisting of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, and the CMAQ-Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID) model has been applied to estimate enhancements of $PM_{10}$ during Asian dust events in Korea. In particular, 5 experimental formulas were applied to the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ (MADRID) model to estimate Asian dust emissions from source locations for major Asian dust events in China and Mongolia: the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) model, the Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, and the Dust Entrainment and Deposition (DEAD) model, as well as formulas by Park and In (2003), and Wang et al. (2000). According to the weather map, backward trajectory and satellite image analyses, Asian dust is generated by a strong downwind associated with the upper trough from a stagnation wave due to development of the upper jet stream, and transport of Asian dust to Korea shows up behind a surface front related to the cut-off low (known as comma type cloud) in satellite images. In the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling to estimate the PM10 concentration, Wang et al.'s experimental formula was depicted well in the temporal and spatial distribution of Asian dusts, and the GOCART model was low in mean bias errors and root mean square errors. Also, in the vertical profile analysis of Asian dusts using Wang et al's experimental formula, strong Asian dust with a concentration of more than $800\;{\mu}g/m^3$ for the period of March 31 to April 1, 2007 was transported under the boundary layer (about 1 km high), and weak Asian dust with a concentration of less than $400\;{\mu}g/m^3$ for the period of 16-17 March 2009 was transported above the boundary layer (about 1-3 km high). Furthermore, the difference between the CMAQ model and the CMAQ-MADRID model for the period of March 31 to April 1, 2007, in terms of PM10 concentration, was seen to be large in the East Asia area: the CMAQ-MADRID model showed the concentration to be about $25\;{\mu}g/m^3$ higher than the CMAQ model. In addition, the $PM_{10}$ concentration removed by the cloud liquid phase mechanism within the CMAQ-MADRID model was shown in the maximum $15\;{\mu}g/m^3$ in the Eastern Asia area.

Development of teaching-learning lesson plan untilizing TAI model based on module, used in survey subject of construction department - By applying standard-based assessment system for technical subject (건설계열 측량교과에서 활용할 모듈 기반의 TAI 모형 적용 교수-학습 과정안 개발 - 전문교과 성취평가제를 적용하여)

  • Lee, Ju-Min;Jang, Young-Il;Park, Wan-Shin
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.89-113
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    • 2013
  • The study started from the point that learners should be basically equipped to quickly respond to changes in demand for future human resources efficiently and effectively, and an attitude to take part in learning voluntarily should thus be cultivated. To this end, the author applied the TAI model based on a module as a class strategy to solve problems related to several classes occurred in specialized high schools. This application of the TAI model was also motivated by the necessity for designing an appropriate teaching-learning method that encourages improvement of self-learning capacity, consistent learning motivation, and willingness rather than external factors. Through this work, the author aims to heighten the interest of learners and improve endurance in learning. The study results are as follows. First, the learning unit was structuralized as a module and then learning stages were proceeded with so that capacity to adapt to learning would improve. The achievement standard (learning goal) was structuralized in a module type by analyzing and reorganizing the textbook considering the link between the actual practice field and a curriculum based on subject characteristics. Through the process of module type learning stages, the student's capacity to ascertain characteristics of units and to adapt to learning both improved. Second, through application of a TAI model based on a module, Self-Directed Learning capacity and capacity to adapt to a new field improved. By applying the module, Self-Directed Learning could be accomplished more effectively than in the existing passive learning environment. By grafting cooperative learning of the TAI model, students had greater interest and achievement in classes, self-confidence and community consciousness, and an opportunity to broaden their thinking. In particular, improvement of self-confidence is effective in cultivating the capacity required in industrial society to transcend the learning of simple functions and knowledge, as well as the capacity to adapt to new environments. Third, by solving tasks focused on fields related to industrial sites, not only actual survey capacity but also additional capacity to identify and solve tasks through various experiences improved. Furthermore, it was helpful for students to have interest and motivation about their own life and learning to cultivate the qualities and capacity to adapt to the working world where new knowledge and technology rapidly change. Fourth, by applying a standard-based assessment system for technical subjects introduced in 2012 to model design for learning plans, clearer and more objective assessment criteria were arranged, and individual learning through instruction at each achievement level could be accomplished. This improved achievement level of individual learners was helpful in reaching achievement goals at specific levels by overcoming the disadvantages of cooperative learning in each group.