• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cod Liver Oil

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Effects of Cod Liver Oil and Chromium Picolinate Supplements on the Serum Traits, Egg Yolk Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Content in Laying Hens

  • Lien, Tu-Fa;Wu, Chaen-Ping;Lu, Jin-Jenn
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1177-1181
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    • 2003
  • This study investigated the effects of cod liver oil and chromium picolinate on the serum traits and egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol content in laying hens. One hundred 45-week old single comb white Leghorn laying hens were assigned randomly to four groups. These groups were: (1) control (soybean oil), (2) 1,000 ppb (${\mu}g/kg$) chromium (organic form chromium picolinate) (Crpic), (3) 3% cod liver oil (CLO), and (4) 1,000 ppb chromium with 3% cod liver oil (CLO+Crpic). The experiment was conducted for 40 days. Results indicated that serum triacylglycerol (TG) and cholesterol contents in the CLO group and the serum glucose content in the Crpic group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05-0.01). The yolk cholesterol content in the CLO and Crpic groups were also lower than the control group (p<0.01). The lipoprotein profile displayed that in the Crpic group, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control group. Meanwhile, low-density lipoprotein+very low-density lipoprotein (LDL+VLDL) and LDL-C+VLDL-C were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control group. Notably, of all four groups, the CLO group displayed a more profound effect on serum traits and lipoprotein (p<0.05-0.001). Furthermore, the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks presented that C18:2 in the CLO and Crpic groups was significantly lower (p<0.05-0.001) compare to the control. However, only in the CLO group, C18:3, C20:5 and C22:6 were significantly higher (p<0.001) than the control. Only serum glucose and LDL+VLDL showed the CLO${\times}$Crpic interaction (p<0.05), most parameters did not. Therefore, supplemented chromium picolinate or cod liver oil in the diet of laying hens had beneficial effects. However, when these two factors were combined, there was no interaction with most parameters.

Effect of Dietary Lipid Sources on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Immuno-hematological Parameters in Catla catla Fingerlings

  • Priya, K.;Pal, A.K.;Sahu, N.P.;Mukherjee, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1609-1616
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    • 2005
  • Ninety advanced Catla catla fingerlings (av. wt. 16 g) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups with three replicates each for an experimental period of 60 days to study the effect of dietary lipid source on growth, enzyme activities and immuno-hematological parameters. Six isoprotein (40.0-41.9%) and isocaloric (4,260 kcal $kg^{-1}$) semi-purified diets were prepared with varying levels of soybean oil (SBO) and cod liver oil (CLO) within a total of 8% lipid viz., $D_1$ (Control), $D_2$ (8% SBO), $D_3$ (6% SBO and 2% CLO), $D_4$ (4% SBO and 4% CLO), $D_5$ (2% SBO and 6% CLO) and $D_6$ (8% CLO). Highest SGR was noted in $D_5$ (0.73${\pm}$0.03) group, which was similar with $D_3$ (0.71${\pm}$0.02) and $D_4$ (0.69${\pm}$0.01) groups. Activity of intestinal lipase, hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) of the lipid treatment groups were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control group. The respiratory burst activity of the phagocytes (Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)) was highest in $D_2$ (1.95${\pm}$0.21) followed by $D_3$ (1.19${\pm}$0.15) group, which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the other groups. Globulin level was significantly higher in $D_3$ (1.29${\pm}$0.08) than in the other groups expect $D_4$. Hemoglobin content and total erythrocyte count did not show any significant difference. From this study, it is concluded that a diet containing 6% soybean oil and 2% cod liver oil ($D_3$) yields higher growth and immune response in Catla catla fingerlings and would be cost effective.

Antioxidative Effects of Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Extract on Polyunsaturated Oils in Oil-in-water Emulsion

  • Jang, Mi-Soon;Park, Hee-Yeon;Ushio, Hideki;Ohshima, Toshiaki
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.604-609
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    • 2009
  • The antioxidative activities of the water solution of crude extract from edible mushroom enokitake Flammulina velutipes were compared with those of ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid 6-palmitate in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions of cod liver oil. Oxidation of the emulsions was carried out at 40 and $50^{\circ}C$ in the dark. The antioxidant activities were measured by in vitro assay against oxygen uptake, 2-thiobarbituric acid value, hydroperoxide formation of the oils. Also, residual docosahexaenoic acid content was measured as indices of lipid oxidation. The cod liver oil in O/W emulsions with added enokitake crude extract (ECE) was significantly more stable against lipid oxidation than the control emulsions without the extract in terms of any oxidation indices used. Moreover, ECE provided remarkable antioxidative properties to eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester in emulsion system. These observations demonstrate that F. velutipes can be used as a natural antioxidant, which effectively prevents oxidation of polyunsaturated oils in emulsion system.

Protective effect of dietary oils containing omega-3 fatty acids against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

  • Elbahnasawy, Amr Samir;Valeeva, Emiliya Ramzievna;El-Sayed, Eman Mustafa;Stepanova, Natalya Vladimirovna
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.323-331
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are implicated in secondary osteoporosis, and the resulting fractures cause significant morbidity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a vital role in bone metabolism. However, few trials have studied the impact of omega-3 PUFA-containing oils against GC-induced osteoporosis. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether supplementation with omega-3 PUFA-containing dietary oils such as fish oil, flaxseed oil or soybean oil can impede the development of GC-induced osteoporosis. Methods: The fatty acids (FAs) content of oils was determined using gas chromatography. Male rats were subdivided into 5 groups (8 rats each): normal control (balanced diet), prednisolone control (10 mg/kg prednisolone daily), soybean oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + soybean oil 7% w/w), flaxseed oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + flaxseed oil 7% w/w), and fish oil (from cod liver; prednisolone 10 mg/kg + fish oil 7% w/w). Results: The study data exhibited a significant depletion in bone mineral density (BMD) and femur mass in the prednisolone control compared to the normal control, accompanied with a marked decrease in the levels of plasma calcium and 1,25-$(OH)_2$-vitamin $D_3$, and elevated levels of C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Supplementation with fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil helped to improve plasma calcium levels, and suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Additionally, bone resorption was suppressed as reflected by the decreased CTX levels. However, fish oil was more effective than the other two oils with a significant improvement in BMD and normal histological results compared to the normal control. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that supplementation with dietary oils containing omega-3 PUFAs such as fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil can play a role in the prevention of bone loss and in the regulation of bone metabolism, especially fish oil which demonstrated a greater level of protection against GC-induced osteoporosis.

Effect of Cingulate Cortical Ablation on Gastric Acid Secretion and Plasma Gastrin Concentration in Rats (흰쥐의 위산분비 및 혈장 Gastrin농도에 미치는 대상회전 제거의 영향)

  • Kim, Myung-Suk;Jo, Yang-Hyeok;Kim, Tae-Uk;Choi, Hyun
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1984
  • It has been recently reported that cingulate cortex mar facilitate gastric acid secretion, but its facilitatory mechanism on the gastric acid secretion is still unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the facilitatory mechanism of the cingulate cortex upon gastric acid secretion in rats. Twenty·three male albino rats were divided into the cingulate(N= 13) and the operated control(N= 10) groups. The cingulate group in which cingulate cortex was removed by suction through a slit-shaped opening on each side of, and parallel to, the sagittal suture. In the operated control group, the surgical procedure was ended with the skull opening and the incision of dura mater. The gastric juice was collected via a chronic gastric cannula after 24 hours of fast, with water ad libitum. The juice was collected continuously for 6 hours, starting 3 hours prior to the injection of gastric secretagogue, pentagastrin$(12\;{\mu}g/kg)$ or histamine dihydrochloride $(320\;{\mu}g/kg)$. Three one·hour samples were obtained before ana after the administration of each secretagogue. The two agents were injected separately and subcutaneously at intervals of 1 week, the blood samples were drawn from the abdominal aorta for the radioimmunoassay of postprandial plasma gastrin concentration in response to the forced feeding of 10% cod liver oil. 1) After pentagastrin administration, the volume of gastric juice tended to decrease, but its acidity tended to increase in the cingulate group compared with those of the operated control group. However, there was no any difference in the acid output between the two groups. 2) Histamine-stimulated acid output and volume of the gastric juice of the cingulate group decreased significantly compared with those of the operated control group, while there was not significantly different in the acidity between the two groups. 3) Before pentagastrin or histamine administration, any change was not observed in the gastric acid secretion following the cingulate cortical ablation. 4) Postprandial plasma gastrin concentration in response to the forced feeding of 10% cod liver oil was insignificantly lower in the cingulate group than in the operated control group. It is inferred from the above results that the cingulate cortex exerts a facilitatory influence upon the histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats, and its influence may not be mediated by the stimulation of gastrin secretion.

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Incorporation of n-3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids into Duck Egg Yolks

  • Chen, Tian-Fwu;Hsu, Jenn-Chung
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.565-569
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of different levels of refined cod liver oil (RCLO) on laying performance, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids composition (n-3 PUFAs) and the organoleptic evaluation of duck egg yolks. A total of 180 30 wk old laying Tsaiya ducks, at the beginning of peak production, were allotted into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each. Ducks were fed one of the 6 experimental diets, supplemented with 2% tallow (control) and graded levels of RCLO at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% to a corn-soybean diets, respectively, for 6 wks. All of the experimental diets were formulated to be both isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The results indicated that the RCLO supplementation levels did not affect (p>0.05) egg production, egg mass, feed intake, feed efficiency or body weight change. Egg weight was the lightest when the ducks received the 6% RCLO diet. The eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 PUFAs contents in the yolks increased with increasing RCLO supplementation. The taste and general acceptability of the hard-boiled eggs were not significantly different among the treatments. However, a fishy flavor was much higher when ducks were fed diets supplemented with 5% and 6% RCLO diets.

The Protein rich Food Mixtures for Korean Infants (유유아(乳幼兒) 및 성장기 아동을 위한 영양식품 개발에 관한 연구 -흰쥐 성장에 미치는 영향-)

  • Ho, Jin-Hee;Kim, Sook-He
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.95-99
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    • 1970
  • Korea is one of the typical rice eating countries where availability of animal protein is limited even for the growing generation. Nutritive food products for infants and children are not available commercially in large scale at the present time, although a limited amount of expensive milk products are produced. The present study deals with a pioneering attempt on a new food mixture to meet this demand. Several food mixtures, possibly produced in the country, consisting of rice, soybean, FPC, vitamin, minerals and other food additives are developed in this work Sixty female and male rats aged $30{\sim}40$ days were divided into five groups, twelve rats each. The rats had been maintained with the six different diets, as follow. Formulation of proposed infant food mixturesComposition F-R-1 F-S-2 F-F-3 F-P-4 S Rice 100% 40% 37% 46% 70% Sugar - 12 13 10 70 Casein - - - - 20 Bean - 40 37 24 - Yeast - 3 2 3 - Mineral Vitamain - 2 4 2 4.3 F.P.C - 3 4 7 - Fat - - 4 8 4 Cod liver Oil - - - - 3 The findings of this study presented in FER, PER, final organ weights, body weights growth, percentage of nitrogen retention in the body. F-P-4 group tended to remain the heaviest and F-R-1 the lightest in the body weight among three groups throughout the experimental period. In terms of FER (Feed Efficiency Ratio) and PER (Prortein E. R.) value, F-P-4 group kept the highest record throughout. F-P-4 group showed the highest value of nitrogen retention in the body. In comparision between F-P-4 groups and casein 20% group (standard) in all respects of this experiment, F-P-4 group which is the most superior among experimental group, revealed statisfically no significant inferior than that of standard group. This fact could be interpreted that most limiting a. a., methionine in the soy protein produced little inferiority of the experimental groups in the study.

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Analysis of Vicamine Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Antioxidant Activity of Vincaminor Extract (High performance liquid chromatography를 이용한 빈카민 분석 및 빈카마이너의 항산화능 측정)

  • Jung, Jong-Hee;Back, Yu-Mi;Lee, Kwang-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.599-602
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    • 2008
  • Vincamine, one of the major indole alkaloids in vincaminor (Vinca minor L.) is commonly used for treating cerebrovascular diseases. The antioxidant activity of vincaminor extracts and vincamine were measured by 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and lipid malonaldehyde (MA) assay. Vincaminor leaves were pulverized and extracted with various solvents such as water, methanol, and ethanol. The antioxidant activities of the extracts varied in accordance with solvents and assays. In DPPH assay, the water extract showed the highest antioxidant activity. In lipid MA assay, However, the ethanol extract inhibited MA formation from cod liver oil by 82% at the level of 5,000 ${\mu}g/mL$. Vincamine in the extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatogram and the concentration of vincamine was 0.419$\pm$0.005 ${\mu}g/mL$.

Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile Extracts from Plants Commonly Used in Korean Foods (한국 식품재료로 상용되는 식물로부터 분리한 향기추출물의 항산화능 탐색)

  • Jang, Hae-Won;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Kwang-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.723-729
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    • 2005
  • Volatile compounds of dropwort (Oenanthe javanica DC), crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. var. spatiosum), and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) were isolated by steam distillation under reduced pressure (DRP) and liquid-liquid continuous extraction (LLE). Aroma extracts of the plants were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and their antioxidant activities were evaluated in two different assays. The aroma extracts isolated from dropwort, crown daisy, and sesame inhibited the oxidation of hexanal by 25%, 95%, and 99%, respectively, for one month at the $500{\mu}g/mL$ level. They inhibited malonaldehyde formation from cod liver oil by 48%, 54%, and 29%, respectively, at the $500{\mu}g/mL$ level. Their antioxidant activities were comparable to those of the natural antioxidant, ${\alpha}-tocopherol$.