• Title, Summary, Keyword: Coercivity

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Coercivity of Nd-Fe-B-type Fine Particles Prepared from Different Precursor Materials

  • Kim, K.M.;Kwon, H.W.;Lee, J.G.;Yu, J.H.
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.21-25
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    • 2015
  • Fine Nd-Fe-B-type particles were prepared by ball milling of different types of Nd-Fe-B precursor materials, such as die-upset magnet, HDDR-treated material, and sintered magnets. Coercivity dependence on the grain and particle size of the powder was investigated. Coercivity of the milled particles was reduced as the particle size decreased, and the extent of coercivity loss was dependent upon the precursor material. Coercivity loss in the finely milled particles was attributed to the surface oxidation. The extent of coercivity loss in the fine particles was closely linked to grain size of the precursor materials. Coercivity loss was more profound for the fine particles with larger grain size. Contrary to the fine particles from the sintered magnets with larger grain size the fine particles (~10 um) from the die-upset magnet and HDDR-treated material with much finer grain size still retained high coercivity (> 10 kOe for die-upset magnet, > 4 kOe for HDDR-treated material).

Characterization of Microstructures of Variously Heat Treated Hypoeutectoid and Eutectoid Steel by Magnetic Coercivity Measurement (보자력 측정에 의한 아공석강 및 공석강의 열처리에 따른 미세조직 평가)

  • Byeon Jai Won;Kim C. S.;Kwun S. I.
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.565-572
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    • 2004
  • The microstructures of variously heat treated hypoeutectoid($0.45\%$ carbon) and eutectoid($0.85\%$ carbon) steel were characterized by magnetic coercivity measurement. The effect of spheroidization of cementites on the coercivity was investigated for $0.45\%$ carbon steel. In case of $0.85\%$ carbon steel, microstructural parameters such as prior austenite grain size, phase and pearlite interlamellar spacing were measured along with coercivity to investigate the relationships between them. Prior austenite grain size had little effect on the measured coercivity. Coercivity was observed to be high in order of martensite, pearlite and ferrite phases. The linear decrease of coercivity with increasing pearlite interlamellar spacing was found. The effect of each microstructural factor on the coercivity and the potential of coercivity as a nondestructive evaluation parameter for assessing microstructures of steel products are discussed.

Coercivity of Near Single Domain Size Nd2Fe14B-type Particles

  • Kwon, H.W.;Yu, J.H.
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.185-189
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    • 2012
  • The coercivity of near single domain size $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$-type particles prepared by ball milling of HDDR-treated $Nd_{12.5}Fe_{80.6}B_{6.4}Ga_{0.3}Nb_{0.2}$ alloy was investigated. The feasibility of a surface nitrogenation for improving the coercivity stability of the fine $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$-type particles was also studied. The near single domain size $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$-type particles had a high coercivity of over 9 kOe. However, the coercivity radically deteriorated as the temperature increased in air (< 2 kOe at $200^{\circ}C$). This coercivity reduction was attributed to the soft magnetic phases, ${\alpha}$-Fe and $Fe_3B$, which formed on the surface of the fine particle due to oxidation. Surface nitrogenation of the fine particles significantly improved the stability of their coercivity. The improvement in coercivity stability was attributed to the formation of a thin nitrogenated layer on the surface of the fine $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$-type particles, which enhanced the anisotropy field and gave improved resistance to oxidation (dissociation).

The Effect of Sputter-textured Mo Thin Film on Magnetic properties of CoCrTa/Cr Magnetic Recording Media (Sputter-textured Mo 박막이 CoCrTa/Cr 자기기록매체의 자기적 성질에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Sung-Mook;Nam, In-Tak
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.21 no.A
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    • pp.221-229
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    • 2001
  • The effect of Mo underlayer on the magnetic properties of CoCrTa/Cr films deposited on glass substrates were investigated. The coercivity increased and the coercivity squareness decreased by introducing Mo underlayer. The coercivity increase was attributed to the increase of in-plane c-axis orientation and magnetic isolation of Co grains deposited on Cr/Mo underlayer. The decrease of coercivity squarenesses seemed to be caused by the increase of magnetic isolation. The increase of magnetic isolation of Co grains was attributed to the diffusion of Mo atoms into grain boundaries of Co films and the physical isolation of Co grains. The coercivity of CoCrTa/Cr/Mo showed maximum values at Mo thickness of $400{\AA}$. The appearance of the maximum coercivity at that thickness was attributed to the development of strong $Co(10{\bar{1}}0)$ and $Co(10{\bar{1}}1)$ preferred orientation.

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Initial Magnetization and Coercivity Mechanism in Amorphous TbxCo1-x Thin Films with Perpendicular Anisotropy

  • Kim, Tae-Wan;Lee, Ha-Na;Lee, Hyun-Yong;Lee, Kyoung-Il
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.169-172
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    • 2010
  • The coercivity mechanism in permanent magnets was analyzed according to the effects of domain nucleation and domain wall pinning. The coercivity mechanism of a TbCo thin film with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was considered in terms of the local inhomogeneity in the thin film. The initial magnetization curves of the TbCo thin films demonstrated domain wall pinning to be the main contributor to the coercivity mechanism than domain nucleation. Based on the coercivity model proposed by Kronmuller et al., the inhomogeneity size acting as a domain wall pinning site was determined. Using the measured values of perpendicular anisotropy constant ($K_u$), saturation magnetization ($M_s$), and coercivity ($H_c$), the inhomogeneity size estimated in a TbCo thin film with high coercivity was approximately 9 nm.

IMPROVEMENT OF DISTRIBUTION OF COERCIVITY IN CO-CR FILMS DEPOSSSITED BY FACING TARGETS SPUTTERING

  • Takayama, Seiryu;Nakagawa, Shigeki;Kim, Kyung-Hwan;Naoe, Masahiko
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.644-647
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    • 1996
  • The distribution of coercivity in the thickness direction were investigated by using Kerr hysteresis loop tracer for the Co-Cr films deposited by Facing Targets Sputtering apparatus. It was found that the difference between the coercivities of surface layer and initial growth layer H$_c$$\bot$(S)-H$_c$$\bot$(I) correlated strongly with $\Delta$H$_o$, shich represents the degree of distribution of coercivity. Furthermore, the Cr content was varied in order to improve the coercivity of imitial growth layer H$_c$$\bot$(I) and distribution of coercivity. H$_c$$\bot$(I) took a maximum value of 750 Oe and the distribution of coercivity became sharper at the Cr content of 25at. %.

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EFFECTS OF Pt AND Cr ADDITION ON MAGNETIC PROPERTIES IN Co-Cr-P-Pt MAGNETIC THIN FILMS

  • Sohn, H.K.;Shin, K.H.;Lee, T.D.;Kang, T.
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.5 no.5
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    • pp.618-622
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    • 1995
  • We studied the effects of Pt and Cr addition in a new Co-Cr-P-Pt alloy system with the coercivity higher than 2000 Oe even when they were deposited without substrate heating and bias voltage. The coercivity of the films increased from 1000 to 2000 Oe or higher by addition of 12 at.%Pt. The variation of the anisotropy field with increasing Pt content was similar to that of the coercivity. This indicate that the increase of the coercivity might be associated with increase of the anisotropy field with Pt addition. With the addition of Cr, the coercivity of the films increased up to 8 at.%Cr and the coercive squareness of the films decreased. The angular variation of coercivity deviated at a lower angle from domain wall motion mode as the Cr content increases. From these result, it is believed that the grain isolation of the films is enhanced with the addition of Cr.

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SURFACE ROUGHNESS EFFECTS ON THE COERCIVITY OF THIN FILM HEADS

  • Kim, Hyunkyu;Horvath, M. Pardavi
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.5 no.5
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    • pp.663-666
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    • 1995
  • The domain wall motion coercivity, $H_{c}$, of magnetic materials arises from the dependence of the wall energy on localized changes in material parameters (magnetization, anisotropy, exchange energy densities). However, in an otherwise perfectly homogeneous material, the domain wall energy might change due to the change in the volume of the wall versus the wall position. Thus, any surface roughness contributes to the coercivity. Assuming different two-dimensional surface profiles, characterized by average wavelengths ${\lambda}_{x}$ and ${\lambda}_{y}$, and relative thickness variations dh/h, the coercivity due to the surface roughness has been calculated. Compared to the one dimensional case, the 2D coercivity is reduced. Depending on the ratio of ${\lambda}$ to the domain wall width, $H_{c}$ has a maximum around 2, and increasing with dh/h. With the decreasing thickness of the thin film and GMR heads, it might be the domain factor in determining the coercivity.

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Coercivity of Hot-pressed Compacts of Nd-Fe-B-type HDDR-treated Powder

  • Abdul Matin, Md.;Kwon, Hae-Woong;Lee, Jung-Goo;Yu, Ji-Hun
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.106-110
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    • 2014
  • $Nd_{12.5}Fe_{80.6}B_{6.4}Ga_{0.3}Nb_{0.2}$ HDDR-treated powder was compacted by hot-pressing using different configurations of dies and heating rates. The die configurations were especially different in terms of the evacuation system that was used in heating for hot-pressing. The coercivity in the compacts was influenced by the evacuation system of the die and heating rate. In spite of the identical hot-pressing temperature and heating rate, coercivity was radically reduced above $600^{\circ}C$ in the compacts prepared in the closed-type die compared to that in the compacts prepared in the open-type die. The coercivity in the compacts prepared in the closed-type die decreased with increasing heating rate and the value further increased when extreme high heating rate was employed. $Nd_{12.5}Fe_{80.6}B_{6.4}Ga_{0.3}Nb_{0.2}$ HDDR-treated powder contained a significant amount of residual hydrogen (approx. 1500 ppm) in the form of $Nd_2Fe_{14}BH_x$ hydride. The dramatic coercivity decrease in the compact prepared in the closed die is attributed to the disproportionation of $Nd_2Fe_{14}BH_x$ hydride. High coercivity is mainly due to the effective desorption of hydrogen or the suppression of hydrogen-related disproportionation upon hot-pressing.

Underlayer for Coercivity Enhancement of Ti/CoCrPt Thin Films (보자력 향상을 위한 Ti/CoCrPt박막의 하지층)

  • Jang, Pyung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.94-98
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    • 2002
  • Sputtering conditions and various underlayer such as Al, Cu, Ni, Cr, Ag, Mg, Fe, Co, Pd, Au, Pt, Mo and Hf were investigated for coercivity enhancement of 20 nm Ti/CoCrPt thin films in order to increase the coercivity of the films thinner than 20 nm. Among them, Ag and Mg were effective to increase the coercivity. Particularly 2 nm Ag was very effective to increase the coercivity and nucleation field as well as to reduce ${\alpha}$ value in CoCrPt thin film such that the coercivity of 2 nm Ag/18 nm Ti/10 nm CoCrPt film was 2200 Oe. However, it seemed that other coercivity enhancement mechanism operated in CoCrPt films because Ti (002) preferred texture was not developed with Ag underlayer contrary to a general expectation. And the coercivity and nucleation field were decreased when glass substrate with rougher surface was used.